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Is Type 2 Diabetes Genetically Inherited?

Genetics Of Diabetes

Genetics Of Diabetes

You've probably wondered how you got diabetes. You may worry that your children will get it too. Unlike some traits, diabetes does not seem to be inherited in a simple pattern. Yet clearly, some people are born more likely to get diabetes than others. What leads to diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes. Yet two factors are important in both. First, you must inherit a predisposition to the disease. Second, something in your environment must trigger diabetes. Genes alone are not enough. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes. Yet when one twin has type 1 diabetes, the other gets the disease at most only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other's risk is at most 3 in 4. Type 1 diabetes In most cases of type 1 diabetes, people need to inherit risk factors from both parents. We think these factors must be more common in whites because whites have the highest rate of type 1 diabetes. Because most people who are at risk do not get diabetes, researchers want to find out what the environmental triggers are. One trigger might be related to cold weather. Type 1 diabetes develops more often in winter than summer and is more common in places with cold climates. Another trigger might be viruses. Perhaps a virus that has only mild effects on most people triggers type 1 diabetes in others. Early diet may also play a role. Type 1 diabetes is less common in people who were breastfed and in those who first ate solid foods at later ages. In many people, the development of type 1 diabetes seems to take many years. In experiments that followed relatives of people with type 1 diabetes, researchers found that most of those who later got diabetes had certain autoantibodies in their blood for years before. (Antibodies ar Continue reading >>

Which Type Of Diabetes Is More Likely To Be Inherited And Why?

Which Type Of Diabetes Is More Likely To Be Inherited And Why?

Question: Which type of diabetes is more likely to be inherited and why? Answer: Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually develops in adults. However, some adults develop a form of diabetes that looks very similar to type 1 diabetes, and now with the huge increase in obesity, many children and adolescents are getting type 2 diabetes. Now, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have a genetic component; that means of course, that they tend to run in families. However, we often regard diseases that develop in childhood as being more likely to be due to genetics. But this is not the case for diabetes, and in fact, studies show that type 2, which mostly commonly develops in adulthood, seems to have a greater genetic basis than the childhood form of type 1 diabetes. For example, as you know, identical twins share 100 percent of their genetic material; however, if one twin has type 1 diabetes, the chance of that the other twin will develop it is only 10 to 20 percent. In contrast, if one twin has type 2, or the adult form of diabetes, the other twin has up to a 90 percent chance of developing type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, we know that overeating and lack of physical activity are very important contributors. Meanwhile, for type 1 diabetes, it's more the exposure to toxins in the environment, possibly viruses, and other external factors that can increase risk to this form of diabetes. Next: What Is The Risk That A Child Will Develop Diabetes If One Or Both Parents Are Diabetic? Previous: What Are The Meanings and Significance Of These Terms Related To Diabetes: 'Beta Cells,' 'Islets,' 'Glucagon,' and 'Amylin'? Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes A Hereditary Disease?

Is Diabetes A Hereditary Disease?

The entire approach and foundation of Orthodox Medicine is based on Luis Pasteur's Germ Theory, a flawed concept. A disease condition is viewed by the orthodoxy as an isolated event, confined to the area in which it manifests itself (E.g. an ear infection, eye infection, gum infection, lung cancer, skin cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. ). Under this theory, for unknown reasons, microbes or tumors indiscriminately grow in the patient and must be cut (surgery), burned (radiation), or poisoned (drugs) out of the body. In the orthodox model, the solution is sought through mechanical and chemical means. Seeking to understand WHY the infection or disease condition appeared in the first place, is not explored. The quick fix with a prescription for drugs to smother the symptoms is the typical orthodox 'answer'. A contemporary of Pasteur, Antoine Bechamp, had a different opinion as to why disease conditions 'took hold'. Bechamp felt that the ENVIRONMENT, or the ECOLOGY of the blood played the critical role in deciding whether disease conditions would manifest or not. It is important to discover the stressors (environmental, biological, chemical, psychological, and emotional) in a patient's life that cause a weakening of a particular bodily system; which in turn allows the manifestation of a disease condition in a weakened area. In order to maintain a state of health, all systems within the body need to exist in a state of balance or equilibrium. Imbalance leads to conditions of discomfort (dis-ease) which eventually spirals into ill health if not corrected. The Chinese and Indians (Ayurvedic medicine) had worked all of this out thousands of years ago. Doctors at the International Council for Truth in Medicine are revealing the truth about diabetes that has been suppressed f Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Diabetes is a complex set of diseases with no single cause. Genetic factors make some people more vulnerable to diabetes, particularly with the right environment. In addition, certain lifestyle factors can cause type 2 diabetes in individuals with no known family history. This complex interaction between genes, lifestyle, and environment points to the importance of taking steps to minimize individual diabetes risk. Is type 1 diabetes hereditary? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means that it causes the body's immune system to attack healthy cells. It is often called juvenile diabetes because most people are diagnosed in childhood, and the condition then lasts their lifetime. Doctors used to think type 1 diabetes was wholly genetic. Newer studies have shown, however, that children develop type 1 diabetes 3 percent of the time if their mother has the condition, 5 percent of the time if their father has it, or 8 percent if a sibling has type 1 diabetes. Consequently, researchers now believe that something in the environment has to trigger type 1 diabetes. Some risk factors include: Cold weather. People develop type 1 diabetes in winter more frequently than summer. It is also more common in places with cool climates. Viruses. Researchers think some viruses might activate type 1 diabetes in people who are otherwise vulnerable. Measles, mumps, coxsackie B virus, and rotavirus have been linked to type 1 diabetes. Research suggests that people who develop type 1 diabetes may have autoimmune antibodies in their blood for many years before showing symptoms. As a result, the disease may develop over time, or something may have to activate the autoimmune antibodies for symptoms to appear. Is type 2 diabetes hereditary? Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of the d Continue reading >>

Researchers Find Genetic Link Between Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary Heart Disease

Researchers Find Genetic Link Between Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary Heart Disease

NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) – An international study led by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania has identified new loci with ties to the etiology of both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). The team conducted a genome-wide, multi-ancestry study of genetic variation for T2D and CHD in order to evaluate the shared genetic origin of the two diseases. Continue reading >>

Scientists Worldwide Uncover Genetics Of Type 2 Diabetes

Scientists Worldwide Uncover Genetics Of Type 2 Diabetes

Over 300 researchers, including those funded by Diabetes UK, have produced the most detailed picture to date of the genetics that underlie Type 2 diabetes. The researchers analysed the DNA of over 120,000 people, and the researchpublished today in Naturereveals several genes that could be targeted by new treatments in the future, and also highlights just how complex Type 2 diabetes really is. The risk of developing Type 2 diabetes depends on a number of factors: levels of physical activity, diet, and specific genetic changes that are inherited from our parents. Understanding how much genetic changes influence the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes helps researchers to develop new treatments, and identify people most likely to benefit. Previous research has found lots of differences in DNA that are linked to Type 2 diabetes, but they haven’t pinpointed the specific genes or changes to DNA that are responsible for the increased risk. In this study, the scientists compared the DNA of people with Type 2 diabetes to the DNA of people without it. In doing so, they found specific changes to genes that were both quite common (shared across the population) and more rare. Some researchers thought that the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes would be increased by rare changes to DNA – unique to a person and their family – but they found that common differences in DNA were behind most of the risk, each of them increasing it a small amount. This is quite important, as we move into an era where treatment becomes more personalised to the individual. Finding the best way to prevent or treat Type 2 diabetes in the future will involve looking at a person’s overall DNA, along with other risk factors like lifestyle, rather than specific genes. The team also found over a dozen genes Continue reading >>

Exenatide Improves Bone Quality In A Murine Model Of Genetically Inherited Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Exenatide Improves Bone Quality In A Murine Model Of Genetically Inherited Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London, United Kingdom 2INSERM UMR1033, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France 3Transpharmation, London, United Kingdom 4GEROM-LHEA UPRES EA 4658, Institut de Biologie en Santé, Université d’Angers, Angers, France Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with skeletal complications, including an increased risk of fractures. Reduced blood supply and bone strength may contribute to this skeletal fragility. We hypothesized that long-term administration of Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, would improve bone architecture and strength of T2DM mice by increasing blood flow to bone, thereby stimulating bone formation. In this study, we used a model of obesity and severe T2DM, the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mouse to assess alterations in bone quality and hindlimb blood flow and to examine the beneficial effects of 4 weeks administration of Exenatide. As expected, diabetic mice showed marked alterations in bone structure, remodeling and strength, and basal vascular tone compared with lean mice. Exenatide treatment improved trabecular bone mass and architecture by increasing bone formation rate, but only in diabetic mice. Although there was no effect on hindlimb perfusion at the end of this treatment, Exenatide administration acutely increased tibial blood flow. While Exenatide treatment did not restore the impaired bone strength, intrinsic properties of the matrix, such as collagen maturity, were improved. The effects of Exenatide on in vitro bone formation were further investigated in primary osteoblasts cultured under high-glucose conditions, showing that Exenatide reversed the impairment in bone formation induced by glucose. In conclusion, Exenatide improves trabecular bone Continue reading >>

What Causes Type 2 — Genes Or Food?

What Causes Type 2 — Genes Or Food?

There’s a major split in the Type 2 diabetes world. Some believe Type 2 is all about diet (and maybe exercise.) Others say it’s mostly a genetic illness and that diet doesn’t make much difference. Who’s right? This disagreement came to the forefront in the controversy over TV chef Paula Deen. When Deen told the world she had Type 2 diabetes, some people blamed the high-sugar and high-fat food she cooks on her shows. (One signature dish is deep-fried cheesecake.) But Deen denied her diet had much to do with it. She pointed out that many people eat like her and don’t get diabetes. She said her genes were at fault, even though no one else in her family has diabetes. Bloggers jumped in; some to attack Deen, some to defend her. On Diabetes Self-Management, Jan Chait wrote, “Psst! Food does NOT give you diabetes!” Some doctors agreed. Dr. Terry Simpson wrote, “It is more a matter of genetics than anything else. For those who are unlucky enough to have the genetic code that predisposes them to diabetes, the odds are they will become its victim… Even the most “in shape” individual, who eats “right” who has the genetics for diabetes can no more avoid that than you can avoid a car accident if someone misses a stop sign because they are texting.” I beg to differ. Blaming genes without referencing diet makes no sense at all. There has been an increase in diabetes worldwide of 100% to 400% (depending on location) in the last 20 years. Genes don’t change that fast. The environment has changed. People are more sedentary and more stressed now. But the number one change has been the mass consumption of sugars and refined carbs. Dr. Robert Lustig at University of California San Francisco blames sugars for most of the diabetes increase. Our bodies just weren Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes Hereditary?

Is Type 2 Diabetes Hereditary?

Genetics appears to play a role in how type 2 diabetes develops. Like type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also appears to run in families, and it is most likely due to the inheritance of certain genes. The link to genetics seems even stronger in type 2 diabetes than in type 1 diabetes. If a person with type 1 diabetes has an identical twin, there is a 25 to 50 percent chance that the twin will develop diabetes. But if a person with type 2 diabetes has an identical twin, there is a 60 to 75 percent chance that the person will develop diabetes. More evidence for the role of genes in type 2 diabetes comes from studying certain ethnic groups. Compared with Caucasians, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans (except Cuban Americans), and Native Americans all get type 2 diabetes more often. Native Americans have the highest rate of type 2 diabetes in the world. Hispanic groups, such as Mexican Americans, that share genes with Native American groups (where there has been cultural mixing) have a higher rate of type 2 diabetes than Hispanic groups, such as Cuban Americans, where less intercultural contact has occurred. “Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have a hereditary component,” says Peter Butler, MD, chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, and director of the Larry L. Hillblom Islet Research Center at UCLA. "Previously, many people with type 2 diabetes felt guilty about their disease because they believed they caused it by the way they lived their lives. But while many of us eat too much or don’t exercise enough, it is only those with a genetic predisposition who may develop the disease. In these individuals, diabetes develops because the cells that make insulin in the islets are gradually lost." And while most people who have a ge Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Inheritance

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Inheritance

Type 1 diabetes is an inherited condition and individuals with a first degree relative who has the condition are at an increased risk of developing the condition. Details regarding the risk of inheriting type 1 diabetes are given below: In men with type 1 diabetes, the risk of their child also developing the condition is one in 17. In women with type 1 diabetes who have their baby before the age of 25, the risk of the child developing the condition is one in 25. If she has her baby after the age of 25, the risk falls to 1 in 100. If both parents have type 1 diabetes, the risk of the condition developing in offspring varies between 1 in 4 and 1 in 10. The risks are somewhat increased if one of the parents developed type 1 diabetes before the age of 11. Around 1 in 7 people with type 1 diabetes suffer from a condition called type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome and these individuals have parathyroid and adrenal gland disorders in addition to type 1 diabetes. If one of the parents has type 2 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, the risk that the child will inherit the condition, including type 1 diabetes, is 50%. Genes associated with type 1 diabetes Some genes have repeatedly been identified in people with type 1 diabetes. Among white individuals, examples of such genes include the HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4 genes. Carrying these genes raises the risk that offspring will inherit type 1 diabetes. Children born with the HLADR3/4-DQ8 genotype make up nearly 50% of all children who develop type 1 diabetes before they are 5 years of age. Some studies on other ethnic groups have shown that similar risks are associated with the HLA-DR7 genotype among African Americans and with the HLA-DR9 gene among Japanese individuals. Genetic studies have also located HLA class II genes at 6p21 and Continue reading >>

Norsk Epidemiologi 2013; 23 (1): 9-22 9

Norsk Epidemiologi 2013; 23 (1): 9-22 9

Type 2 diabetes genes – Present status and data from Norwegian studies Jens K. Hertel1,2,3,4, Stefan Johansson1,5, Kristian Midthjell6, Ottar NygÃ¥rd1,3,7, PÃ¥l R. Njølstad1,2,8 and Anders Molven1,9,10 1) KG Jebsen Center for Diabetes Research, University of Bergen 2) Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen 3) Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 4) Morbid Obesity Center, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg 5) Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 6) Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, HUNT Research Centre, Levanger 7) Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen 8) Department of Pediatrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 9) The Gade Institute, University of Bergen 10) Department of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen Correspondence: Dr. Jens K. Hertel, KG Jebsen Center for Diabetes Research, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, Norway E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected] ABSTRACT The worldwide rise in prevalence of type 2 diabetes has led to an intense search for the genetic risk factors of this disease. In type 2 diabetes and other complex disorders, multiple genetic and environmental factors, as well as the interaction between these factors, determine the phenotype. In this review, we summarize present knowledge, generated by more than two decades of efforts to dissect the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. Initial studies were either based on a candidate gene approach or attempted to fine-map signals generated from linkage analysis. Despite the detection of multiple genomic regions proposed to be linked to type 2 diabetes, subseq Continue reading >>

12 Things That Make Type 2 Diabetes More Likely

12 Things That Make Type 2 Diabetes More Likely

You're more likely to get type 2 diabetes if: 1. Diabetes runs in your family. If you have a parent, brother, or sister who has it, your chances rise. But you can take action through everyday lifestyle habits, like exercise and healthy eating, to lower your odds of following in their footsteps. 2. You have prediabetes. That means your blood sugar level is above normal but you don't have the disease yet. To keep it that way, get more active and lose any extra weight. Your doctor may recommend you take the prescription drug metformin. 3. You're not physically active. It's never too late to change that. Check in with your doctor first, so you know what's safe for you to do. 4. You're overweight, especially around your waist. Not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight, but extra pounds make you more likely to get the condition. Belly fat seems to be particularly risky. 5. You've had heart disease. 6. You have high blood pressure. 7. Your "good" cholesterol level is low. It's too low if it's less than 40 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter). 8. Your triglyceride level is high. It's too high if it's over 150 mg/dL. 9. You've had diabetes during pregnancy before. That condition (called gestational diabetes) or delivering a baby over 9 pounds can make you more likely to get type 2 diabetes. 10. You're a woman who has PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome). 11. You're age 45 or older. The chance of getting type 2 diabetes rises with age. But diabetes isn't a normal part of aging. 12. You're Hispanic, African-American, Native American, or Asian American. Diabetes is more common among these groups. Talk with your doctor to get a better sense of your risk. He can help you make a plan that will keep you in good health. Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Genetic?

Is Diabetes Genetic?

Diabetes is a complex disease. Several factors must come together for a person to develop Type 2 Diabetes. While genetics may influence whether you’ll get this disease or not, other factors like environmental risk factors and a sedentary lifestyle also play a huge role. So, is type 2 diabetes genetic? And if not, which type of diabetes is genetic? Those are the questions we are faced with today. And unfortunately, the answer is not that simple. Yes, genetics can play a role in increasing the risk for both Diabetes Type 1 as well as Diabetes Type 2, but genes alone will not determine whether you will develop diabetes or not. Will You Get Diabetes If It Runs In Your Family? If you’ve just been diagnosed with diabetes, chances are that you’re not the first person in your family who has diabetes. The details of whether diabetes can be inherited, and how this occurs, are not clear yet. About 10% of patients diagnosed with insulin-dependent Type 1 diabetes have a first degree relative with this type of diabetes. By first degree relative, we mean father, mother, sibling, twin and child. However, when it comes to the more common type of diabetes, which is Diabetes Type 2, it has a tendency to occur in families, but this is also not very strong and not predictable. A Swedish study on Metabolic Consequences of a Family History of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus concluded that abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and decreased resting metabolic rate are characteristic features of first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (in other words, Diabetes Type 2). And that the decrease in resting metabolic rate is partially related to the degree of abdominal obesity. Many doctors with clinical practice treating diabetes believe that thi Continue reading >>

The Genetic Trail To Diabetes: Is Your Future Inevitable?

The Genetic Trail To Diabetes: Is Your Future Inevitable?

There are two things for certain with Diabetes (both Type I and Type II): Pre-disposition + Environment/lifestyle = Increased risk. Whether or not you choose to follow that path, or defend your body against it, is up to you. Sounds too easy, doesn't it? But according to research and science, the reality of where you live (environment), what you eat (nutrition) and your activity level (fitness) can either work for or against you in the defense against both types of Diabetes. So what can you do if your genetics are pointing your future toward this disease before being diagnosed with it? Can you "prevent" it from happening? Is your current lifestyle making you a likely candidate? Is surgery the answer? Before we go any further, let's understand the truth about "Diabetic surgery": *Surgery may be a "quick start" to help you but lifestyle changes (diet/nutrition and exercise) MUST be part of the entire process As for Type I and Type II diabetes, the following facts may just help you find the answer before you encounter either type of this disease in your life: Type I Diabetes has been linked to the following: *Cold environment *Genetic predisposition often inherited from both parents *Viruses *Not being breastfed as a baby *A predisposition to certain "autoantibodies" in the blood. **Antibodies are proteins that destroy bacteria or viruses. Autoantibodies are antibodies gone bad, attacking the body's own tissues Other factors that increase the risk are provided below by the following website, Diabetes.org ("In general, if you are a man with type 1 diabetes, the odds of your child getting diabetes are 1 in 17. If you are a woman with type 1 diabetes and your child was born before you were 25, your child's risk is 1 in 25; if your child was born after you turned 25, your child Continue reading >>

Genetics Of Type 2 Diabetes: Insights Into The Pathogenesis And Its Clinical Application

Genetics Of Type 2 Diabetes: Insights Into The Pathogenesis And Its Clinical Application

BioMed Research International Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 926713, 15 pages 1Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Key Clinical Center for Metabolic Disease, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Wenzhou Medical University Affiliated First Hospital, Wenzhou 325000, China 3Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, South Branch, Shanghai 200233, China Academic Editor: Jiarui Wu Copyright © 2014 Xue Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract With rapidly increasing prevalence, diabetes has become one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. According to the latest studies, genetic information makes substantial contributions towards the prediction of diabetes risk and individualized antidiabetic treatment. To date, approximately 70 susceptibility genes have been identified as being associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at a genome-wide significant level (). However, all the genetic loci identified so far account for only about 10% of the overall heritability of T2D. In addition, how these novel susceptibility loci correlate with the pathophysiology of the disease remains largely unknown. This review covers the major genetic studies on the risk of T2D based on ethnicity and briefly discusses the potential mechanisms and clinical utility of the genetic information underlying T2D. 1. Introduction The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rising rapidly owing to increased ec Continue reading >>

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