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Is Type 2 Diabetes A Virus?

An Association Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection With Type 2 Diabetes

An Association Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection With Type 2 Diabetes

RESARCH DESIGN AND METHODS All subjects were consecutive inpatients at Beijing Fu Wai Heart Hospital. Diabetes was diagnosed as follows (9): patients who had overnight fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) or were taking antidiabetic medication. Patients not meeting these criteria were not considered to have diabetes. Subjects taking insulin alone (type 1 diabetes) were excluded from the analyses, ensuring that all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes had type 2 diabetes. The local ethics committee approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. The following potential risk factors for diabetes were analyzed in this study: age, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, BMI, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) seropositive status to HSV-1. Serum samples were collected and frozen at −80°C until analysis. Each serum sample was tested for specific anti-HSV-1 IgG antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a commercially available kit (Virus Institute, Chinese Academy of Prevention Medical Sciences, Beijing, China). Cellular filtrates obtained by ultrasonic destruction of Vero cells infected with the standard HSV-1 strain were used as the specific HSV-1-coated antigen to detect the specific HSV-1 IgG. Presence or absence of anti-HSV-1 IgG was determined by comparing the absorbency value of the sample to a cutoff value. This cutoff value was calculated from the negative and positive control absorbency value according to the manufacturer’s protocol. IgG seropositivity to HSV-1 indicated prior infection of HSV-1. In univariate analysis, an independent two-sample t test was used for the normally distributed continuous variables and χ2 test was used to compare categorical variables. In m Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus By Viral Eradication In Chronic Hepatitis C: Myth Or Reality? - Sciencedirect

Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus By Viral Eradication In Chronic Hepatitis C: Myth Or Reality? - Sciencedirect

Volume 48, Issue 2 , February 2016, Pages 105-111 Author links open overlay panel EsterVannia ElisabettaBugianesia GiorgioSaraccob Chronic hepatitis C is a systemic disease inducing metabolic alterations leading to extrahepatic consequences. In particular, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seems to increase the risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in predisposed individuals, independently of liver disease stage. The mechanisms through which hepatitis C induces T2DM involve direct viral effects, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune-mediated processes. Many studies have reported the clinical consequences of type 2 diabetes mellitus on hepatitis C outcome, but very few studies have addressed the issue of microangiopathic complications among patients with hepatitis C only, who develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, clinical trials in HCV-positive patients have reported improvement in glucose metabolism after antiviral treatment; recent studies have suggested that this metabolic amelioration might have a clinical impact on type 2 diabetes mellitus-related complications. These observations raise the question as to whether the HCV eradication may also have an impact on the future morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The scope of this review is to summarise the current evidence linking successful antiviral treatment and the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications in hepatitis C-infected patients. Continue reading >>

Common Virus Raises Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Common Virus Raises Type 2 Diabetes Risk

A common viral infection that doesn't cause any symptoms may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. There are many risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as when insulin has become ineffective leading to elevated blood sugar levels. These patients have many biomarkers for chronic disease and researchers have found that a common infection predisposes this risk group to type 2 diabetes. The virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), infects people for life and generally remains in a dormant state in the body. Previous research has shown that people who have been tested positive for CMV are at a higher risk of heart diseases and is independent of other risk factors. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1 in about 150 children is born with congenital CMV infection of which 1 in 5 will have hearing loss or developmental disability. In most people, CMV doesn't cause any symptoms but some get mild symptoms like fever, sore throat, fatigue and swollen glands. The virus is especially dangerous to people who have a weakened immune system. For the present study, researchers from Leiden University Medical Centre and University of Tubingen Medical School compared glucose regulation in people who had been infected with CMV in 500 participants of the Leiden 85-plus Study. They found that being infected with CMV was a risk factor for developing diabetes in the elderly. According to the researchers, viral infection stresses the immune system. The researchers say that the CMV might be either directly targeting the pancreas or indirectly influencing the immune system to attack the pancreas. Future research can determine if CMV is a risk factor for younger individuals as well as the elderly. "In our study we realized that although CMV seropositivity [a positive test result for Continue reading >>

Study Identifies Virus Linked To Both Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Study Identifies Virus Linked To Both Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Last week's Science News directed my attention to a fascinating new study. I could not find the actual study posted online, but I did find this excellent article provided by the UK NHS which gives more information about it than you will find in the abstract when it comes out: NHS: Diabetes Linked to Virus This study replicated findings of an earlier study linking the finding of enterovirus on autopsy in human pancreases of people with Type 1 diabetes but not those without it. The enterovirus is a stomach virus that causes vomiting. This new study went beyond the earlier study in quantifying how frequently this virus was found in people with and without Type 1 diabetes and looking at where the virus was found in the pancreas. The researchers used sophisticated techniques to hunt for viral proteins in the pancreases of 72 young people diagnosed with diabetes who had died on average 8 months after diagnosis and of 39 children who had died at the same age who did not have diabetes. They found that 61% of the children recently diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes showed signs of pancreatic infection with the enterovirus. Furthermore, when they looked at where the protein was being expressed, they discovered that it was being expressed almost entirely in the beta cells found in the pancreas islets that further testing showed had been still producing insulin at the time of death. The researchers also found an antiviral protein, PKR in these same islets. In contrast, only about 8% of the pancreases of children who had died of other causes were found to have viral proteins from enterovirus, and their pancreases did not have any antiviral PKR protein in their islets. This association of the virus and the anti-viral protein is very interesting, and may suggest an explanation for why, ev Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And The Risk Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Systematic Review

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And The Risk Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Systematic Review

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and to examine whether T2DM enhances the risk of HCV infection compared with the risk in the general population. We followed standard guidelines to perform a meta-analysis. The associated literature was selected based on the established inclusion criteria. The summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used to investigate the strength of the association. Through electronic database and manual searching, 22 studies were identified for the final analysis, which included a total of 78,051 individuals. Based on the random effects model, the meta-analysis results showed that patients with T2DM were at a higher risk of acquiring HCV infection than non-T2DM patients (summary OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 2.54–4.82, I2 = 82.3%). Based on the current limited evidence, this study suggests that T2DM is associated with increased susceptibility to HCV infection. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two major public health problems associated with increasing complications and mortality rates worldwide1,2. HCV infection is a cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Western countries and affects an estimated total of 170 million individuals worldwide3,4. Meanwhile, Data reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000 showed that the estimated prevalence of T2DM is approximately 2.8% among adults aged over 20 years5. Both diseases present a large health care burden. Moreover, HCV infection and T2DM may coexist in an individual6. The development of HCV infection is a multi-factorial process associated with a variety of risk factors, as observed with all other Continue reading >>

Intestinal Viruses Directly Associated With Development Of Type 1 Diabetes

Intestinal Viruses Directly Associated With Development Of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an attack on the body by the immune system — the body produces antibodies that attack insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas. Doctors often diagnose this type of diabetes in childhood and early adulthood. The trigger that causes the body to attack itself has been elusive; but many research studies have suggested viruses could be the root. The latest links that viruses that live in our intestines may yield clues as to which children might develop type 1 diabetes. An international team of researchers from the US, Finland, and Estonia studied the viruses in the intestines of children at high-risk of developing type 1 diabetes from birth until some developed antibodies associated with type 1 diabetes. They compared the gut viruses of these children to those from similar children who did not develop diabetes. The children whose bodies created antibodies against the pancreas had fewer different types of viruses in their gut, with one type particularly reduced. Lead authors Guoyan Zhao and Herbert W. Virgin, from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO, published the new research on July 10 in the Online Early Edition of PNAS. Type 1 Diabetes There are about 1.25 million people in the US with type 1 diabetes, with another 40,000 or so diagnosed each year. In type 1 diabetes, antibodies to the pancreas prevent the body from making insulin. Because the antibodies are to parts of our own body, they are called auto-antibodies. can detect auto-antibodies in the blood of infants as early as one year of age or sooner, but symptoms of the disease may not appear until late childhood or early adulthood. Since we need insulin to absorb sugars into our cells from the bloodstream, sugar (glucose) accumulates in the blood of people with type 1 diabete Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

It isn’t entirely clear what triggers the development of type 1 diabetes. Researchers do know that genes play a role; there is an inherited susceptibility. However, something must set off the immune system, causing it to turn against itself and leading to the development of type 1 diabetes. Genes Play a Role in Type 1 Diabetes Some people cannot develop type 1 diabetes; that’s because they don’t have the genetic coding that researchers have linked to type 1 diabetes. Scientists have figured out that type 1 diabetes can develop in people who have a particular HLA complex. HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen, and antigens function is to trigger an immune response in the body. There are several HLA complexes that are associated with type 1 diabetes, and all of them are on chromosome 6. Different HLA complexes can lead to the development of other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Like those conditions, type 1 diabetes has to be triggered by something—usually a viral infection. What Can Trigger Type 1 Diabetes Here’s the whole process of what happens with a viral infection: When a virus invades the body, the immune system starts to produce antibodies that fight the infection. T cells are in charge of making the antibodies, and then they also help in fighting the virus. However, if the virus has some of the same antigens as the beta cells—the cells that make insulin in the pancreas—then the T cells can actually turn against the beta cells. The T cell products (antibodies) can destroy the beta cells, and once all the beta cells in your body have been destroyed, you can’t produce enough insulin. It takes a long time (usually several years) for the T cells to destroy the majority of th Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet Type 1 diabetes belongs to a group of conditions known as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are when the body incorrectly identifies its own useful cells as an attacking organism. In type 1 diabetes, it is the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin that are wrongfully targeted and killed off by specific antibodies created by the body’s immune system. Researchers have been investigating what may cause the immune system to act in this way but to date researchers have theories but no concrete proof. Genetic predisposition Researchers have uncovered a number of genetic regions that are linked closely with type 1 diabetes. Each of these is denoted with a name such as IDDM1. At least 18 different regions have been discovered and some of the genetic areas include an increased susceptibility for other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease. Whilst genetics offers clues as to why some people are more susceptible to type 1 diabetes, it doesn’t explain why some people with these genes develop type 1 diabetes and why others with these genes don’t. For example, having an identical twin with type 1 diabetes gives you a statistically higher risk but it doesn’t necessarily mean you will develop the condition. Genetics does not explain either why people will develop type 1 diabetes at different ages. Type 1 diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in 10 to 14 year olds but can be diagnosed at any age. Read more on diabetes and genetics Type 1 diabetes triggers Researchers have hypothesised that whilst some people are have a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, there is likely to be an environmental factor that triggers the initial development of type 1 diabetes. Some of the possible triggers that have been suggested include: Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Might Be Caused By Your Bacteria

Type 2 Diabetes Might Be Caused By Your Bacteria

With over 350 million people a year diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the disease has become a major world pandemic. It’s already known to have a strong genetic component, and obesity is one of the largest risk factors for developing it, but scientists may have found another aspect. It turns out, there might be a bacterial side to it too. Researchers from the University of Iowa have shown that exposing rabbits to the toxins produced by the common bacterium Staphylococcus aureus for a prolonged period of time produces symptoms of Type 2 diabetes, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. Prior research has found that as people become more obese, there is an increase in the number of Staphylococcus bacteria found on them, and the scientists behind the latest study suggest that this might be influencing the development of diabetes. “What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonized by staph bacteria—to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin,” explained Patrick Schlievert, author of the recent study published in the journal mBio. “People who are colonized by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.” It’s becoming increasingly accepted that our microbiome, the microorganisms that live on and in us in the trillions, have a significant impact on how our bodies function. When people start to gain weight, it’s been shown that their microbiome changes correspondingly, favoring bacteria that in turn promote the development of obesity. It’s also been shown that the rate of staph bacteria colonization increases in correspondence with a person’s body mass index (BMI). Schlievert had already shown which toxins, o Continue reading >>

Bacteria May Cause Type 2 Diabetes

Bacteria May Cause Type 2 Diabetes

Findings suggest anti-bacterial therapy or vaccines may be able to prevent or treat Type 2 diabetes Bacteria and viruses have an obvious role in causing infectious diseases, but microbes have also been identified as the surprising cause of other illnesses, including cervical cancer (Human papilloma virus) and stomach ulcers (H. pylori bacteria). A new study by University of Iowa microbiologists now suggests that bacteria may even be a cause of one of the most prevalent diseases of our time: Type 2 diabetes. The research team led by Patrick Schlievert, professor and department executive officer of microbiology at the UI Carver College of Medicine, found that prolonged exposure to a toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria causes rabbits to develop the hallmark symptoms of Type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation. “We basically reproduced Type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen,” Schlievert says. The UI findings suggest that therapies aimed at eliminating staph bacteria or neutralizing the superantigens might have potential for preventing or treating Type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a known risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes, but obesity also alters a person’s microbiome—the ecosystem of bacteria that colonize our bodies and affect our health. “What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonized by staph bacteria—to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin,” Schlievert says. “People who are colonized by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.” Schlievert’s research has previously shown that superantigens—tox Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Common Virus

Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Common Virus

Infection with a common virus may increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes in older adults, a new study from the Netherlands suggests. In the study, adults ages 85 and over who were infected with cytomegalovirus were about twice as likely to have Type 2 diabetes compared with those not infected. Cytomegalovirus is a type of herpes virus found in 50 to 80 percent of adults over age 40; most people experience no symptoms of the infection. The findings suggest that cytomegalovirus infection plays a role in the development of Type 2 diabetes in the elderly, the researchers said. However, the study found an association, not a cause-effect link. While the findings are interesting, researchers need studies that follow people forward in time to find out whether the virus could cause Type 2 diabetes, said Dr. Rifka Schulman, an endocrinologist at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, N.Y. In addition, because the study was conducted in elderly people, the findings may not apply to other populations, Schulman said. For now, well-established risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure and lack of exercise should be considered the primary causes of Type 2 diabetes, she said. Linking diabetes and infection Previous studies have linked cytomegalovirus and Type 1 diabetes, but studies looking at the virus and Type 2 diabetes have had inconsistent results. One previous study looked at a generally younger group of adults than the new study — between ages 45 and 84 — and found no link between cytomegalovirus infection and Type 2 diabetes. In the new study, the researcher analyzed information from 549 elderly adults in the Netherlands. About 80 percent were infected with cytomegalovirus, and 15 percent had Type 2 diabetes. About 17 percent of those infected with cy Continue reading >>

Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Risk Factor For Type 2 Diabetes?

Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Risk Factor For Type 2 Diabetes?

Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes? Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes? Patients with HCV are 1.5 to 3.8 times as likely to have T2D as the general population. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a widespread condition that affects up to 170 million people worldwide, or 3% of the global population. Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are well-known complications of HCV infection, but extrahepatic manifestations develop in up to two-thirds of patients with HCV.1 Extrahepatic manifestations account for the increasing disease burden of HCV in spite of declining rates of HCV infection in the United States.2 HCV-related disorders include lymphomas and renal, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases.1 The risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin resistance appears to be increased in patients with HCV as well. The elevated risk for T2D is present both in patients without liver dysfunction and in patients with chronic HCV-related liver disease.2 Up to 30% of patients with HCV have insulin resistance or T2D, and patients with HCV are 1.5 to 3.8 times as likely to have T2D than the general population. Patients with HCV who are at high risk for T2D due to non-HCV-related risk factors have an 11-fold greater risk of developing T2D than individuals without HCV.3 While epidemiological data largely support the association between HCV infection and T2D, not all studies are in agreement.3 One prospective study from 1998 compared the risk of T2D in 247 patients with liver cirrhosis, 138 patients with chronic hepatitis, and 494 patients with acute orthopedic trauma. HCV infection was present in 64% in the cirrhosis group and 74% of patients in the chronic hepatitis group. Age and cirrhosis were independent predictors of T2D Continue reading >>

Viral Trigger For Type 1 Diabetes

Viral Trigger For Type 1 Diabetes

Pros and Cons The most popular hypothesis circulating within and beyond the scientific community is that viral infections enhance or elicit autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. Indeed, viruses can injure β-cells and have been isolated in pancreatic tissues from diabetic patients. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the opposite scenario, which is prevention or amelioration of type 1 diabetes, might be at least as common an outcome of viral infection. Here, we discuss epidemiological and experimental evidence for the main mechanisms accounting for the role of viruses in type 1 diabetes to better understand the complex relationship between viral infections and autoimmune diabetes. INSIGHT FROM EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS The influence of the environment. Type 1 diabetes is a genetic autoimmune disorder caused by autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells that recognize pancreatic antigens such as insulin or GAD and subsequently destroy insulin-producing β-cells. The subject of very active research is the question of how endogenous β-cell antigens become immunogenic. Infiltration of the islets of Langerhans, where β-cells reside, by activated autoreactive T-cells is considered to be the major driving force in type 1 diabetes progression. The islet infiltrate in humans consists primarily of CD8+ T-cells and B-cells, followed by macrophages and dendritic cells of different subtypes (1). Interestingly, significantly fewer T-cells are found in human islets compared with islets from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The reduced numbers of T-cells, and in this way a limited autoreactive component in human islets, leads one to consider whether other contributing factors may be involved in disease development. Otherwise, sufficient insulitic infiltrate to de Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Bacteria In The Gut? Toxins Trigger Insulin Resistance And High Blood Sugar Levels, Study Finds

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Bacteria In The Gut? Toxins Trigger Insulin Resistance And High Blood Sugar Levels, Study Finds

Bacteria responsible for common skin infections, food poisoning and MRSA could also trigger one of the most prevalent diseases of our time - type 2 diabetes. Researchers in the US discovered exposure to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria causes hallmark symptoms of the disease in rabbits. They hope their findings will help pave the way for new anti-bacterial therapies or vaccines to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes. In 2012, an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes, according to the World Health Organisation. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90 per cent of all people with diabetes, the WHO adds. Scientists at the University of Iowa found that prolonged exposure to a toxin produced by the S.aureus bacteria causes rabbits to develop insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation. Professor Patrick Schlievert, who led the study, said: 'We basically reproduced type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen. The findings suggest that therapies aimed at eliminating staph bacteria might prove a potential treatment for the condition. Obesity is a known risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. But being obese can also alter a person's microbiome - the ecosystem of bacteria that colonise a person's gut, and affect their health. Professor Schlievert said: 'What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonised by staph bacteria - to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin. 'People who are colonised by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.' Professor Schlievert's past research has shown that superantigens - the toxins produced by all strains of staph bacteria - disrupt the immune s Continue reading >>

Staph Bacteria May Be A Trigger For Type 2 Diabetes

Staph Bacteria May Be A Trigger For Type 2 Diabetes

A growing body of research indicates that exposure to bacteria and viruses affects one’s likelihood for developing a number of chronic health conditions. Increasingly, scientists are uncovering proof that certain features of the human microbiome may be a root cause of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. A new study published this week adds to this evidence, implicating staph bacteria as one potential cause of the disease. For the study, published in the journal mBio, a team of microbiologists at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine exposed rabbits to the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The researchers found that exposure to high levels of this toxin caused the animals to develop symptoms of the disease, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. Their study suggests that drugs that eradicate or neutralize staph bacteria in the body may hold some promise as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes, which affects close to 30 million people in the U.S. Because obesity is one of the common risk factors for the condition, the authors suggest extreme weight gain has a cascade effect: Obesity alters the microbiome and makes a person—or in this case, a rabbit—more susceptible to staph bacteria. Then a higher than normal exposure to toxins produced by the bacteria will trigger the disease. Prior research has found that the toxins produced by staph bacteria disrupt normal immune system functioning, which can result in sepsis, inflammation of the heart and toxic shock, all of which can be fatal. But this new study shows staph toxins also affect fat cells. To test their theory, the team of researchers measured the amount of staph bacteria and staph-related toxins on the skin of four patients with diabetes. They then calculated that the Continue reading >>

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