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Is Type 1 Diabetes Considered A Chronic Disease

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder and occurs when the body’s autoimmune system accidentally attacks and destroys insulin producing cells in the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin every day of their lives to replace the insulin the body cannot produce. They must test their blood glucose levels several times throughout the day. What happens if people with type 1 diabetes don’t receive insulin? Without insulin the body burns its own fats as a substitute which releases chemical substances in the blood. Without ongoing injections of insulin, the dangerous chemical substances will accumulate and can be life threatening if it is not treated. This is a condition call ketoacidosis. What causes type 1 diabetes? The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not yet known, but we do know it cannot be prevented. We also know that it has nothing to do with lifestyle, although maintaining a healthy lifestyle is very important in helping to manage type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or young adulthood, although it can occur at any age. A person is diagnosed with diabetes every 5 minutes Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin and / or the insulin does not work effectively to meet the body’s needs. Type 2 diabetes: represents 85 to 90% of all cases of diabetes, is more likely to develop in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds, usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups, can be delayed or prevented in 58% of cases. Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often go undiagnosed as they occur gradually. For some the first sign may be a com Continue reading >>

The Difficulties Of Living With Type 1 Diabetes

The Difficulties Of Living With Type 1 Diabetes

My diseases are a part of me. Presumably just as much as my hair color and food preferences are. For some, the difficulty of health problems comes from accepting the reality that it challenges your existence; for others, it’s the financial burden. For me, it’s the upkeep. As someone who was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when I was a whopping 4 years old, I don’t quite remember life without this condition. However, what I do remember is wondering why I needed multiple shots a day when my fellow kindergarteners didn’t. The difficulty stems from how physically demanding this disease is. I mean this in several ways. In particular, frequently fluctuating glucose levels bring you from one extreme to the other. Now, compare this to a properly working endocrine system where these possibly drastic fluctuations rarely, if at all, happen. Naturally, even tipping one way can seriously throw your mood off for the day. So, by accidentally eating too many carbs when treating a low and subsequently going high, your body becomes confused. Exhausted. It’s something that shouldn’t be happening in your body and it takes a toll. I find myself at an odd intersection of annoyance and pure exhaustion when and if my glucose levels fluctuate. The difficulty comes from the “burnout.” This is where one may become so dedicated to checking their number so many times a day, adjusting their insulin levels and being on top of this condition all the time that it wears them down. For me, that usually lasts about a week or two – sometimes a month if I’m lucky. For all you “non-betics” reading this, I like to equate this similarly to studying for a huge exam – something of MCAT proportions. You may spend weeks or months preparing for this exam, taking classes, talking to people w Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Although onset frequently occurs in childhood, the disease can also develop in adults. [1] See Clinical Findings in Diabetes Mellitus, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and neurologic manifestations of DM. Signs and symptoms The classic symptoms of type 1 diabetes are as follows: Other symptoms may include fatigue, nausea, and blurred vision. The onset of symptomatic disease may be sudden. It is not unusual for patients with type 1 diabetes to present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [2] : Lab studies A fingerstick glucose test is appropriate for virtually all patients with diabetes. All fingerstick capillary glucose levels must be confirmed in serum or plasma to make the diagnosis. All other laboratory studies should be selected or omitted on the basis of the individual clinical situation. An international expert committee appointed by the ADA, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the International Diabetes Association recommended the HbA1c assay for diagnosing type 1 diabetes only when the condition is suspected but the classic symptoms are absent. [3] Screening Screening for type 1 diabetes in asymptomatic low-risk individuals is not recommended. [2] However, in patients at high risk (eg, those who have first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes), it may be appropriate to perform annual screening for anti-islet antibodies before the age of 10 years, along with 1 additional Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

In the normal digestive process, your body breaks down much of the food you eat into glucose, a simple sugar that's stored in your body and used for energy. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates the amount of glucose in your blood by helping liver, muscle, and fat cells absorb the sugar. Diabetes is a disease that develops when your pancreas doesn't make enough insulin, or your body doesn't use insulin properly — resulting in high blood glucose levels, which can cause a range of health issues. There are several types of diabetes: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most common. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body produces little to no insulin. It’s considered an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system erroneously attacks and destroys the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. Type 1 — previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile-onset diabetes (because it often develops at a young age) — accounts for about 5 percent of all diabetes diagnoses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Type 2 diabetes develops when liver, muscle, and fat cells don't respond properly to insulin and become "insulin resistant." Glucose doesn't enter the cells as efficiently as before, and instead builds up in the bloodstream. In type 2, the pancreas responds to these increased blood glucose levels by producing more insulin. Eventually, however, it can no longer make enough insulin to handle spikes in glucose levels — such as what happens after meals. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, according to the CDC. Type 1 Diabetes Prevalence In 2012, an estimated 29.1 million people in the United States — 9.3 percent of the population — had diabetes, according to Continue reading >>

Is Type 1 Diabetes A Chronic Illness

Is Type 1 Diabetes A Chronic Illness

The different types of Diabetes explained It is a fact that type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness (lifelong), and it occurs as a result of prolonged high sugar levels in the body system. If the disease is left untreated, it can lead to a number of complications that might result in death. Some of the serious lifelong complications that patients will suffer include, but not limited to; foot ulcers, eye damage, chronic kidney failure, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases. The type 2 diabetes always begins with resistance to the different levels of insulin in the body. Basically, the cells fail to respond well to the insulin. As the disease progresses to higher levels, it might result to lack of insulin in some patients. This non-insulin dependent diabetes is usually as a result of one being overweight and lack of enough exercise. The type third type of diabetes is called gestation diabetes. This particular type of diabetes affects pregnant women who have had no previous history of the disease. Overall, the expectant mother will have high levels of insulin in their body system. Main causes of Type 1 diabetes The type 1 diabetes is always characterized by the depreciation of insulin-producing cells in the body (beta cells) that are found in the pancreas. It is caused by T-cell mediated autoimmune-attack that often results in the loss of beta cells, hence the reduction of insulin in the body system. It is a fact that the lack of enough insulin in the body will lead to hyperglycemia (high levels of glucose in the blood), rather than going up to the body cells. For this reason, a patient will start exhibiting the different signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes. It’s important to understand that this type of diabetes can affect children, adults and adolescents. Nevertheless, it Continue reading >>

Chronic Disease Prevention And Health Promotion

Chronic Disease Prevention And Health Promotion

Chronic Diseases: The Leading Causes of Death and Disability in the United States Chronic diseases and conditions—such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and arthritis—are among the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems. As of 2012, about half of all adults—117 million people—had one or more chronic health conditions. One in four adults had two or more chronic health conditions.1 Seven of the top 10 causes of death in 2014 were chronic diseases. Two of these chronic diseases—heart disease and cancer—together accounted for nearly 46% of all deaths.2 Obesity is a serious health concern. During 2011–2014, more than one-third of adults (36%), or about 84 million people, were obese (defined as body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2). About one in six youths (17%) aged 2 to 19 years was obese (BMI ≥95th percentile).3 Arthritis is the most common cause of disability.4 Of the 54 million adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis, more than 23 million say they have trouble with their usual activities because of arthritis.5 Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, lower-limb amputations other than those caused by injury, and new cases of blindness among adults.6 Health Risk Behaviors that Cause Chronic Diseases Health risk behaviors are unhealthy behaviors you can change. Four of these health risk behaviors—lack of exercise or physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and drinking too much alcohol—cause much of the illness, suffering, and early death related to chronic diseases and conditions. In 2015, 50% of adults aged 18 years or older did not meet recommendations for aerobic physical activity. In addition, 79% did not meet recommendations for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity.7 More Continue reading >>

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction In addition to insulin therapy, diet and education, regular physical activity is usually considered to play a key role in the management of children and adole- scents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It im- proves insulin sensitivity, increases glucose utilization, reduces cardiovascular risk factors, and helps to pre- vent obesity (1). Despite these benefits, exercise is not considered as a treatment for diabetes, because the controlled studies failed to prove a better blood gluco- se control due to physical activity (2). However, chil- dren and adolescents with T1DM should be encoura- ged to participate in gym classes, team sports and Adherence to physical activity in young people with Type 1 diabetes Anna Lucia Bernardini, Maurizio Vanelli, Giovanni Chiari, Brunella Iovane, Chiara Gelmetti, Rosa Vitale, Maria Katrin Errico Interuniversity regional Centre for diabetes management in children and adolescents, Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital, University and General Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy Abstract. Regular physical activity plays a key role in the management of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus but it is not considered as a treatment for diabetes. Aim of this study was to investigate time spent exercising, adherence to the programme for a safe exercise and ability of young people with dia- betes to take appropriate measures to reduce potential risks. Ninety one Type 1 diabetes mellitus young peo- ple (aged from 10 to 18 years, duration of diabetes longer than 6 months) without associated chronic dis- eases were randomly enrolled in the study. Age, sex, weight, height, BMI, duration of disease, mean HbA1c value over preceding 6 months have been collected. The time weekly spent for physical activity, the t Continue reading >>

#5 Stress, Trauma And Type 1 Diabetes: Top 7 Reasons We (mistakenly) Dismiss Links

#5 Stress, Trauma And Type 1 Diabetes: Top 7 Reasons We (mistakenly) Dismiss Links

Can stress or trauma cause type 1 diabetes? Or trigger onset? Answers are rarely found despite observed links between stress, trauma and type 1 diabetes (T1D) for over 2000 years. I received an email from Teri in Illinois with this very question while writing this post, I just read your post [about how trauma is making sense of your chronic illness]. I do not know how I found you, but am so grateful. My Son was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes in 2011 at 13 years old. Previous to his diagnosis he had a few situations which made me question over the years, what in the world was going on with him. He also was diagnosed with anxiety at age 4 and I was given information on ADHD/ADD and needed to bring him for testing at that time for an early intervention program, which he did not test “low” enough for. At the time he was diagnosed, I looked directly at the endocrinologist and asked if this diagnosis could have had anything to do with stress. She said no. Every endo since this time has said no, even though we know full well cortisol levels and stress have affected his blood sugar levels all along and certainly do to this day. Thank you for confirming there are studies out there for one. But even more so, thank you for sharing your story and putting it in black and white for us. We have known this for years, but it is hard to feel as if you are the only ones who do. Research in T1D and disciplines as diverse as neurophysiology, nervous system development, brain plasticity, epigenetics, child development, attachment, and traumatic stress suggest the answers to Teri’s second question is Yes, trauma can trigger onset of T1D and Yes, trauma contributes to the cause and development of T1D. This article is part of my discovery series presenting research I never knew as an MD. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease. In type 1 diabetes, the cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, and the body is unable to make insulin. While the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, it is thought to be an autoimmune response; something, such as a virus, triggers the body’s immune system to create an antibody that kills the cells in the pancreas responsible for making insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps to lower blood sugar by allowing sugar to pass from the blood into the cells. When there is no insulin, blood sugar, called glucose, builds up in the blood. Glucose is a natural sugar that your body uses as a source of energy. It is obtained from food. Extra glucose is stored in the liver and muscle tissues. It is released when extra energy is needed, such as between meals or when sleeping. Normal levels of blood sugar are helpful, but when it builds up, it can cause both short term and long term problems. How to spot type 1 diabetes: Defining 3 early stages of type 1 » Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the beta cells of the pancreas. These are the cells that create insulin. People with type 1 diabetes cannot make enough insulin to control their blood sugar. The reasons why the immune system attacks beta cells are unknown. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. However, some factors have been tentatively identified. Heredity may be important in some cases of type 1 diabetes. If you have a family member with the condition, your risk of developing it is increased. Several genes have been tentatively linked to this condition. However, not everyone who is at risk for type 1 diabetes develops the condition. It is believed that there must be some type of trigger that c Continue reading >>

Medical Definition Of Chronic Disease

Medical Definition Of Chronic Disease

Chronic disease: A disease that persists for a long time. A chronic disease is one lasting 3 months or more, by the definition of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Chronic diseases generally cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear. Eighty-eight percent of Americans over 65 years of age have at least one chronic health condition (as of 1998). Health damaging behaviors - particularly tobacco use, lack of physical activity, and poor eating habits - are major contributors to the leading chronic diseases. Chronic diseases tend to become more common with age. The leading chronic diseases in developed countries include (in alphabetical order) arthritis, cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks and stroke, cancer such as breast and colon cancer, diabetes, epilepsy and seizures, obesity, and oral health problems. Each of these conditions plague older adults in the US (and other developed nations). Arthritis and related conditions are the leading cause of disability in the US affecting nearly 43 million Americans. Although cost-effective interventions are available to reduce the burden of arthritis, they are underused. Regular, moderate exercise offers a host of benefits to people with arthritis by reducing joint pain and stiffness, building strong muscle around the joints, and increasing flexibility and endurance. Cardiovascular disease is a growing concern in the US. Heart disease is the nation's leading cause of death. Three health-related behaviors--tobacco use, lack of physical activity, and poor nutrition--contribute markedly to heart disease. Modifying these behaviors is critical for both preventing and controlling heart disease. Modest changes in one or more of these risk factors among the population could have Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Self-management: Developing A Web-based Telemedicine Application

Type 1 Diabetes Self-management: Developing A Web-based Telemedicine Application

Diabetes mellitus is a condition that occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce sufficient levels of the glucose regulating hormone insulin, or when the body’s cells cannot accurately respond to it (Smeltzer et al. 2008; Shrivastava, Shrivastava & Ramasamy 2013). Globally, diabetes is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases, which causes about 4 million deaths annually. In the USA, the cost of healthcare for a patient without diabetes is about 2,560 USD annually, while for a patient with diabetes, it is about 11,744 USD (Harmel & Mathur 2004; Pazhoohi & Khoshniyyat 2010). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) have classified diabetes into four groups: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes due to other causes. Type 1 diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes, which comprises 10% to 15% of total cases of diabetes, is an autoimmune disease where the body destroys the insulin-producing cells, and eventually no insulin is produced. Patients with this type of diabetes must be provided with subcutaneous insulin injections, and the number of patients hospitalised due to type 1 diabetes is 5.3 times more than patients who are hospitalized due to other diseases (Ragnar 2006; Smeltzer et al. 2008). As diabetes is a lifelong disease, it is necessary to train diabetic patients in self-management techniques to minimise its probable risks (Bodenheimer et al. 2002). Clearly, people with diabetes have differing levels of knowledge, social support, self-efficiency, motivation, disease certainty, and individual capabilities for self-management activities (McDonald et al. 2004; Sousa et al. 2005). Consequently, they have different information needs for managing their illness, and such information must be provided Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Treated As An Acute Or Chronic Illness In Community Family Practice?

Is Diabetes Treated As An Acute Or Chronic Illness In Community Family Practice?

Abstract OBJECTIVE: Poor quality of diabetes care has been ascribed to the acute care focus of primary care practice. A better understanding of how time is spent during outpatient visits for diabetes compared with visits for acute conditions and other chronic diseases may facilitate the design of programs to enhance diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Research nurses directly observed consecutive outpatient visits during two separate days in 138 community family physician offices. Time use was categorized into 20 different behaviors using the Davis Observation Code (DOC). Time use was compared for visits for diabetes, other chronic conditions, and acute illnesses during 1,867 visits by patients > or =40 years of age. RESULTS: Of 20 DOC behavioral categories, 10 exhibited differences among the three groups. Discriminant analysis identified two distinct factors that distinguished visits for chronic disease from visits for acute illness and visits for diabetes from those for other chronic diseases. Compared with visits for other chronic diseases, visits for diabetes devoted a greater proportion of time to nutrition counseling, health education, and feedback on results and less time to chatting. Compared with visits for acute illness, visits for diabetes were longer and involved a higher proportion of dietary advice, negotiation, and assessment of compliance. CONCLUSIONS: Visits for diabetes are distinct from visits for other chronic diseases and acute illnesses in ways that may facilitate patient self-management. Novel quality-improvement interventions could support and expand existing differences between family physicians' current approaches to care of diabetes and other chronic and acute illnesses. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>

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