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Is Type 1 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease

Type 1 Diabetes Increases Risk For Other Autoimmune Diseases

Type 1 Diabetes Increases Risk For Other Autoimmune Diseases

Home / Conditions / Type 1 Diabetes / Type 1 Diabetes Increases Risk for Other Autoimmune Diseases Type 1 Diabetes Increases Risk for Other Autoimmune Diseases Additional conditions more likely in those diagnosed later in life. New research suggests that the risk of developing one or more additional autoimmune conditions rises with age at onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly among women who develop diabetes in adulthood. The findings of this study was presented from the results of more than 1,100 adults who participated in the study and presented at the ENDO 2018 meeting. Health care professionals should be aware that a lot of autoimmune diseases can occur in people with type 1 diabetes. People who develop type 1 diabetes in adulthood are at special risk and need to be aware of future risk of other autoimmune diseases. There are more than 100 autoImmune diseases? The finding is particularly important in light of the recent UK Biobank study that showed type 1 diabetes onset is equally likely to occur after age 30 years as prior, but is often misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes in adults. Researchers noted that previous studies have focused on comorbid endocrine autoimmune conditions, and in children with type 1 diabetes. In this study, people with type 1 diabetes onset after age 40 years had twice the risk for one or more autoimmune conditions, such as thyroid disease, pernicious anemia, vitiligo, and gastrointestinal autoimmune conditions, as those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in childhood. It is important that once a patient is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, they continue to be monitored for other autoimmune conditions. Thyroid disease is commonly followed and screened over a lifetime in people with type 1 diabetes, but some of these other conditions may present very Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes And Autoimmunity

Type 1 Diabetes And Autoimmunity

Go to: Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease It is well known that T1D is frequently associated with other organ-specific autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), pernicious anemia, and idiopathic Addison’s disease (4). Table 1 summarizes the prevalence of organ-specific autoimmune disease complicating T1D in Japanese and Caucasoid patients (5). In Japanese patients with T1D, the most common coexisting organ-specific autoimmune disease is AITD (> 90%). The prevalence of anti-thyroid autoantibodies in children with T1D at disease onset is about 20%, and anti-thyroid autoantibodies are particularly common in girls. Furthermore, it is reported that the prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies increases with increasing age and that the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies at diagnosis of T1D predicts the development of future thyroid disease (6). Patients with anti-thyroid antibodies are 18 times more likely to develop thyroid disease than patients without anti-thyroid antibodies (7) (Fig.1). Therefore, for early detection of AITD in children with T1D, Glastras et al. suggested measurement of anti-thyroid antibodies and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 yr. Furthermore, the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Consensus Clinical Guidelines recommend the screening of thyroid function by analyzing circulating TSH at the diagnosis of diabetes and, thereafter, every 2nd yr in asymptomatic individuals without goiter and more frequent if goiter is present. To characterize the T1D patients complicated with AITD (autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 3 variant, APS3v), we have analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with APS3v who were consecutively diagnosed at Nagasaki University Continue reading >>

Diabetes Overview

Diabetes Overview

Almost everyone knows someone who has diabetes. An estimated 23.6 million people in the United States -- 7.8 percent of the population -- have diabetes, a serious, lifelong condition. Of those, 17.9 million have been diagnosed, and about 5.7 million people have not yet been diagnosed. Each year, about 1.6 million people aged 20 or older are diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism -- the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach. When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of sugar. The three main types of diabetes are Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease results when the body's system for fighting infection (the immune system) turns against a part of the body. In diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. A person who has type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to live. At present, scientists do not know exactly wh Continue reading >>

What Causes Autoimmune Diabetes?

What Causes Autoimmune Diabetes?

Autoimmune diabetes is influenced by genetics. What starts the autoimmune destruction is unknown, but it may be due to environmental factors. You may want to learn more about how type 1a diabetes develops. We know type 1a diabetes is caused by an autoimmune process in the body that mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing cells, or beta cells and occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. What starts the autoimmune destruction is unknown, but it may be due to environmental factors. In this section, you can learn more about: What is the Immune system? An overview of the different cells and organs in the immune system and how the immune system works Autoimmunity and diabetes: Current ideas about how the immune systems destroys insulin producing cells Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes And Autoimmune Diseases

Type 1 Diabetes And Autoimmune Diseases

Type 1 diabetes is just one of multiple autoimmune diseases. We inherit risk of autoimmunity primarily in the HLA complex located on chromosome six. Due to the close linkage of genes coding particularly for type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Graves, Celiac, and Addison’s disease, there is more than a random association of these diseases. A significant number of children have thyroid and celiac disease, which is the most common in association with Type 1 diabetes as demonstrated in evidence-based studies. Less commonly associated with type 1 diabetes are other autoimmune diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Autoimmune thyroid disease in the form of hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis) and hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease) is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes. Thus, at diagnosis, or shortly after, Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid antibodies (thyroid peroxidase, or antithyroglobulin antibodies) are obtained. If the TSH is elevated in association with a low thyroid hormone level (usually free T4), thyroid replacement medication begins (Synthroid). If the TSH is extremely low in association with higher free T4 levels, thyroid suppression medication (Methimazole, for example) is usually initiated. Celiac disease or gluten intolerance is the next most common autoimmune disease associated with type 1 diabetes. Symptoms of the disease may be vague so one must have a high suspicion to rule out the disease. Abdominal pain, growth failure, or menstrual irregularities are often associated with celiac disease; however, there may be no symptoms present. Therefore, laboratory screening is necessary requiring a serum tissue transglutaminase IgA, along with a total IgA (to ensure Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes May Be Reversible With Immune Suppressor Protein

Type 1 Diabetes May Be Reversible With Immune Suppressor Protein

A professor in Melbourne, Australia, who is on a mission to find a cure for type 1 diabetes, believes that the answer, or part of it, lies with an immune suppressor protein called CD52. And if it works for type 1 diabetes, then it may well work for other immune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, where disruption in the balance of different kinds of T cell in the immune system causes it to attack the body's own healthy tissue. In a new study published this week in Nature Immunology, diabetes researcher and professor Len Harrison and colleagues from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute's Molecular Medicine, suggest it may be possible to use CD52, which naturally stops the immune system overreacting and killing insulin-producing pancreatic cells, to stop or even reverse type 1 diabetes in the early stages, before all the insulin-producing cells have been destroyed. In a statement to the media Harrison says: "Immune suppression by CD52 is a previously undiscovered mechanism that the body uses to regulate itself, and protect itself against excessive or damaging immune responses." Type 1 Diabetes Is An Autoimmune Disease Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that typically starts in childhood and teen years. It happens because an imbalance in the immune system causes it to destroy insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Without insulin, the body cannot regulate blood sugar, and if this gets too high, it causes serious damage to organs. It is a "lifelong disease", says Harrison, adding that in Australia alone there are around 120,000 people with it, a number that has doubled over the last two decades. He says the disease makes life "incredibly difficult" for children and teenagers, and also for their families. "It also causes significant long-te Continue reading >>

Other Autoimmune Conditions

Other Autoimmune Conditions

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, which means that the immune system mistakenly starts to destroy the cells that make insulin in the pancreas People who have one autoimmune condition are at greater risk of developing another type of autoimmune disease. Genetic studies have shown that the same gene changes that increase risk of type 1 diabetes also increase risk of these others conditions such as Coeliac disease, psoriasis and autoimmune thyroid disease. People who have one autoimmune disease in their family may be at greater risk of developing any autoimmune disease than someone with no family history of autoimmune conditions. These pages summarise some of the more common autoimmune conditions and their symptoms. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: Is It An Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 Diabetes: Is It An Autoimmune Disease?

For decades, doctors and researchers have believed type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder. This type of disorder occurs when your body’s natural chemical processes don’t work properly. New research suggests type 2 diabetes may actually be an autoimmune disease. If that’s the case, new treatments and preventive measures may be developed to treat this condition. Currently, there isn’t enough evidence to fully support this idea. For now, doctors will continue to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes with diet, lifestyle changes, medications, and injected insulin. Read on to learn more about the research that’s being done and the implications it may have on the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has historically been viewed as a different type of disease from type 1 diabetes, despite their similar name. Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin or can’t produce enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood to your cells. Your cells convert glucose to energy. Without insulin, your cells can’t use glucose, and symptoms of diabetes can occur. These symptoms may include fatigue, increased hunger, increased thirst, and blurred vision. Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called juvenile diabetes because it’s often diagnosed in children and teens, is an autoimmune disease. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the healthy tissues of the body and destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. The damage from these attacks prevents the pancreas from supplying insulin to the body. Without an adequate supply of insulin, cells can’t get the energy they need. Blood sugar levels rise, leading to symptoms such as frequent urination, increased thirst, and irritability. E Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 diabetes is in the process of being redefined as an autoimmune disease rather than just a metabolic disorder, said an author of a new study published in Nature Medicine this week, the findings of which may lead to new diabetes treatments that target the immune system instead of trying to control blood sugar. As part of the study the researchers showed that an antibody called anti-CD20, which targets and eliminates mature B cells in the immune system, stopped diabetes type 2 developing in lab mice prone to develop the disease, and restored their blood sugar level to normal. Anti-CD20, available in the US under the trade names Rituxan and MabThera, is already approved as a treatment for some autoimmune diseases and blood cancers in humans, but more research is needed to see if it will work against diabetes in humans. The researchers believe that insulin resistance, the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (unlike type 1 diabetes where it is the insulin-producing cells that are destroyed), is the result of B cells and other immune cells attacking the body's own tissues. Co-first author Daniel Winer, now an endocrine pathologist at the University Health Network of the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, started working on the study as a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine in California, USA. He told the press that: "We are in the process of redefining one of the most common diseases in America as an autoimmune disease, rather than a purely metabolic disease." "This work will change the way people think about obesity, and will likely impact medicine for years to come as physicians begin to switch their focus to immune-modulating treatments for type-2 diabetes," he added. The discovery brings type 2 diabetes, until now considered to be more of a Continue reading >>

Associated Autoimmune Diseases In Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Associated Autoimmune Diseases In Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

INTRODUCTION Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, is caused by insulin deficiency resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. (See "Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus".) Children and adolescents with T1DM are at increased risk for developing other autoimmune diseases, most commonly autoimmune thyroiditis and celiac disease. These associated autoimmune diseases are presented here. Other issues in this population are discussed separately: (See "Epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents".) Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes With Other Autoimmune Diseases

Type 1 Diabetes With Other Autoimmune Diseases

Type 1 Diabetes With Other Autoimmune Diseases Editors Note: This content has been verified byMarina Basina, MD, a Clinical Associate Professor at Stanford University. Shes a clinical endocrinologist and researcher with a focus on diabetes management and diabetes technology. Dr. Basina is an active member of multiple medical advisory boards and community diabetes organizations, and she is on the Beyond Type 1 Science Advisory Council. People with Type 1 diabetes , an autoimmune disease, are more likely to have a co-occurring autoimmune disorder. An autoimmune disease means that your immune system sees your bodys own tissue as foreign invaders and attacks itself. For example, if you have Type 1, your body mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing (beta) cells in your body. The reason that co-occurring autoimmune disorders are so common isnt exactly known, although we do know that genetics play a significant role. Because we know that having Type 1 puts you at a higher risk of developing other autoimmune diseases, its important to be aware of what the signs and symptoms are. The following are warning signs that are common for all autoimmune diseases, including Type 1: These symptoms are non-specific and dont necessarily indicate another autoimmune disease. However, you should see your doctor if you are exhibiting them. Although the exact reason is unknown, there are a few autoimmune diseases that tend to co-occur with Type 1 diabetes that are listed below. 10% of the population with Type 1 diabetes also have celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease in which suffers are unable to eat gluten because it causes their bodys immune system to attack its own small intestine. If someone with celiac is undiagnosed and continues to eat gluten on a regular basis, the s Continue reading >>

Other Diseases That Are More Common In People With Type 1 Diabetes

Other Diseases That Are More Common In People With Type 1 Diabetes

Other Diseases That Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Other Diseases That Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes have a greater risk for other health problems, many of which also are autoimmune disorders. The diabeteshealth care team will watch kids for signs of these problems. But parents also should know what to look for so that they can alert doctors and get treatment, if necessary. In autoimmune disorders, the immune system attacks the body's healthy tissues as though they were foreign invaders. A severe attack can affect how that body part works. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The pancreas can't make insulin because the immune system attacks it and destroys the cells that produce insulin. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes are at risk for other autoimmune problems, but these aren't actually caused by the diabetes. Doctors still aren't exactly sure why autoimmune diseases happen. But genetics probably play an important role because relatives of people with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have autoimmune diseases. Most kids with type 1 diabetes never need treatment for any other autoimmune disorder. But those who do might develop: These disorders can develop before a child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes or months or years after the diabetes diagnosis. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes are more likely to get disorders affecting the thyroid. The thyroid, which is part of the endocrine system , makes hormones that help control metabolism and growth. These hormones play a role in bone development, puberty, and many other body functions. Thyroid disease is fairly common in people with type 1 diabetes, affecting 15% to 20% of them. In thyroid disease, the thyroid gland Continue reading >>

What Is An Autoimmune Disease?

What Is An Autoimmune Disease?

Tweet Autoimmune disease refers to illness or disorder that occurs when healthy tissue (cells) get destroyed by the body's own immune system. The term autoimmune disease is one that many people with diabetes - in particular, those with type 1 diabetes - will have come across or be familiar with. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the disease-fighting system mistakes healthy cells in the pancreas for foreign, harmful invaders and attacks them, leaving the body unable to produce its own insulin and keep levels of blood glucose under control. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disease, from multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes to coeliac disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The immune system is the body's protection against harmful substances such as bacteria, viruses and toxins, all of which contain harmful antigens. To counter this, the immune system produces and sends antibodies (special proteins) to identify destroy these antigens. However, in some cases the immune system cannot distinguish between healthy, harmless tissue and antigens and, as a result, it attacks and destroys normal tissue (in people with diabetes, the cells mistakenly targeted are the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas). This autoimmune reaction (or 'attack') is what triggers the development of an autoimmune disease. What causes the immune system to act this way? The exact cause of autoimmune disease is unknown, although there are many theories about what causes it to malfunction including: Bacteria or virus Drugs Chemical irritants Environmental irritants Studies have shown that autoimmune disorders often run in families and are much more common in women. How serious is it? As well as destroying body tissue, an autoimmune reaction can also affect organ function or result in t Continue reading >>

People With Type 1 Diabetes Often Have Another Autoimmune Disease

People With Type 1 Diabetes Often Have Another Autoimmune Disease

It has been known that people with type 1 diabetes develop additional autoimmune diseases at higher rates but researchers looked to find out more details such as prevalence and additional factors in a recent study. According to Endocrine Today, a “diagnosis of at least one other autoimmune disease was found for 27% of participants; most had one additional diagnosis (20%) followed by 5% with two and less than 1% with three, four or five.” Janet B. McGill, MD, FACE, professor of medicine at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Endocrine Today Editorial Board member and team used data they obtained from 25,759 participants with type 1 diabetes who were enrolled in the T1D Exchange Registry. They analyzed the types and frequency of autoimmune diseases in these participants including their relationships to gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Diagnosis of autoimmune diseases were obtained from medical records of the Exchange Registry participants. Who Develops Additional Autoimmune Diseases? Of all the T1D Exchange participants, half were female, 82 percent non-Hispanic white, with a mean age of 23 years and a mean duration of diabetes of 11 years. Endocrine Today reports that the mean A1c was 8.4 percent. Of these participants 6,876 or 27 percent were diagnosed with at least one autoimmune disease on top of the type 1 diabetes. The frequency of 2 or more autoimmune diseases went up from 4.3 percent in participants under age 13 to 10.4 percent in those 50 or older. Which Autoimmune Diseases are Most Common? The most common autoimmune disease for the participants were thyroid related at 6,097 or 24 percent. The next most common were gastrointestinal at 1,530 or 6 percent and collagen vascular diseases at 432 or 2 percent. The researchers stated that A Continue reading >>

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