Types Of Sugar - Dextrose Glucose And High Fructose Corn Syrup Types Of Sugar
Thanks to alert reader Glen for pointing out that the FDA already has a regulation for Corn Sugar in the Code of Federal Regulations , under food substances Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). CFR Section 184.1857 reads: (a) corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly called D-glucose or dextrose, is the chemical [alpha]-D-glucopyranose. It occurs as the anhydrous or the monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes, followed by refinement and crystallization from the resulting hydrolysate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 97-98 under the heading "Dextrose." (c) In accordance with 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The Corn Refiners have just petitioned the FDA to be allowed to use the name Corn Sugar to apply to both glucose/dextrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) . But the existing definition seems to exclude HFCS. While HFCS is about half glucose, it is also about half fructose, and its manufacture from corn starch requires one more enzyme. Glucose is the sugar in blood, and dextrose is the name given to glucose produced from corn. Biochemically they are identical. Fructose is the principal sugar in fruit. In fruit, it raises no issues because it is accompanied by nutrients and fiber. Sucrose is table sugar. It is a double sugar, containing one part each of glucose (50%) and fructose (50%), chemically bound together. Enzymes in the intestine quickly and efficiently split sucrose into glucose and fructose, which are absorbed into the body as single sugars. HFCS is made from corn starch. It contains roughly equivalent amounts of glucose (45 to 58%) and Continue reading >>
The Relationship Between Corn Starch And Glucose
Glucose can come from corn starch.Photo Credit: tugbastock/iStock/Getty Images The Relationship Between Corn Starch and Glucose Kirstin Hendrickson is a writer, teacher, coach, athlete and author of the textbook "Chemistry In The World." She's been teaching and writing about health, wellness and nutrition for more than 10 years. She has a Bachelor of Science in zoology, a Bachelor of Science in psychology, a Master of Science in chemistry and a doctoral degree in bioorganic chemistry. There's so much information about carbohydrates and how they affect your body that you might wonder how they're all related to one another and where they come from. Glucose, a kind of sugar, can come from many places, but one common source of industrial glucose is corn starch, which comes from a specific part of the corn kernel. Corn kernels, like kernels of other grains, have many parts. They're surrounded by a tough outer coating that is high in fiber and protects the delicate contents inside. They also have a protein-rich germ, or portion of the corn that will sprout into a new plant. This is surrounded by a carbohydrate-rich mass called the endosperm. Corn starch comes from this endosperm. It consists of molecules of amylose, commonly called starch, explain Drs. Reginald Garrett and Charles Grisham in their book "Biochemistry." Because of the source, the amylose from corn is called corn starch, but it's chemically identical to starch from other plants. Glucose is a kind of sugar. Specifically, it's a monosaccharide, which means that it's a sugar in its own right but is also a building block of larger sugars and other carbohydrates, including fiber and starch. In fact, amylose is nothing more than long chains of glucose molecules chemically bonded to one another, explain Drs. Mary Camp Continue reading >>
High Fructose Corn Syrup Questions And Answers
High Fructose Corn Syrup Questions and Answers Consumer Info About Additives & Ingredients Main Page FDA receives many inquiries and comments from the public about the chemistry of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in relation to other sweeteners such as table sugar and honey, and whether HFCS is safe to eat. HFCS is derived from corn starch. Starch itself is a chain of glucose (a simple sugar) molecules joined together. When corn starch is broken down into individual glucose molecules, the end product is corn syrup, which is essentially 100% glucose. To make HFCS, enzymes are added to corn syrup in order to convert some of the glucose to another simple sugar called fructose, also called fruit sugar because it occurs naturally in fruits and berries. HFCS is high in fructose compared to the pure glucose that is in corn syrup. Different formulations of HFCS contain different amounts of fructose. The most common forms of HFCS contain either 42 percent or 55 percent fructose, as described in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 184.1866), and these are referred to in the industry as HFCS 42 and HFCS 55. The rest of the HFCS is glucose and water. HFCS 42 is mainly used in processed foods, cereals, baked goods, and some beverages. HFCS 55 is used primarily in soft drinks. Sucrose (sugar), the most well-known sweetener, is made by crystallizing sugar cane or beet juice. Sucrose is also made up of the same two simple sugars, glucose and fructose, joined together to form a single molecule containing one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule, an exact one-to-one ratio. The proportion of fructose to glucose in both HFCS 42 and HFCS 55 is similar to that of sucrose. The primary differences between sucrose and the common forms of HFCS are: In sucrose, a chemical bond joins th Continue reading >>
Is Cornstarch Bad For Me?
Corn starch is one of those ingredients in recipes that usually deters me from making it. Maybe its the notion of what it does to water or the fact that I had never really thought about what it actually was. Either way, its always kind of weirded me out. I got an email from a reader a couple of weeks ago about cornstarch. Im trying to make an effort to eat better and cut out as many processed foods from my diet as possible. Since then, Ive gotten interested in reading ingredient labels and noticed my yogurt had modified corn starch listed in the top 5 ingredients. Would you consider cornstarch unhealthy? Apparently Im not the only one weirded out by cornstarch. This question got me interested in figuring out what exactly corn starch is and how it might contribute nutritionally to foods we buy or recipes we make. It seems simple enough. Cornstarch is starch thats derived from corn. Its made from the tiny white endosperm at the heart of a corn kernel. To get to the endosperm, the kernels are processed so all of the outside shells removed. The endosperms are ground up into the fine white, gritty powder we know as cornstarch. The key word here is processed. Thickener: Cornstarch is used frequently as a thickener when cooking in things likes sauces, gravies and even yogurt. It thickens almost twice as much as flour and thickens clear in liquids rather than opaque. Baked goods: Cornstarch is also gluten free and is frequently used in baked goods to give structure to give them more fullness and moisture. Fried foods: Its occasionally added to batters to give fried foods a light and crispy texture. Cornstarch is essentially a highly processed carbohydrate. It packs about 30 calories or 7 grams of carbohydrate per tablespoon. Theres no protein, fat, vitamins, minerals or fiber. Continue reading >>
How Are Glucose, Sucrose & Starch Related?
Sucrose, glucose and starch are related because they're all forms of carbohydrate. One of the essential macronutrients in foods along with protein and fat, carbohydrates supply energy to your body. Carbohydrates, which consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, are classified according to their chemical makeup. Glucose is a single sugar molecule that your body can absorb directly in the intestine. Sucrose and starches are carbohydrates formed by two or more sugars bonded together. The sugars in sucrose and starch must be broken down into glucose molecules in the gastrointestinal tract before your intestines can absorb them. Classifications Carbohydrates are classified by the number of sugar units, called saccharides, that they contain. A monosaccharide is one basic sugar unit that cannot be further broken down. Few foods are monosaccharides. Disaccharides are two monosaccharides linked together. Monosaccharides and disaccharides are also called simple sugars. Starches and fiber, the indigestible parts of plants, are polysaccharides, meaning that they contain many saccharide molecules linked together. Your body can only absorb monosaccharides directly; all other carbohydrates must be broken down into monosaccharides before they can enter your bloodstream from the small intestine. Glucose, a monosaccharide, is a form of sugar absorbed through the intestine into your bloodstream. Foods do not contain pure glucose, although diabetics sometimes carry pure glucose tablets or gels to raise their blood sugar quickly if they develop hypoglycemia, the medical term of low blood sugar. Many foods contain glucose mixed with another sugar; fruits, for example, often contain glucose and fructose. Glucose makes up the main energy source for the human body. Sucrose is the scientific name f Continue reading >>
Cornstarch Nutrition Facts & Calories
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Cornstarch Bar To Help Diabetics
A medical food product containing uncooked cornstarch could help type 2 diabetics manage their blood glucose levels and decrease the incidence of nighttime and morning hyperglycemia, new research A medical food product containing uncooked cornstarch could help type 2 diabetics manage their blood glucose levels and decrease the incidence of nighttime and morning hyperglycemia, new research suggests. The study, conducted by researchers in Ventura, California., compared the blood glucose levels of individuals with type 2 diabetes at specific time intervals following the ingestion of an ExtendBar or placebo bar on three consecutive evenings. Study participants who ate the ExtendBar experienced no episodes of hyperglycemia and had significantly lower blood glucose levels at midnight and before breakfast the next morning than those who ate the placebo bar. Copyright - Unless otherwise stated all contents of this web site are 2018 - William Reed Business Media Ltd - All Rights Reserved - Full details for the use of materials on this site can be found in the Terms & Conditions Continue reading >>
Converting Corn Starch To Glucose.
Author Topic: Converting corn starch to glucose. (Read 10853 times) 0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic. Hello, I am a homebrewer from Michigan, and I am looking for a cheap alternative to buying malt extract at $4/lb. I began looking into converting cornstarch, which is made up of long chains of glucose molecules, and found a method explained here, and also below: I would like some help turning this process into more of a recipe that can be used by others, and I have several questions. I will also include the info below, along with a breakdown of the steps as I understand them, and my questions. I appreciate any help that you can offer. Thanks in advance. To convert this polymer into its monomer, the amylase enzyme is used. The amylase enzyme can be classified into three categories: -amylase, -amylase, and glucoamylase. -amylase will break the -1,4-glycosidic bond randomly, giving molecules of dextrins. -amylase can also break the -1,6-glycosidic bond, but at a much slower rate (usually the enzym pullulanase is added to accelerate the breakage of -1,6-glycosidic bond). -amylase breaks the -1,4-glycosidic bond from the non-reducing end, giving molecules of maltoses. And glucoamylase breaks the -1,4-glycosidic bond also from the non-reducing end, giving molecules of glucose (Wiseman, 1985). The -amylase used is obtained from the bacteria B. subtilis or B. licheniformis, whereas the -amylase is obtained from Aspergillus sp. and Rhizopus sp. This conversion took place in a couple of steps: First, we make a solution from the starch. In Wiseman (1985), a 30-40% solution w/w is preferred, which will -after the conversion reaction- give a 94-97% glucose in equilibrium mixture. Then, we gelatinized this solution. Gelatinization is the process of breaking down the inte Continue reading >>
Glucose Syrup - Wikipedia
Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch . Glucose is a sugar . Maize (corn) is commonly used as the source of the starch in the US, in which case the syrup is called " corn syrup ", but glucose syrup is also made from potatoes and wheat , and less often from barley , rice and cassava .  p.21  Glucose syrup containing over 90% glucose is used in industrial fermentation ,  but syrups used in confectionery contain varying amounts of glucose , maltose and higher oligosaccharides , depending on the grade, and can typically contain 10% to 43% glucose.  Glucose syrup is used in foods to sweeten, soften texture and add volume. By converting some of the glucose in corn syrup into fructose (using an enzymatic process), a sweeter product, high fructose corn syrup can be produced. Depending on the method used to hydrolyse the starch and on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been allowed to proceed, different grades of glucose syrup are produced, which have different characteristics and uses. The syrups are broadly categorised according to their dextrose equivalent (DE). The further the hydrolysis process proceeds, the more reducing sugars are produced, and the higher the DE. Depending on the process used, glucose syrups with different compositions, and hence different technical properties, can have the same DE. The original glucose syrups were manufactured by acid hydrolysis of corn starch at high temperature and pressure. The typical product had a DE of 42, but quality was variable due to the difficulty of controlling the reaction. Higher DE syrups made by acid hydrolysis tend to have a bitter taste and a dark colour, due to the production of hydroxymethylfurfural and other byproducts.  p.26 Th Continue reading >>
Oxidation Of Corn Starch, Glucose, And Fructose Ingested Before Exercise.
Oxidation of corn starch, glucose, and fructose ingested before exercise. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Mdecine Arospatiale, Laboratoire de Physiologie Hormonale et Mtabolique, Paris, France. The purpose of this study was to compare the metabolic and endocrine responses, and the amounts of exogenous carbohydrate oxidized, during prolonged moderate cycle ergometer exercise (120 min, 60% VO2max), preceded by ingestion of 13C enriched glucose (G), fructose (F), or pure corn starch (S) (1,592 kJ ingested with 400 ml of water, 60 min before the beginning of exercise) in six healthy young male subjects. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations significantly increased in response to G and S feeding. The high plasma insulin values resulted in a significant transient reduction in plasma glucose concentration in the first hour of exercise and blunted the response of plasma free fatty acid and glycerol concentrations, when compared to the values observed with F ingestion, which did not modify plasma glucose or insulin concentrations. Over the 2 h exercise period, the percentages of exogenous G (67 +/- 9%) and S (73 +/- 8%) oxidized were not significantly different but were significantly higher than the percentage of exogenous F oxidized (54 +/- 6%). These results confirm that 1) exogenous F is less readily available for oxidation than G or S and 2) pure corn starch does not offer any advantage over glucose as a pre-exercise meal. Continue reading >>
What's The Difference Between Corn Syrup And Sugar?
What's the Difference Between Corn Syrup and Sugar? The unpopularity and fear of high-fructose corn syrup have led the Corn Refiners Association to ask the federal government's permission to drop "high-fructose" and change the syrup's name to "corn sugar." The hope is that a name change and image makeover will help to dispel consumers' unease over buying products containing high-fructose corn syrup, also known as HFCS, as a sugar substitute, according to the association. Critics of HFCS argue that the new title will make it sound healthy, when several studies have linked it with obesity. Princeton University researchers found rats fed HFCS gained more weight than those fed table sugar, even when their overall caloric intake was the same, according to the study, published in February in the journal Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. How do sugar and HFCS stack up against each other? First created in 1957, high-fructose corn syrup is made from corn milled into corn starch, then processed into syrup that consists almost entirely of glucose. Enzymes then convert the glucose into fructose, extremely water-soluble sugar that can be found in many sodas and processed foods. Table sugar consists mainly of sucrose a molecule that contains both glucose and fructose and is obtained from sugar cane or sugar beets. HFCS has been steadily replacing table sugar in foods, and now accounts for as much as 40 percent of caloric sweetener use in the United States, according to the Princeton University study. The main reason: Its cheaper. And some critics charge that this has led to a situation where foods that never used to include sweeteners, or did so in limited quantities, now are routinely made using copious amounts of high-fructose corn syrup. Although HFCS was declared safe by Continue reading >>
Corn Starch - Wikipedia
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn ( maize ) grain.  The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel . Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups , and in making corn syrup and other sugars  . It is versatile, easily modified, and finds many uses in industry as adhesives , in paper products, as an anti-sticking agent, and textile manufacturing  . It has medical uses, such as to supply glucose for people with glycogen storage disease  . Like many products in dust form, it can be hazardous in large quantities due to its flammability . When mixed with a fluid, cornstarch can rearrange itself into a non-Newtonian fluid . For example, adding water transforms cornstarch into a material commonly known as Oobleck while adding oil transforms cornstarch into a Electrorheological fluid . The concept can be explained through the mixture termed "cornflour slime".  Advertisement for a Cornflour manufacture, 1894 Cornstarch was discovered in 1840 by Thomas Kingsford, superintendent of a wheat starch factory in Jersey City, New Jersey . Until 1851, corn starch was used primarily for starching laundry and other industrial uses.  Although mostly used for cooking and as a household item, cornstarch is used for many purposes in several industries, ranging from its use as a chemical additive for certain products, to medical therapy for certain illnesses. Cornstarch is used as a thickening agent in liquid-based foods (e.g., soup , sauces , gravies , custard ), usually by mixing it with a lower-temperature liquid to form a paste or slurry. It is sometimes preferred over flour alone because it forms a translucent , rather than opaque mixture. As the starch is heated, the mol Continue reading >>
Medical Info & Resources
Lynne A. Wolfe, MS, PNP, BC [email protected] Blood Sugar Regulation Glucose is the major carbohydrate used as fuel in our body to supply energy. It can easily be measured because some circulates in our blood stream, and can be easily checked with finger sticks. Average blood sugar levels are 100 mg/dl (70-120 mg/dl) or 5 mmol/L. The risk of developing Diabetes is increased when FASTING blood sugars stay consistently > 125mg/dl or 7 mmol/L. The risk of developing a Hypoglycemic Coma occurs when blood sugars are consistently < 45 mg/dl or 2.5 mmol/L. Under normal circumstances glucose is the preferred fuel of brain cells, and also muscle cells in early exercise. Blood glucose levels are regulated by several hormones ~ Insulin, Glucagon, Epinephrine, Cortisol, and Growth hormone. Insulin promotes Glycogen synthesis, fat storage in the form of Triglycerides, and cellular uptake of blood glucose. Too much Insulin can lead to hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). Insulin acts in two phases. The first phase is secretion within 10 minutes of eating. The second phase is secretion about 2 hours after eating. Glucagon, Epinephrine, Cortisol, and Growth hormone all cause Glycogen breakdown and stimulate conversion of Amino acids to glucose. Persistent elevations of these hormones can lead to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar.) Glucagon breaks down Liver Glycogen stores to release glucose into the blood stream and it prevents the normal storage of extra glucose into Glycogen and Triglycerides. Glucagon has no effect on Muscle Glycogen. Epinephrine is very important during times of stress, including acute illnesses/infections, trauma etc. It causes increased glucose levels in the blood stream to ensure adequate glucose reaches brain cells. It stimulates the breakdown of muscle glycogen to ra Continue reading >>
What Is In Cornstarch?
Cornstarch is a smooth, white powder with many uses, ranging from a common cooking and baking ingredient to an alternative for talc. This versatile product is made from the kernel of the corn plant, specifically the starchy part known as the endosperm. Cornstarch possesses some positive food attributes; including containing very little amounts of saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium while also having a gluten-free status. Cornstarch is primarily a carbohydrate, with negligible amounts of fat and protein. Of the 107 calories in 1 ounce of corn starch, 106 are from carbohydrates. The serving size for cornstarch is 1 ounce. The Daily Value percentages are based on U.S. Department of Agriculture recommendations for adults who consume a 2,000-calorie diet. This powder has a total carbohydrate count of 25.6 grams, or 9 percent DV. The dietary fiber count in an ounce of corn starch is 0.3 grams, or 1 percent DV. The only fat in corn starch consists of 7 grams of omega-6 fatty acids, which is 0 percent of DV. Cornstarch also contains 2.3 grams of water. Your body uses cornstarch, which is primarily a carbohydrate, in the production of glucose. Glucose provides energy for the functioning of all other body processes. Cornstarch is not one of the healthiest carbohydrates, since it is very low in dietary fiber. It can still be a part of a healthy diet, however, if used in moderation. Choose complex carbohydrates to make up the majority of your carbohydrate daily requirement. These take longer to be broken down into glucose and include vegetables and whole grains. Cornstarch is not a vitamin- or mineral-rich product. The vitamins present in the powder are negligible and do not contribute to daily values. Cornstarch possesses some minerals but in such small quantities they too do n Continue reading >>
Corn Syrup Vs. High-fructose Corn Syrup: There Is A Difference
Corn Syrup vs. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: There Is a Difference Corn Syrup vs. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: There Is a Difference The holidays are coming, which means it's time for pecan pie, homemade marshmallows and caramel candies all recipes that traditionally use corn syrup as an ingredient. More and more, I've been hearing people say they are reluctant to use corn syrup in their baking because of the negative health effects associated with high-fructose corn syrup. But the truth is that corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup are two different products. Both products are made from corn starch, but regular corn syrup is 100 percent glucose, while high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has had some of its glucose converted to fructose enzymatically. Scientists are examining the potentially negative effects of consuming large amounts of fructose in the form of HFCS, but regular corn syrup is not part of that consideration, as it does not contain fructose. That doesn't necessarily mean the corn syrup you buy in the store is HFCS-free, unfortunately. Manufacturers sometimes add HFCS to regular corn syrup, but it will be listed as an ingredient if that is the case. So read labels carefully or stick with Karo, which does not add HFCS to their products . (When Emma wrote about this issue in 2008 , Karo did add HFCS to their corn syrup, but that has changed.) Of course, like all refined sweeteners, corn syrup should be consumed in moderation. A few times a year around the holidays in your grandmother's famous pecan pie recipe or the caramel candies everyone loves sounds just about right. Continue reading >>