Can Diabetes Cause Glaucoma?
Diabetes has been linked to the onset of glaucoma. Yet there is some debate amongst medical professionals as to whether both types of diabetes are directly responsible for the development of specific types of glaucoma in diabetics. This is a complicated issue that has credible arguments on both sides. Understanding Glaucoma and Diabetes There are several different types of diabetes as well as glaucoma. Type 1 diabetes triggers a total loss of cells within the pancreas that creates insulin. Type 2 diabetes does not completely destroy these cells. Add in the fact that there are numerous types of glaucoma and it is easy to see why the alleged link between diabetes and glaucoma can be a bit complicated. The Development of Diabetic Retinopathy If Type 1 diabetes or Type 2 diabetes is left untreated for an extended period of time, it will inevitably lead to the onset of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy causes blood vessels to leak. It also creates an insufficient supply of retinal blood that eventually leads to flawed retinal function. Eventually, the retina is completely starved of oxygen, its drainage system malfunctions, intraocular pressure is heightened and neovascular glaucoma occurs. Does Diabetes Lead to Other Forms of Glaucoma? There is much debate as to whether either type of diabetes causes additional forms of glaucoma aside from neovascular glaucoma. In particular, medical researchers question whether either type of diabetes leads to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This form of glaucoma is the most prevalent in the western hemisphere. Some argue that the supposed relationship between Type 1 diabetes and POAG has not been analyzed deeply enough. At this point in time, most researchers agree that Type 1 diabetes does not trigger POAG. However, there is Continue reading >>
Meta-analysis Confirms Diabetes-glaucoma Link
Although diabetes has long been proposed as a risk factor for glaucoma, epidemiologic studies have yielded inconsistent results, making the association controversial. Over the past decade, there has been no systematic review of the literature on the correlation between diabetes and glaucoma or between glaucoma risk and other metabolic abnormalities. This gap has recently been filled by Myung Hun Kim, MD, at Saevit Eye Hospital in Goyang, Korea, and his colleagues, who conducted an updated systematic review and metaanalysis. They found that diabetes, duration of diabetes, and fasting glucose levels were associated with a significantly higher risk of primary open-angle glaucoma and that diabetes and fasting glucose levels were associated with slightly increased levels of intraocular pressure (IOP).1 Proposed mechanisms. The mechanisms relating diabetes to glaucoma are not clear. Various studies have suggested that diabetes causes microvascular damage and vascular dysregulation of the retina and the optic disc, increasing the susceptibility of the optic nerve head to glaucomatous damage. Diabetes also may disrupt the trabecular meshwork function, thereby elevating IOP.2 Most robust association. Longer duration of diabetes was consistently associated with higher risk of glaucoma across cross-sectional, case-control, and longitudinal studies and was independent of age, race, gender, and other confounders controlled in the original studies. Patients with longer duration of diabetes particularly need to be aware of the importance of glaucoma screening and management, according to the authors. Authors’ perspective. “We were not surprised to find an association between diabetes and the risk of glaucoma,” said Dr. Kim, “but we were somewhat surprised by the degree of hete Continue reading >>
The Connection Between Glaucoma, Alzheimer’s, And Diabetes
Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating illness, affecting an estimated 5.2 million Americans, according to 2013 statistics. It’s believed to be the third leading cause of death in the US, following only heart disease and cancer. It’s shockingly prevalent, with one in nine seniors over the age of 65 suffering from this severe form of dementia. While there is no known cure for Alzheimer’s, research is amassing every day. And recently, scientists have begun identifying connections between Alzheimer’s and diabetes. New research suggests it isn’t just Alzheimer’s that’s linked to diabetes. Less severe forms of dementia also could be a complication of diabetes. So what’s the connection? Why would diabetes be such a major contributor to memory loss? You may know that people develop type-2 diabetes when the pancreas doesn’t produce enough of the hormone insulin or the body can’t use insulin properly to process sugar. But you may not know that the brain also makes insulin. When the brain doesn’t make enough, it affects the whole body, just like the pancreas does. In fact, one of the most severe complications of diabetes is blindness. The eyes are so directly connected to the brain that many in the medical community believe they are an extension of the brain. The impact of diabetes on your eyes is now gaining even more attention. One group of researchers in India hypothesized that the eye disease glaucoma is actually diabetes of the brain. The group made the hypothesis based on the remarkable similarities between glaucoma and diabetes. Glaucoma and diabetes have many similar characteristics, including various molecular mechanisms, the involvement of insulin, and similar treatments that work on both illnesses. With Alzheimer’s disease already considered dia Continue reading >>
Presence And Risk Factors For Glaucoma In Patients With Diabetes
Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus represents a significant public health issue which has become increasingly prevalent due to changes and trends in diet, lifestyle, and consequently, the rate of obesity . Since 1980, the worldwide prevalence of diabetes has nearly quadrupled to an estimated 422 million affected persons in 2014 . As a result, global health care expenditures for diabetes are expected to total as much as 490 billion United States dollars by the year 2030, comprising an estimated 12% of total health care costs . The burden of diabetes on the health care system is manifest in many different ways. Diabetic patients require more outpatient visits, chronic medications, and are at risk for a number of systemic microvascular complications that result in end organ damage and associated complications: renal disease, cardiovascular disease, amputations, vision loss, and premature death . In particular, vision loss from diabetic retinopathy (DR) represents one of the most devastating complications on quality of life and is the leading cause of blindness in working age and economically active adults [4–7]. An older survey among diabetic patients in the United States reported a prevalence of self-rated visual impairment as high as 24.8% . Current estimates of the prevalence of DR have been estimated as 34.6% among all patients with diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) and as a result, the implications of diabetic eye disease are far-reaching . In addition to retinopathy, diabetes has been associated with a number of other potentially vision-threatening ocular complications including cataract, uveitis, and glaucoma [10–13]. Glaucoma represents the leading cause of worldwide irreversible blindness, as defined by best-corrected central visual acuity Continue reading >>
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Could Drinking Tea Really Be Linked To A Lower Risk Of Glaucoma?
Drinking hot tea could be linked to a lower risk of having an eye condition that can lead to blindness, research has suggested – although experts say the study does not show that the brew offers any protective effect. Glaucoma is an eye condition in which the pressure of fluids inside the eye damages the optic nerve – and can lead to blindness if left undetected. Many are unaware they have the condition, and while the risk of glaucoma increases with age, it can also affect babies and children. About 57.5 million people are thought to have the condition worldwide. Now researchers delving into the question of whether caffeine could affect pressure inside the eye say they have found that drinking hot tea appears to be linked to a lower risk of glaucoma. Writing in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, researchers in the US describe how they analysed data from a 2005-2006 nationwide health and nutrition survey, looking at the results of eye examinations from 1,678 participants aged 40 or over. They also analysed the participants’ responses to a questionnaire about how often they had drunk coffee, hot tea, soft drinks or iced tea in the past year, and whether those drinks were caffeinated or decaffeinated. In total, 84 participants were found to have glaucoma, with diabetes more common and smoking less common for those with the condition than the participants taken as a whole. There was no link between drinking coffee, soft drinks or iced tea and having glaucoma, whether the drinks were decaffeinated or not, nor between glaucoma and decaffeinated hot tea. But, the team noted, there did appear to be a link to hot tea in general, with those consuming more than six cups of the brew a week less likely to have the condition even when factors such as age, body mass index, sm Continue reading >>
Coding Diabetes Mellitus With Associated Conditions
Overseen by AHIMA’s coding experts for the Journal of AHIMA website, the Code Cracker blog takes a look at challenging areas and documentation opportunities for coding and reimbursement. Check in each month for a new discussion. There has been some confusion among coding professionals regarding interpretation of the coding guideline of “with.” An area that contains many instances of using this guideline in ICD-10-CM is coding Diabetes Mellitus with associated conditions. There are 53 instances of “with” subterm conditions listed under the main term Diabetes. The ICD-10-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting states the following at Section I.A.15: The word “with” should be interpreted to mean “associated with” or “due to” when it appears in a code title, the Alphabetic Index, or an instructional note in the Tabular List. The word “with” in the Alphabetic Index is sequenced immediately following the main term, not in alphabetical order. There was a recent clarification regarding this guideline published in the first quarter 2016 issue of AHA Coding Clinic on page 11. According to this clarification, the subterm “with” in the Index should be interrupted as a link between diabetes and any of those conditions indented under the word “with.” Following this guidance as we look to the main term Diabetes in the ICD-10-CM Codebook Index, any of the conditions under the subterm “with” such as gangrene, neuropathy, or amyotrophy (see below for the full list) can be coded without the physician stating that these conditions are linked. The classification assumes a cause-and-effect relationship between diabetes and certain diseases of the kidneys, nerves, and circulatory system. The following are all the subterms under “with” under th Continue reading >>
Glaucoma And Diabetes: Can Diabetes Affect Your Eyes?
People with diabetes are twice as likely to be at risk of having glaucoma compared to people without diabetes. We will first look at how the eye works, what glaucoma is, followed by the relationship between glaucoma and diabetes. Clara’s story Clara’s eyes were feeling tired all of the time. She was attributing the tiredness to her Type 2 diabetes, but she wasn’t too sure about it. That’s why she contacted TheDiabetesCouncil to raise her concerns about the increasing pressure in her eyes. Her left eye had suddenly become red, and she was experiencing sharp pain in her eyes. She had somewhat of a headache, too. After hearing about Clara’s symptoms, she was advised to see her eye doctor for an examination, as glaucoma was suspected. Clara got in touch with us to report that she had been to her ophthalmologist, and she had been diagnosed with the most common type of glaucoma, open-angle glaucoma. She was using some drops in both eyes, and she relayed that she was feeling better, and that the pain in her eye and other symptoms have subsided. To help others in Clara’s situation, we have written this comprehensive guide about glaucoma and diabetes. How does the eye work? If you want to understand eye diseases, specifically glaucoma, it’s important to understand how the eye operates. It’s an incredible, wonderful organ! Without our eyes, we could not see the world around us. The eye is a spherically shaped organ that has a tough outer surface. The covering in the front of the eye is curvy. This covering is called the cornea. The cornea is responsible for focusing light. It also serves to protect the eye. Light makes its way through the eye by way of the anterior chamber. In this chamber, there is fluid called aqueous humor that the light travels through. Light Continue reading >>
What Is Glaucoma? Is There A Relation With Cancer?
Glaucoma is an eye disease that damages the optic nerve leading to progressive, and irreversible vision loss.It is important to note that it is NOT related to cancer and is most often caused by a buildup of pressure inside the eye. It is often called the “silent thief of sight” because the loss of vision occurs gradually, over a long period of time, and symptoms only occur when the disease is quite advanced. It is the second leading cause of blindness after cataracts. Glaucoma usually occurs when pressure in the eye increases. There is a small space in the front of the eye called the “anterior chamber”. Liquid flows in and out of this chamber and it nourishes and bathes nearby tissues. With glaucoma, this fluid drains too slowly out of the eye, and due to the fluid buildup, pressure inside the eye rises. This increase in pressure, called, intraocular pressure, damages the optic nerve and unless pressure is reduced, the optic nerve and other parts of the eye can be irremediably damaged. When a significant number of nerve fibers are damaged, blind spots start developing in the field of vision. Once that happens,, the damage becomes permanent. Types of glaucoma: Glaucoma can be divided into two main categories: “open angle” and “closed angle” glaucoma. The “angle” here refers to the angle where the iris meets the cornea. Normally, the angle is wide and open allowing the fluid to drain, thereby relieving internal pressure. When the angle is narrowed or closed, fluid doesn’t flow as quickly as it should, and as a consequence causes pressure buildup. “Open angle” glaucoma is painless and often occurs over a period of time. Due to the gradual development of this type of glaucoma, symptoms often go unnoticed. “Closed angle” glaucoma can occur sudde Continue reading >>
Smoking Can Lead To Vision Loss Or Blindness
"Smoking Can Lead to Vision Loss or Blindness" is also available as a printable PDF (PDF, 128KB, 2pg.). Eye Disease and Smoking: Smoking has long been known to cause heart disease and lung cancer; however many people don't realize that smoking can lead to vision loss. Studies show smoking increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy and Dry Eye Syndrome. Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) One way to reduce the risk of developing AMD is by NOT smoking. Smokers are three to four times more likely to develop AMD than nonsmokers. Nonsmokers living with smokers almost double their risk of developing AMD. Cataract Heavy smokers (15 cigarettes/day or more) have up to three times the risk of cataract as nonsmokers. Glaucoma There is a strong link between smoking and high blood pressure, cataracts and diabetes all of which are risk factors for glaucoma. Diabetic Retinopathy Smoking can increase your chances of getting diabetes. It can also make managing diabetes more difficult for those who already have it. Complications of diabetes made worse by smoking include retinopathy, heart disease, stroke, vascular disease, kidney disease, nerve damage, foot problems and many others. Dry Eye Syndrome Dry Eye Syndrome is more than twice as likely to impact smokers as non-smokers. What You Can Do to Prevent Vision Loss: Healthy habits can lead to healthy eyes. The risk of eye disease and vision loss can be lowered if you:: Quit smoking! Eat healthy foods (including green leafy vegetables, fruits and foods high in vitamins C, E, and beta carotene). Control blood pressure and cholesterol. Stay active. Visit your eye care professional regularly. Are You Ready to Quit? To get started, visit the How to Quit page on the NYS Smokers' Qui Continue reading >>
Examining The Relationship Between Diabetes And The Eyes
0 Image via Pixabay Eye Disorders and Eye Complications Associated with Diabetes Diabetes is a disease that occurs when a person’s blood glucose levels are too high. When the body does not produce enough insulin, or it does not use insulin particularly well, it remains in the blood and does not reach any cells. Over time, people with diabetes who have too much glucose in their blood can be subject to various health problems because of it. The eyes are commonly affected in people with diabetes, causing various eye disorders. Diabetes’ Role with Glaucoma It may not be caused by diabetes specifically, but people who suffer from diabetes are 40 percent more likely to develop glaucoma. In fact, the longer someone has diabetes, the more they are likely to develop this painful eye condition. Glaucoma happens when there is too great of a pressure built up in the eye, which leads to a slower drainage of the aqueous humor, and a buildup in the anterior chamber. This pressure pinches the blood vessels in the eye, and vision becomes gradually diminished over time. Diabetes and Cataracts A cataract is defined by the clouding of a usually clear eye lens, and often makes it difficult for men and women to see clearly. Cataracts can develop for a multitude of reasons, including a patient’s age, or a former injury. While many people with cataracts do not have diabetes, those who do have diabetes are more prone to developing them. This is because cataracts can form from the diabetes, which affects the tissues in the eye that makes up the eye’s lens. People with diabetes tend to develop cataracts at a younger age, and cataracts typically progress faster than they normally would in patients with diabetes. Diabetic Macular Edema Diabetic macular edema is typically associated with tho Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Your Eyesight
Diabetes is a complex disease resulting from the inability of the body to produce insulin, a hormone that takes sugar out of the blood and into cells where it can be used for energy. Without enough insulin, there is too much sugar in your blood. It’s like having a car full of gas but no key; you have the fuel you need, but can’t start using it. Diabetes affects more than 29 million Americans. The most common form of diabetes is adult-onset diabetes. Adult-onset diabetes typically strikes those who are over 40, overweight and have a sedentary lifestyle. Other risk factors include those with a family history of diabetes and those belonging to certain ethnic groups. Persons of African, Native American, Japanese, Latino or Polynesian descent are more at risk. Diabetic Eye Disease A common complication of diabetes is diabetic eye disease. Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of sight-threatening eye problems that people with diabetes may develop. Glaucoma is one of these diseases. Diabetic eye disease also includes diabetic retinopathy and cataracts. Diabetic retinopathy, a disease which damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina (the light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye) is the most common diabetic eye disease. Diabetic retinopathy affects nearly 7.7 million Americans age 40 and older. A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s lens that results in blurring of normal vision. People with diabetes are nearly twice as likely to develop cataracts as other adults. Cataracts also tend to develop at an earlier age. Diabetes and Glaucoma The relationship between diabetes and open-angle glaucoma (the most common type of glaucoma), has intrigued researchers for years. People with diabetes are twice as likely to develop glaucoma as are non-diabetics, although som Continue reading >>
Does Diabetes Cause Glaucoma?
Diabetes affects more than 29 million Americans today. The most common type of diabetes is type II diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes, which typically affects adults who are over 40, overweight and have an inactive lifestyle. These three precursors can increase the risk of developing other diseases such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and heart disease. A significant percentage of diabetics also develop glaucoma, a seemingly unrelated disease. There is no doubt that a connection exists between diabetes and glaucoma, but does diabetes cause glaucoma? This is a difficult question to which doctors and researchers are still seeking answers. While we may not be able to prove that diabetes causes glaucoma, there are some interesting statistics that link these diseases: Diabetics are twice as likely to develop glaucoma as non-diabetics Someone with open-angle glaucoma (the most common type of glaucoma) is more likely to develop diabetes than someone who does not have open-angle glaucoma In some diabetics, new blood vessels grow on the iris and block the flow of eye fluid which raises inner eye pressure. This is known as neovascular glaucoma. These statistics certainly support the assertion that diabetes and glaucoma are strongly connected. Other eye diseases have a similar link to diabetes, such as cataracts and diabetic retinopathy. These conditions, along with glaucoma, are collectively referred to as diabetic eye disease. This is a general term for a group of vision problems that diabetics may develop (Source: Glaucoma Research Foundation). It may be too early to conclude that diabetes causes glaucoma, but it is clear that these diseases are not independent of one another. Therefore, preventing one of these diseases may be a key factor in preventing the development of sev Continue reading >>
Original Article Prospective Study Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Risk Of Primary Open-angle Glaucoma In Women
To study the relation between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and incident primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in women. Seventy-six thousand three hundred eighteen women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Women enrolled in the NHS from 1980 to 2000 were observed. Eligible participants were at least 40 years old, did not have POAG at baseline, and reported receiving eye examinations during follow-up. Potential confounders were assessed on biennial questionnaires, and a diagnosis of T2DM was confirmed on a validated supplemental questionnaire. During follow-up, 429 self-reported POAG cases confirmed by medical chart review were identified. Multivariable rate ratios (RRs) of POAG and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) obtained from proportional hazards models. Results After controlling for age, race, hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking, and family history of glaucoma, T2DM was positively associated with POAG (RR = 1.82 [95% CI = 1.23–2.70]). Nonetheless, the association did not strengthen with longer duration of diabetes: RR = 2.24 (95% CI = 1.31–3.84) for duration < 5 years versus RR = 1.54 (95% CI = 0.90–2.62) for duration ≥ 5 years). In secondary analyses, to evaluate the potential for detection bias we controlled for additional factors such as the number of eye examinations, but T2DM remained positively associated with POAG. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of POAG in women. Continue reading >>
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Want To Know Unique Steps To Truly Treat Glaucoma Naturally?
Audience This article is for glaucoma diabetes patients who want to find solutions to improve both diseases. Both conditions have the same root causes. Best start: discover your true root causes for both diseases with our proprietary analysis. You'll get a free, personal, custom plan to improve glaucoma and diabetes naturally in your circumstances, click here If you just want generic information about glaucoma and diabetes in general, read this article. Glaucoma and diabetes are joined at the hip. Very few diseases have a closer relationship than these two. But why is that? And why is it that glaucoma and diabetes increased dramatically over the past 30 years? What happened in society to make this happen? The insulin problem of diabetes gives it away. Insulin is a hormone. So both diseases come down to hormonal imbalances. Yet, there is more to it than meets the eye. The thing is that eye drops, medication, and glaucoma surgery can't fix the problem. These can relieve some eye pressure, but won't remove the root causes. So you must understand hormonal health to beat both, glaucoma and diabetes. Can Diabetes Cause Glaucoma? Yes. Glaucoma is eye disease that affects people with diabetes. Research directly links a type of glaucoma to diabetes. That's neovascular glaucoma. It's rare. But there is a direct correlation. Glaucoma has a lot to do with hormones. Hormonal imbalances are the cause of glaucoma. Diabetes is ultimately a problem of hormones. Research also indicates a link between open-angle glaucoma and both types of diabetes. That's a very common type of glaucoma. So that doesn't mean you have diabetes when you have open-angle glaucoma. But if you have diabetes, you have to monitor your eyesight regularly. So when you get diabetes, it's time to prevent glaucoma. It' Continue reading >>
Eating Too Much Sugar? Why Your Vision Suffers
Halloween brings the feeling of fall across the country, with kids dressing up in their best costumes and trick-or-treating among neighbors. Often, they bring back a lot of candy - some of which they inhale immediately, and some of which parents sneak away to hide (or to eat!) But what happens when you overload sugar? A bounty of problems! Diabetes: According to the American Diabetes Association, it's a myth that eating too much sugar can cause diabetes, but research has shown links between sugar andtype 2 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association recommends avoiding excess sugar regardless, in an attempt to regulate blood glucose. Nearly 30 million Americans have diabetes and 8.1 million cases are undiagnosed. Diabetes makes it difficult for your body to produce or use the hormone insulin. Consuming too much sugar causes your body to produce insulin to help your body use and remove this sugar (glucose) from your blood. Otherwise, the sugar builds up in your blood, causing a host of ailments, including vision problems, such as Diabetic retinopathy. Retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of eye damage of people with diabetes. The retina is a group of cells in the back of the eye that transmits visual information from the optic nerve to the brain for processing. In individuals with diabetic retinopathy, elevated and uncontrolled blood sugar levels cause irreversible damages to the delicate blood vessels in the retina, causing visual impairment or blindness, says the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Cataracts: The lens within your eye allows your eye to focus light and images on your retina and transmits them to your brain. Cataracts cause a clouding of the usually clear lens, making it difficult for your eyes to focus light, resulting in blurred or Continue reading >>