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Is The Incidence Of Diabetes Increasing?

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes increased worldwide in the closing decades of the 20th century, but the origins of this increase are poorly documented. A search through the early literature revealed a number of useful but neglected sources, particularly in Scandinavia. While these do not meet the exacting standards of more recent surveys, tentative conclusions can be drawn concerning long-term changes in the demography of the disease. Childhood type 1 diabetes was rare but well recognized before the introduction of insulin. Low incidence and prevalence rates were recorded in several countries over the period 1920–1950, and one carefully performed study showed no change in childhood incidence over the period 1925–1955. An almost simultaneous upturn was documented in several countries around the mid-century. The overall pattern since then is one of linear increase, with evidence of a plateau in some high-incidence populations and of a catch-up phenomenon in some low-incidence areas. Steep rises in the age-group under 5 years have been recorded recently. The disease process underlying type 1 diabetes has changed over time and continues to evolve. Understanding why and how this produced the pandemic of childhood diabetes would be an important step toward reversing it. At the start of the 20th century, childhood diabetes was rare and rapidly fatal. By its end, some 3–4 children per 1,000 in Western countries would require insulin treatment by the age of 20 years, and a steady rise in incidence had been reported from many other parts of the world. This increase has been extensively documented over the past two decades, over which time standard means of data collection have been agreed, central registries have been established, and numerous epidemiological stu Continue reading >>

Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes - New Cases For Every 100,000 Per Year By Age Groups 0-4, 5-9,10-14,15-19 (1992)

Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes - New Cases For Every 100,000 Per Year By Age Groups 0-4, 5-9,10-14,15-19 (1992)

MSc in Diabetes A population approach Postgraduate Medical School University of Surrey Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes UniS Type 1 Diabetes An auto immune disorder characterised by islet cell destruction Used to equate to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) Diagnosis? Insulin dependent diabetes associated with auto antibodies e.g Islet Cell Antibodies (ICA) Insulin Autoantibodies (IAA) and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies (GADA) - 90% of white children with newly diagnosed diabetes have auto antibodies Some apparent type 1 diabetics have no demonstrable auto antibodies - 10% Epidemiological definition is IDDM developing in people before age of 35 years Atkinson MA, Eisenbarth GS. Lancet 2001; 358: 221-9 Prevalence of Type 1 diabetes per 1000 Type 1 in older patients A study Danish adults over the age of 30 has found an incidence rate of type 1 diabetes of 8.2 cases/100,000/year. This rate is lower than that found in Danish children (21.5 cases/100,000/year) Assuming that all type 1 diabetes is incident in children might lead to an underestimation the incidence of type 1 diabetes in the population as a whole. Molbak AG. Incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in age groups over 30 years in Denmark. Diabet.Med. 1994; 11: 650-655. Gender With the exception of one study from America, no difference in incidence of type 1 diabetes in children has been observed between males and females. The American study suggested a male excess Allen C et al. Incidence and differences in urban-rural seasonal variation of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes in Wisconsin. Diabetologia 1986; 29: 629-633. Gender No sex-specific significant difference is apparent in the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in children, In adults appears more prevalent in men, with a prevalence of 0 Continue reading >>

“incidence Of Diabetes Is Increasing ”

“incidence Of Diabetes Is Increasing ”

Recent studies by International Diabetes Federation indicate that India stands second in the list of the countries (after China, and before United States) with the most number of diabetics. According to IDF, there are 65.1 million people suffering from diabetes in India (China 98.4 million and US 24.4 million); that it affects at least 10 per cent of Tamil Nadu’s adults makes it even more imperative to create awareness of preventing or at least effectively managing this non-communicable disease, say medical professionals in Tiruchi. “The incidence of diabetes in the city is increasing day by day, and around 50 to 70 new patients are diagnosed as diabetics,” Sundararaj, consultant physician and diabetologist, Dr. G. Viswanathan Multispeciality Hospital, told The Hindu . It was advisable for people to voluntarily check their blood glucose levels after crossing the age of 40, Dr. Sundararaj said, as family history of the disease plays a crucial role in its incidence. “Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are among the risk factors that can be focused on to prevent diabetes,” M. Senthilvel, secretary, Diabetes Club of Tiruchi and physician and diabetologist, M.S.Hospital said. As part of World Diabetes Day (November 14) activities, the club organised a ‘walkathon’ on Sunday for Tiruchi residents above the age of 30 years to create awareness of the need to take up a regular fitness routine and lead a more healthful life. “Walking is perhaps the simplest and the most effective way to maintain one’s health, and for diabetics to manage the chronic disease,” said Dr. Senthilvel. “It doesn’t require any training or special equipment, which means it can be done without a break.” For first-timers, especially those who may have other chronic ailments, Dr. Sent Continue reading >>

Climate Change May Be Upping Your Risk Of Diabetes

Climate Change May Be Upping Your Risk Of Diabetes

Global warming, already linked to countless human health problems, may be increasing the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, including 100,000 or more new annual cases in the United States alone, according to a new study published in the journal BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care. The worrisome finding comes at a time when the world is living through the hottest years on record, and the incidence of diabetes has reached epidemic levels. Worldwide, the number of people with diabetes has roughly quadrupled since 1980. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes, and another 86 million have pre-diabetes, putting them at risk for developing the disease. People with diabetes either don’t make enough insulin (Type 1) or can’t use insulin properly (Type 2), resulting in a buildup of blood sugar. High blood sugar can lead to heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, and amputation of toes, feet, or legs. To be sure, heat exacerbates many chronic health conditions, including diabetes. “Hot weather can be more difficult for people with diabetes,” says Mona Sarfaty, director of the Consortium on Climate Change and Health, who was not involved in the study. “The heat keeps people from being active, which means they expend less calories, which can lead to more weight gain,” a major risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes, she said. “Also, people with diabetes often have kidney problems. Dehydration — which comes with heat — can worsen kidney problems when people are dehydrated.” The development of Type 2 diabetes has long been linked to the growing problem of obesity, since the accumulation of fat makes body tissues less responsive to insulin. But the study names another potentially important mechanism in the onset of diabetes: the harmful impact that highe Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Key facts The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (1). The global prevalence of diabetes* among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 (1). Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. In 2015, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. Another 2.2 million deaths were attributable to high blood glucose in 2012**. Almost half of all deaths attributable to high blood glucose occur before the age of 70 years. WHO projects that diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in 2030 (1). Healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and treatment for complications. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes. In 2015, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths and in 2012 high blood glucose was the cause of another 2.2 million deaths. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is charact Continue reading >>

Diabetes Prevalence In Ireland

Diabetes Prevalence In Ireland

There are two types of diabetes, Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. The differences and similarities between the two conditions are outlined here. In the absence of a register of people who have diabetes no-one can be entirely sure how many people in Ireland live with diabetes. Overview The total number of people living with diabetes in Ireland is estimated to be 225,840. The International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas (2013) estimate that there are 207,490 people with diabetes in Ireland in the 20 – 79 age group (prevalence of 6.5% in the population) which is in line with previous estimates that by 2020 there would be 233,000 people with the condition, and by 2030 there would be 278,850 people with the condition. Type 1 Diabetes The prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes, an auto-immune condition, is on the rise and is typically diagnosed in childhood. People with type 1 diabetes account for approximately 14,000 – 16,000 of the total diabetes population in Ireland i.e. 10-15% of the population of people living with diabetes. It is estimated there are 2,750 people under 16 years of age living with Type 1 diabetes (based on the Irish Paediatric Diabetes Audit 2012) results and other young adults under 20 years attending transition clinics). Type 2 Diabetes According to the Healthy Ireland survey, 854,165 adults over 40 in the Republic of Ireland are at increased risk of developing (or have) Type 2 diabetes. More alarmingly, there are a further 304,382 in the 30 – 39 year age group that are overweight and not taking the weekly 150 minutes recommended physical activity, leaving them at an increased risk of chronic ill-health. This means that there are 1,158,547 adults in Ireland that need to consider making changes to their daily behaviours in terms of eating healthily Continue reading >>

Diabetes Emerges As Japan’s Hidden Scourge

Diabetes Emerges As Japan’s Hidden Scourge

Reading a review of British writer Bee Wilson’s “First Bite: How We Learn to Eat” in the London Review of Books, I stumbled on an astonishing figure: 4 million people in the U.K. have diabetes. An unhealthy diet and increasingly sedentary lifestyle have taken their toll, causing a 65 percent surge in cases in the past decade alone. Treating this epidemic is costing the National Health Service an estimated £1 million (roughly ¥155 million) an hour. Obesity is the main culprit, and one major dietary factor is the high-sugar content in many processed foods. It was astounding to learn that tomato ketchup (22.8 percent) has a higher sugar content than Coca-Cola (10.6 percent), and that we consume far more glucose-fructose syrup and other sugary ingredients than most people are probably aware of. Globalization in eating habits has spread a craving for what dieticians call “SFS”: sugar, fat, salt. Sweet-salty food with an undercurrent of fat is a global crowd-pleaser and the mainstay at fast-food restaurants, but is not good for our health. Coffee itself isn’t bad for you, but all those flavored lattes are oozing sugar and calories. Given the longevity enjoyed by Japanese, often attributed to their healthy diet, I never really thought about the incidence of diabetes here. America, after all, is the homeland of spandex for a good reason, but obesity in Japan seems relatively rare. Yet as of 2015, Japan has 7.2 million people diagnosed with diabetes. The average cost per patient is more than ¥400,000 a year, mostly covered by national health insurance. About 7.6 percent of adults between the ages of 20 and 79 are diabetic and it is estimated that Japan may have more than 3 million undiagnosed cases. Part of the reason for the sharp increase of diabetes in Japan is Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Australia

Diabetes In Australia

Diabetes is the epidemic of the 21st century and the biggest challenge confronting Australia’s health system. 280 Australians develop diabetes every day. That’s one person every five minutes Around 1.7 million Australians have diabetes. This includes all types of diagnosed diabetes (1.2 million known and registered) as well as silent, undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (up to 500,000 estimated) More than 100,000 Australians have developed diabetes in the past year For every person diagnosed with diabetes there is usually a family member or carer who also ‘lives with diabetes’ every day in a support role. This means that an estimated 2.4 million Australians are affected by diabetes every day Total annual cost impact of diabetes in Australia estimated at $14.6 billion Blindness Diabetes is the leading cause of preventable blindness in Australia. (Source) There are currently around 72,000 people in Australia with diabetic retinopathy, with approximately 3 in 5 experiencing poor sight. (Source) Diabetic retinopathy occurs in over 15 per cent of Australians with diabetes. (Source) The total indirect cost of vision loss associated with diabetic macular oedema in Australia is estimated to be $2.07 billion per annum. This is more than $28,000 per person with diabetic macular oedema. (Source) Amputations There are more than 4,400 amputations every year in Australia as a result of diabetes. (Source) In 2005, more than 1000 people with diabetes died as a direct result of foot ulcers and lower limb wounds – around 8% of all diabetes related deaths. (Source) Every year there are 10,000 hospital admissions in Australia for diabetes-related foot ulcers in Australia – many of these end with people having a limb, or part of a limb, amputated. (Source) Experts estimate diabetic foot Continue reading >>

Trends In Diabetes And Obesity In Samoa Over 35 Years, 1978–2013

Trends In Diabetes And Obesity In Samoa Over 35 Years, 1978–2013

Abstract Population surveys of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity conducted in Samoa over three decades have used varying methodologies and definitions. This study standardizes measures, and trends of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity for 1978–2013 are projected to 2020 for adults aged 25–64 years. Unit records from eight surveys (n = 12 516) were adjusted to the previous census for Division of residence, sex and age to improve national representativeness. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l and/or on medication. Obesity is defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Random effects meta-regression was employed to assess time trends following logit transformation. Poisson regression from strata was used to assess the effects of mean BMI changes on Type 2 diabetes mellitus period trends. Results Over 1978–2013, Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence increased from 1.2% to 19.6% in men (2.3% per 5 years), and from 2.2% to 19.5% in women (2.2% per 5 years). Obesity prevalence increased from 27.7% to 53.1% in men (3.6% per 5 years) and from 44.4% to 76.7% (4.5% per 5 years) in women. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity prevalences increased in all age groups. From period trends, Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in 2020 is projected to be 26% in men and women. Projected obesity prevalence is projected to be 59% in men and 81% in women. Type 2 diabetes mellitus period trends attributable to BMI increase are estimated as 31% (men) and 16% (women), after adjusting for age. Conclusion This is the first study to produce trends of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in Samoa based on standardized data from population surveys. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is equally prevalent in both sexes, and obesity is widespread. Type 2 diabetes mellitus prev Continue reading >>

Projection Of Diabetes Burden Through 2050

Projection Of Diabetes Burden Through 2050

Impact of changing demography and disease prevalence in the U.S. Abstract OBJECTIVE—To project the number of people with diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. through 2050, accounting for changing demography and diabetes prevalence rates. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We combined age-, sex-, and race-specific diagnosed diabetes prevalence rates—predicted from 1980–1998 trends in prevalence data from the National Health Interview Survey—with Bureau of Census population demographic projections. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying both prevalence rate and population projections. RESULTS—The number of Americans with diagnosed diabetes is projected to increase 165%, from 11 million in 2000 (prevalence of 4.0%) to 29 million in 2050 (prevalence of 7.2%). The largest percent increase in diagnosed diabetes will be among those aged ≥75 years (+271% in women and +437% in men). The fastest growing ethnic group with diagnosed diabetes is expected to be black males (+363% from 2000–2050), with black females (+217%), white males (+148%), and white females (+107%) following. Of the projected 18 million increase in the number of cases of diabetes in 2050, 37% are due to changes in demographic composition, 27% are due to population growth, and 36% are due to increasing prevalence rates. CONCLUSIONS—If recent trends in diabetes prevalence rates continue linearly over the next 50 years, future changes in the size and demographic characteristics of the U.S. population will lead to dramatic increases in the number of Americans with diagnosed diabetes. In 1998, the number of people in the Unites States with diagnosed diabetes was estimated to be 10.4 million—representing an increase of 2.9 million diagnosed cases since 1980 (1). About half of this increase was attribute Continue reading >>

Increase In The Incidence Of Diabetes And Its Implications

Increase In The Incidence Of Diabetes And Its Implications

This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. Diabetes mellitus is among the most prevalent and morbid chronic diseases, affecting the health of millions of persons worldwide. According to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report for 2015, the prevalence of diabetes rose from approximately 333 million persons in 2005 to approximately 435 million persons in 2015, an increase of 30.6%.1 During the same interval, the annual number of deaths from diabetes rose from 1.2 million to 1.5 million.2 This increase is attributed in the GBD report to population growth and aging, with small decreases in age-specific and cause-specific mortality over the same period. Although the GBD analyses . . . Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Epidemiology Of Diabetes Mellitus

Prevalence (per 1,000 inhabitants) of diabetes worldwide in 2000 - world average was 2.8%. no data ≤ 7.5 7.5–15 15–22.5 22.5–30 30–37.5 37.5–45 45–52.5 52.5–60 60–67.5 67.5–75 75–82.5 ≥ 82.5 Disability-adjusted life year for diabetes mellitus per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 No data <100 100–200 200–300 300–400 400–500 500–600 600–700 700–800 800–900 900–1,000 1,000–1,500 >1,500 Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes mellitus, according to the latest 2016 data from the World Health Organization (WHO).[1] Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly; previous 2013 estimates from the International Diabetes Federation put the number at 381 million people having diabetes.[2] The number is projected to almost double by 2030.[3] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 85-90% of all cases.[4][5] Increases in the overall diabetes prevalence rates largely reflect an increase in risk factors for type 2, notably greater longevity and being overweight or obese.[1] Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, occurring in low- and middle-income countries[1] including in Asia and Africa, where most patients will probably be found by 2030.[3] The increase in incidence in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the Western pattern diet).[1][3] The risk of getting type 2 diabetes has been widely found to be associat Continue reading >>

Prevalence And Incidence Trends For Diagnosed Diabetes Among Adults Aged 20 To 79 Years, United States, 1980-2012

Prevalence And Incidence Trends For Diagnosed Diabetes Among Adults Aged 20 To 79 Years, United States, 1980-2012

Importance Although the prevalence and incidence of diabetes have increased in the United States in recent decades, no studies have systematically examined long-term, national trends in the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes. Objective To examine long-term trends in the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes to determine whether there have been periods of acceleration or deceleration in rates. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed 1980-2012 data for 664 969 adults aged 20 to 79 years from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to estimate incidence and prevalence rates for the overall civilian, noninstitutionalized, US population and by demographic subgroups (age group, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational level). Main Outcomes and Measures The annual percentage change (APC) in rates of the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes (type 1 and type 2 combined). Results The APC for age-adjusted prevalence and incidence of diagnosed diabetes did not change significantly during the 1980s (for prevalence, 0.2% [95% CI, −0.9% to 1.4%], P = .69; for incidence, −0.1% [95% CI, −2.5% to 2.4%], P = .93), but each increased sharply during 1990-2008 (for prevalence, 4.5% [95% CI, 4.1% to 4.9%], P < .001; for incidence, 4.7% [95% CI, 3.8% to 5.6%], P < .001) before leveling off with no significant change during 2008-2012 (for prevalence, 0.6% [95% CI, −1.9% to 3.0%], P = .64; for incidence, −5.4% [95% CI, −11.3% to 0.9%], P = .09). The prevalence per 100 persons was 3.5 (95% CI, 3.2 to 3.9) in 1990, 7.9 (95% CI, 7.4 to 8.3) in 2008, and 8.3 (95% CI, 7.9 to 8.7) in 2012. The incidence per 1000 persons was 3.2 (95% CI, 2.2 to 4.1) in 1990, 8.8 (95% CI, 7.4 to 10.3) in 2008, and 7.1 (95% CI, 6.1 to 8.2) in 2012. Trends in many demograph Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Rising Incidence Of Diabetes Mellitus In Youth In The Usa

Diabetes: Rising Incidence Of Diabetes Mellitus In Youth In The Usa

Diabetes mellitus is one of the largest epidemics the world faces and is now an important public health challenge. The 'SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth' consortium now reports that, between 2002 and 2012, incidence rates of type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus grew among all youth in the USA, more so in ethnic minorities. Additional access options: Already a subscriber? Log in now or Register for online access. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the most frequent subtype of diabetes, is a disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycaemia). It arises from a resistance to and relative deficiency of the pancreatic β-cell hormone insulin. Continue reading >>

The Contribution Of Rising Adiposity To The Increasing Prevalence Of Diabetes In The United States

The Contribution Of Rising Adiposity To The Increasing Prevalence Of Diabetes In The United States

Highlights • The prevalence of diabetes has risen rapidly over the past several decades. • Clinical and biological evidence suggests obesity is causally linked to diabetes. • We used national data to examine the trend in diabetes and its relation to obesity. • The odds of having diabetes rose at a rate of 2.6%/yr between 1988 and 2014. • The rise in obesity over this period accounted for 72% of the increase in diabetes. Abstract We assessed the contribution of increasing adiposity to the rising prevalence of diabetes in the United States over the period 1988–2014. Data from NHANES III (1988–1994) and continuous waves (1999–2014) were pooled for the current study. Diabetes status was assessed using data on Hemoglobin A1c. We estimated a multivariable logistic regression model that predicted the odds of having diabetes as a function of age, sex, racial/ethnic group, educational attainment, and period of observation. At a second stage, we introduced measures of general and abdominal adiposity into the model. Changes in coefficients pertaining to period of observation between the first and second models were interpreted as indicating the extent to which adiposity can account for trends in the prevalence of diabetes. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate how alternative definitions of adiposity and diabetes status would affect results. The predicted prevalence of diabetes rose by 2.59%/yr between 1988 and 2014 after adjusting for changes in population composition. Increasing adiposity explained 72% of the rise in diabetes. Results were consistent for men and women. Rising levels of adiposity explained the large majority of the rise in diabetes prevalence between 1988 and 2014. Fig. 2. Odds ratios associated with survey period in models adjusted a Continue reading >>

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