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Is Hypertension Caused By Diabetes?

Type 2 Diabetes And Hypertension

Type 2 Diabetes And Hypertension

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition that’s often present in people with type 2 diabetes. It’s unknown why there’s such a significant correlation between the two diseases. It’s believed that obesity, a diet high in fat and sodium, and inactivity contribute to both conditions. Hypertension is known as a “silent killer” because it has no obvious symptoms and many people are unaware that they have it. A 2013 survey by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) found that fewer than half of people at risk for heart disease or type 2 diabetes reported discussing biomarkers, including blood pressure, with their care providers. If you have hypertension, it means that your blood is pumping through your heart and blood vessels with too much force. Over time, consistently high blood pressure tires the heart muscle and can enlarge it. In 2008, 67 percent of adults aged 20 and over with self-reported diabetes had blood pressure rates of greater than 140/90. In the general population and in people with diabetes, a blood pressure reading of less than or equal to 140/90 is considered normal. What does this mean? The first number (140) is called the systolic pressure. It indicates the highest pressure exerted as blood pushes through your heart. The second number (90) is called the diastolic pressure. This is the pressure maintained by the arteries when the vessels are relaxed between heartbeats. Healthy people should get their blood pressure checked several times a year. People with diabetes need to be even more vigilant. If you have diabetes, you should have your pressure checked at least four times each year. If you have diabetes and high blood pressure, the ADA recommends that you self-monitor at home, record the readings, and share them with your doctor. Ac Continue reading >>

Hypertension And Diabetes

Hypertension And Diabetes

This activity is intended for internists, family physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, medical students, and cardiologists. The goal of this activity is to understand the association between hypertension and race and the implications for treatment. Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to: Describe the most recent data from the national surveys (NHANES) on hypertension prevalence, treatment and control, recognizing the impact of racial differences. Apply data from new clinical trials in hypertension to clinical practice. Construct management plans that adhere to the new clinical guidelines (JNC7, ISHIB, etc) on hypertension management. Recognize the importance of hypertension, especially systolic, as a cardiovascular risk factor. Treat hypertension patients with comorbid diabetes to goal using mono- and combination therapy. As an organization accredited by the ACCME, Medscape requires everyone who is in a position to control the content of an education activity to disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. The ACCME defines "relevant financial relationships" as "financial relationships in any amount, occurring within the past 12 months, that create a conflict of interest." Medscape encourages Authors to identify investigational products or off-label uses of products regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, at first mention and where appropriate in the content. Disclosure: Melissa E. Clarke, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Medscape designates this educational activity for a maximum of 0.75 Category 1 credit Continue reading >>

6 Best Tips To Lower Blood Pressure When You Have Diabetes

6 Best Tips To Lower Blood Pressure When You Have Diabetes

If you have diabetes , youve probably already startedcounting carbs and exercising more to keep your blood sugar stable. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy But you may be neglecting another, often silent problem that can go hand-in-hand with diabetes: high blood pressure. Also known as hypertension , the condition occurs in as many as two-thirds of people with diabetes. If you have both conditions and either is out of control, your risk of blood vessel damage increases, heightening the likelihood of complications like heart attack, stroke or kidney failure. If both conditions are unmanaged, the risk is even greater. Here are sixsuggestions to help keep your blood pressure in check. RELATED: Have Diabetes? Why You Need to Know Your Blood Pressure Numbers Exercise is an important part of any healthy lifestyle. It strengthens the heart and makes it pump more efficiently, so it is particularly critical if you have hypertension. To improve cardiovascular health and maintain your weight, try to get 150 minutes each week of aerobic activity. You want to spread this over at least three days, with no more than two consecutive days without exercise. This can include walking, cycling and swimming. If you find yourself struggling to figure out which foods in the grocery aisles have too much sodium, heres a good tip to follow: Food in its natural state is best. Skip over processed foods and opt for fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and lean meats. RELATED: 3 Natural Ways to Control Your High Blood Pressure If you are planning to start a low-sodium diet (no more than 1,500 mg per day), the first step is to get rid of the salt shaker. I Continue reading >>

Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus

Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus

Login or register to view PDF. Order reprints There has been an increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the past 40 years, both in the US and worldwide. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes in 2000 was approximately 2.8% and is estimated to grow to 4.4% by 2030. This translates to a projected rise of diabetes from 171 million in 2000 to well over 350 million in 2030. 1 The epidemic of diabetes will continue to rise as there is growing prevalence of obesity in children, which predisposes to diabetes.2 There is considerable evidence for an increased prevalence of hypertension in diabetic persons.3 In a large prospective cohort study that included 12,550 adults, the development of type 2 diabetes was almost 2.5 times as likely in persons with hypertension than in their normotensive counterparts.3,4 Similarly, evidence points to increased prevalence of hypertension in diabetic persons.3,5 Moreover, each pathophysiological disease entity serves to exacerbate the other.3,6 Both hypertension and diabetes predisposes to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal disease.7,8 Subjects with diabetes are at about 60% increased risk of early mortality.8,9 The age-adjusted relative risk of death due to cardiovascular events in persons with type 2 diabetes is three-fold higher than in the general population. The presence of hypertension in diabetic patients substantially increases the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, nephropathy and retinopathy.5,10,11 Indeed, when hypertension coexists with diabetes, the risk of CVD is increased by 75%, which further contributes to the overall morbidity and mortality of an already high-risk population.5,12 Generally, hypertension in type 2 diabetic persons clusters with other CVD risk factors such as microalbuminur Continue reading >>

Mechanisms Of Hypertension In Diabetes.

Mechanisms Of Hypertension In Diabetes.

Abstract Hypertension in insulin resistance states is generally attributed to hyperinsulinemia, with resulting increases in renal sodium retention and/or sympathetic nervous system activity. However, recent data from our laboratory suggest that cellular insulin resistance, rather than hyperinsulinemia per se, may lead to hypertension. The basic tenet proposed in this review is that the common mechanism involved in the development of hypertension in both type I and type II diabetes mellitus is a deficiency of insulin at the cellular level. Recent observations suggest that impaired cellular response to insulin predisposes to increased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tone (the hallmark of hypertension in the diabetic state). For example, recently reported studies from our laboratory demonstrate that insulin in physiological doses attenuates the vascular contractile response to phenylephrine, serotonin, and potassium chloride. Thus, insulin appears to normally modulate (attenuate) VSM contractile responses to vasoactive factors, and insulin resistance should accordingly be associated with enhanced vascular reactivity. Abnormal VSM cell calcium [Ca2+]i homeostasis may be the nexus between insulin resistance and increased VSM tone. The genetically obese, hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant Zucker rat demonstrates increased vascular reactivity, reduced membrane Ca2(+)-ATPase activity, increased cellular Ca2+ levels, and a marked impairment in vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ efflux compared to lean controls. Insulin stimulates membrane Ca-ATPase, blocks Ca2+ currents, and Ca2(+)-driven action potentials. Thus, an insulin-resistant state as exists in the Zucker rat may be associated with increased Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels and/or decreased producti Continue reading >>

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

If you have diabetes you should aim to keep your blood pressure well controlled. Having high blood pressure (hypertension) is one of several risk factors that can increase your chance of developing heart disease, a stroke and some other complications. Treatment includes a change in lifestyle risk factors where these can be improved. Many people with diabetes need to take medication to lower their blood pressure. How common is high blood pressure in people with diabetes? In the UK, about half of all people aged over 65, and about 1 in 4 of all middle-aged adults, have high blood pressure (hypertension). It is less common in younger adults. High blood pressure is more common in people with diabetes. Around 3 in 10 people with type 1 diabetes and around 8 in 10 people with type 2 diabetes develop high blood pressure at some stage. People with diabetes are more at risk of developing high blood pressure if they: Are of African-Caribbean origin. Are from the Indian sub-continent. Have a family history of high blood pressure. Have certain lifestyle factors - for example, those who: Are overweight. Eat a lot of salt. Do not eat much fruit and vegetables. Do not take much exercise. Drink a lot of alcohol. What is high blood pressure? This is not as simple to answer as it may seem. In general, the higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk to health. Depending on various factors, the level at which blood pressure is said to be high (hypertension) can vary from person to person. The cut-off point for blood pressure that is said to be high is 140/80 mm Hg or above for people with diabetes and 130/80 mm Hg for those with diabetes and complications (for example, kidney disease). These are lower than the cut-off point for people who do not have diabetes. Note: high blood pressure Continue reading >>

How Does Diabetes Cause Hypertension? The Importance Of Managing Blood Pressure

How Does Diabetes Cause Hypertension? The Importance Of Managing Blood Pressure

Every day the prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase. It is projected that between the years 2000 to 2030, the number of people with diabetes will more than double. Similarly, the number of adults with hypertension is predicted to increase by nearly 60 percent. Hypertension is a very common condition in diabetics, but how does diabetes cause hypertension, and what can you do to help prevent or manage it? Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is generally considered blood pressure that's higher than 140/90 mmHg. A normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHG for people without diabetes, and 130/80 mmHG for diabetics. There are often no symptoms of hypertension - thus it's important to get your blood pressure checked regularly, or purchase a home monitoring kit so that you can test it yourself at your convenience. Continued high blood pressure puts you at higher risk for additional complications including heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Being both diabetic and hypertensive can put you at even greater risk. Hypertension occurs because of a narrowing in the arteries. In diabetics, this can be caused by continued and consistently high blood glucose levels (a good reason to keep blood sugar levels under control). When the blood flow is restricted, the blood pressure increases. Diabetics can reduce their risk of developing hypertension -- and thus, additional complications due to hypertension -- by eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a healthy body weight, and regularly monitoring their blood glucose levels and keeping them under control. Get your blood pressure checked regularly. Early treatment can help to get your blood pressure down to healthy levels. The information on this website is based on our own research and personal experien Continue reading >>

Secondary Hypertension

Secondary Hypertension

Print Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system. Secondary hypertension can also occur during pregnancy. Secondary hypertension differs from the usual type of high blood pressure (primary hypertension or essential hypertension), which is often referred to simply as high blood pressure. Primary hypertension has no clear cause and is thought to be linked to genetics, poor diet, lack of exercise and obesity. Proper treatment of secondary hypertension can often control both the underlying condition and the high blood pressure, which reduces the risk of serious complications — including heart disease, kidney failure and stroke. Symptoms Like primary hypertension, secondary hypertension usually has no specific signs or symptoms, even if your blood pressure has reached dangerously high levels. If you've been diagnosed with high blood pressure, having any of these signs may mean your condition is secondary hypertension: High blood pressure that doesn't respond to blood pressure medications (resistant hypertension) Very high blood pressure — systolic blood pressure over 180 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or diastolic blood pressure over 120 mm Hg A blood pressure medication or medications that previously controlled your blood pressure no longer work Sudden-onset high blood pressure before age 30 or after age 55 No family history of high blood pressure No obesity When to see a doctor If you have a condition that can cause secondary hypertension, you may need your blood pressure checked more frequently. Ask your doctor how often to have your blood pressure checked. Causes A numb Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hypertension: What Is The Relationship?

Diabetes And Hypertension: What Is The Relationship?

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, often affects people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association reports that from 2000 to 2012, 71 percent of adults with diabetes had a blood pressure of greater or equal to 140/90 or were taking medications to help normalize blood pressure. What are hypertension and diabetes Many people with diabetes also have hypertension, or high blood pressure. Having these conditions together can make them both worse. What is hypertension? Known the "silent killer," hypertension usually has no signs or symptoms and many people are not aware they have it. High blood pressure increases a person's risk of stroke and heart attack. It often occurs with diabetes. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and can be assessed using a blood pressure monitor. Two numbers will be produced. The first refers to the systolic blood pressure, or the highest level of the blood pressure during a heartbeat. The second, the diastolic blood pressure, points to the lowest level. Any blood pressure reading of less than or equal to 119/79 is considered normal. A reading between 120 and 139 for systolic pressure and between 80 and 89 for diastolic pressure is considered prehypertension. This is a sign of possible hypertension if a person does not take preventive steps. A doctor will diagnose a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or higher as high blood pressure. People can control hypertension with healthy lifestyle habits. These can include exercise and a low-fat, low-sodium diet. If necessary, a person with hypertension may reduce their blood pressure using medication. What is diabetes? Diabetes occurs when blood sugar increases because the body cannot use the glucose properly. This happens when there a problem with insulin Continue reading >>

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

Diabetes is a condition in which the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood is too high because your body cannot use it properly. This happens because your body either cannot use or make a hormone called insulin, which is responsible for turning sugar into food for your body's cells. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1, where your body is unable to produce any insulin Type 2, where your body either does not produce enough insulin, or cannot use it. Symptoms of diabetes The main symptoms of diabetes are: Increased thirst Frequently needing to go to the toilet, especially at night Extreme tiredness Weight loss Blurred vision Genital itching Thrush If diabetes is not controlled, it can cause serious damage to your kidneys, eyes, nervous system, heart and blood vessels. Treatment for diabetes aims to avoid this by keeping blood sugar levels as near to normal as possible. Type 1 diabetes is usually treated by insulin injections, as well as healthy eating and being active. Type 2 diabetes is usually treated by healthy eating and being active alone, but sometimes tablets or insulin injections are also needed. Diabetes and high blood pressure About 25% of people with Type 1 diabetes and 80% of people with Type 2 diabetes have high blood pressure. Having diabetes raises your risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney disease and other health problems. Having high blood pressure also raises this risk. If you have diabetes and high blood pressure together, this raises your risk of health problems even more. If you have diabetes, your doctor will want to be sure that your blood pressure is very well controlled. This means that they will probably want your blood pressure to be below 130 over 80. People with diabetes and high blood pressure are sometimes given the blood pressure Continue reading >>

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

Diabetes And High Blood Pressure

People with diabetes are more likely to also have high blood pressure or hypertension. High blood pressure can increase the risk of diabetes complications such as diabetic eye and kidney problems. Managing blood pressure will be a part of a person's overall diabetes care plan. Diabetes and high blood pressure complications Having diabetes increases your risk of developing high blood pressure and other cardiovascular problems, because diabetes adversely affects the arteries, predisposing them to atherosclerosis - narrowing of the arteries. Atherosclerosis can cause high blood pressure, which if not treated, can lead to further blood vessel damage, and stroke, heart failure, heart attack, and kidney failure. Compared with people with normal blood pressure readings, men and women with hypertension have an increased risk of: Strokes Peripheral vascular disease (narrowing of the arteries in the legs and feet) Heart failure Even high yet normal blood pressure or pre-hypertension (defined as 120-139/ 80-89 millimetres of mercury or mmHg) has an impact on your health. Studies show that people with normal yet high range blood pressure readings, over a 10-year period of follow up time, had a two to three-fold increased risk of heart disease. What should blood pressure be if you have diabetes? Blood pressure readings vary, but in general if someone has diabetes their blood pressure should be less than 130/80 mmHg. The first number is the "systolic pressure" or the pressure in the arteries when your heart beats and fills the arteries with blood. The second number is the "diastolic pressure" or the pressure in the arteries when your heart rests between beats, filling itself with blood for the next contraction. Having normal blood pressure is as important in managing diabetes as havi Continue reading >>

High Blood Pressure 'increases Risk Of Diabetes By 60%'

High Blood Pressure 'increases Risk Of Diabetes By 60%'

High blood pressure 'increases risk of diabetes by 60%' The linkbetween blood pressure and diabetes had previously been uncertain High blood pressure can be prevented by eating healthily and not drinking too much alcohol Having high blood pressure raises your risk of developing diabetes by 60 per cent, a major global study has confirmed. Although a well-known risk factor for heart disease and stroke, the links between high blood pressure and diabetes had been less certain. Now a team of researchers have confirmed the connection following a trawl through more than four million patient records. The study does not show that high blood pressure causes diabetes, but the researchers said that conclusive evidence of the link between the two was a possible game-changer which could lead to better treatment. High blood pressure is often linked to obesity, which is one of the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Professor Kazem Rahimi, deputy director of the George Institute for Global Health, who led the research, said people with diabetes were also more likely to suffer from heart attacks, stroke and heart failure. Confirming this connection reliably provides new hope for those people and new avenues for research, he said. Understanding the link will help us better communicate risks to patients and can provide another motivation for patients and doctors to aim for tight blood pressure control. Diabetes causing 'record high' of 135 amputations a week, charity The study is published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. High blood pressure can be prevented by eating healthily, watching our weight, getting exercise, not drinking too much alcohol and not smoking. Rates of diabetes in the UK have soared by nearly 60 per cent in the past decade, according to the cha Continue reading >>

High Blood Pressure: Does It Lead To Diabetes?

High Blood Pressure: Does It Lead To Diabetes?

"Study gives strongest link yet between blood pressure and diabetes," says The Guardian. At first glance these might be considered two unconnected conditions, but research over the years has led to diabetes being classified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Researchers looked at data on more than 4 million people in the UK who were free of any vascular disease or diabetes. They then analysed these people's medical records for around seven years and recorded new cases of diabetes and changes in blood pressure. People with high blood pressure were found to have around a 50% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The researchers then backed up their findings by looking at previous research and found a risk of more than 70%. While these types of studies can't prove increased blood pressure causes diabetes, they lend weight to the advice to take steps to lower your blood pressure if it's high to reduce your risk of diabetes. Read our advice on how to look after your heart and circulation. Where did the story come from? The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Oxford and was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research. It was published in the peer-reviewed Journal of the American College of Cardiology. This story has been reported widely in the media. Both The Guardian and The Independent have responsibly provided quotes from one of the researchers, who explained the findings tell us a link exists, but we don't know whether high blood pressure is a cause of diabetes or whether it's a risk factor. What kind of research was this? This was a large cohort study and systematic review with meta-analysis to determine whether there is an association between blood pressure and type 2 diabetes. While the cohort study cannot prove cau Continue reading >>

The Pressure Is On

The Pressure Is On

Hypertension and Diabetes If your doctor has told you that you have high blood pressure, or hypertension, you may well have groaned at the thought of more dietary restrictions and/or another pill to take. Or maybe you just tuned him out. After all, you have enough to do with caring for your diabetes, and how serious could high blood pressure be, anyway, since it has no symptoms? In fact, high blood pressure is very serious. But paying attention to it now can save you a lot of grief down the road. Why it matters High blood pressure is one of the most important risk factors for stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure in people with diabetes. While the relationship between high blood pressure and diabetes is not fully understood, it is known that high blood pressure is two times more common in people with diabetes than in the general population. More than half of people with Type 2 diabetes already have high blood pressure at the time of their diabetes diagnosis. In a person with diabetes, high blood pressure accelerates the blood vessel damage caused by high blood glucose. High blood pressure contributes to more than two-thirds of the serious and life-threatening complications of diabetes, including stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. However, numerous studies have shown that treating high blood pressure aggressively substantially reduces the risk of death from stroke and heart attack. For people with diabetes, the goal for blood pressure control is to keep it below 140/90 mm Hg. This target was established on the basis of large-scale studies that showed significant reductions in stroke and heart disease when blood pressure was maintained at this level. However, studies also suggest that blood pressure goals are not being met: Only about half of people with diabete Continue reading >>

Clinical Features And Therapeutic Perspectives On Hypertension In Diabetics

Clinical Features And Therapeutic Perspectives On Hypertension In Diabetics

Clinical features and therapeutic perspectives on hypertension in diabetics Hypertension Researchvolume41,pages213229 (2018) Over 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus, either type 1 or 2, ultimately develop hypertension as a complication. In diabetics, this further increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 2- to 3-fold and accelerates the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Arteriosclerosis, a clinical feature of hypertension in diabetics, develops and advances from a young age. Therefore, in providing treatment, it is necessary to evaluate the degree of arteriosclerosis. Diabetic patients are encouraged to strictly control their blood glucose levels. Recently developed drugs, such as GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors, also have hypotensive actions, making them ideal for use in diabetics with hypertension. SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists reportedly suppress the onset and progression of CVD, as well as diabetic nephropathy. The possibility of hypoglycemia triggering blood pressure elevation and arrhythmia has been noted, so a key point here is not to cause hypoglycemia. In selecting hypotensive agents, we must choose types that do not aggravate insulin resistance and engage in hypotensive treatment that also considers both nocturnal and morning hypertension. In addition, facing the onset of an aging society, there is a growing need for treatments that do not cause excessive blood pressure reduction or hypoglycemia. Favorable lifelong blood pressure and glucose control are increasingly important for the treatment of diabetes accompanied by hypertension. It is well known that over 50% of patients with diabetes, either type 1 or type 2, ultimately develop hypertension in combination. Hypertension as a complicati Continue reading >>

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