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Is Gestational Diabetes Rare?

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Is Rare In Primigravida Pakistani Women.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Is Rare In Primigravida Pakistani Women.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul;15(3):191-3. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.83404. Gestational diabetes mellitus is rare in primigravida Pakistani women. Department of Medicine, Jinnah-Allama Iqbal Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (JAIDE), Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan. Gestational diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Similar to other members of the Asian race, Pakistani women are also considered to be at a high risk for developing gestational diabetes. In order to better understand whether this heightened risk attributed to race really exists, we conducted a prospective study to assess the glycemic status of primigravida women presenting to our hospital. The mean age of 135 subjects enrolled was 22 (16-31), with 21 (16%), 60 (44%), and 54 (40%) subjects in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. The mean fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 69.9 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), 129 mg/dL (7.2 mmol/L), and 103.6 mg/dL (5.76 mmol/L), respectively. Of 135 women, 6 had a blood pressure reading 140/90 mm Hg and only one met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. In our study, despite using the newly proposed International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study (IADPS) cut-offs for diagnosis of gestational diabetes, the incidence rate of gestational diabetes mellitus in primigravida was still <1%. Larger trials are needed to truly assess the disease burden of gestational diabetes mellitus in Pakistani women. Gestational diabetes mellitus; International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups; The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study; hyperglycemia Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Home » About Diabetes » Pregnancy » Gestational Diabetes Gestational Diabetes Gestational diabetes is the type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Like other forms od diabetes, gestational diabetes affects the way the body uses the glucose [sugar] in the blood and as a result the blood sugars rise too high. The glucose in the blood is the body’s main source of energy. If gestational diabetes is untreated or uncontrolled, it can result in a variety of health problems for both that mother and baby. So it is important that a treatment plan is worked out to keep blood sugars within the normal range. The good news is that controlling blood sugars can help to ensure a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. Signs and Symptoms Most women do not have any signs or symptoms of gestational diabetes but your healthcare professional will check for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care. When signs and symptoms do occur they include: Excessive thirst Increased urination. About 3 to 5% of all pregnant women develop gestational diabetes. The Causes of Gestational Diabetes Normal metabolism Normally during digestion the body breaks down the carbohydrates you eat into simple sugars [glucose] and this glucose is absorbed into the blood and transported around the body by the blood vessel system to provide the energy needed for all our activities. This process cannot take place without insulin. Insulin is produced in the pancreas, a gland behind the stomach, and helps the glucose to pass into the cells to provide energy and maintains normal levels of glucose in the blood. The liver also plays a part in maintaining normal blood glucose levels. When there is more glucose in the cells than your body needs for energy, it is removed from the blood and stored it in the liver Continue reading >>

Why Gestational Diabetes Is On The Rise

Why Gestational Diabetes Is On The Rise

Gestational diabetes cases are soaring, and you (as well as your baby) might be at risk without even knowing it. Find out gestational diabetes symptoms and diet. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or high blood sugar during pregnancy, used to be relatively rare, occurring in about 3 percent to 4 percent of pregnancies. But in recent years, the rate has doubled—now, up to 6 percent to 8 percent of moms-to-be are diagnosed with this prenatal complication. And new recommendations lowering the cutoff point for diagnosis may lead to an even more dramatic increase. If these new guidelines from an international panel of 50 experts are adopted in the United States, 16 percent of pregnant women may hear the words, "You have gestational diabetes." In women with GDM, excess glucose (blood sugar) passes from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta. Serious pregnancy complications include preeclampsia (a serious high blood pressure condition that can be fatal), preterm delivery and delivery of overweight babies, often via Cesarean section. Some 70 percent to 80 percent of women diagnosed with GDM in the United States eventually develop type II diabetes. New research is showing that GDM can have long-term consequences for children as well. "Children of women with GDM are at risk for developing type II diabetes themselves," says Danielle Downs, Ph.D., an associate professor of kinesiology and obstetrics and gynecology at Pennsylvania State University who conducts research on gestational diabetes. But even normal-size babies who are born to mothers with untreated GDM are at greater risk of becoming overweight kindergarteners—and, consequently, overweight adults. Although being overweight is a major risk factor for GDM, only about half of women diagnosed with it carry excess Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy and usually disappears after giving birth. It can occur at any stage of pregnancy, but is more common in the second half. It occurs if your body cannot produce enough insulin – a hormone that helps control blood sugar levels – to meet the extra needs in pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can cause problems for you and your baby during and after birth. But the risk of these problems happening can be reduced if it's detected and well managed. Who's at risk of gestational diabetes Any woman can develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, but you're at an increased risk if: your body mass index (BMI) is above 30 – use the healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI you previously had a baby who weighed 4.5kg (10lbs) or more at birth you had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy one of your parents or siblings has diabetes your family origins are south Asian, Chinese, African-Caribbean or Middle Eastern If any of these apply to you, you should be offered screening for gestational diabetes during your pregnancy. Symptoms of gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes doesn't usually cause any symptoms. Most cases are only picked up when your blood sugar level is tested during screening for gestational diabetes. Some women may develop symptoms if their blood sugar level gets too high (hyperglycaemia), such as: But some of these symptoms are common during pregnancy anyway and aren't necessarily a sign of a problem. Speak to your midwife or doctor if you're worried about any symptoms you're experiencing. How gestational diabetes can affect your pregnancy Most women with gestational diabetes have otherwise normal pregnancies with healthy babies. However, gestational diabetes can cause problems s Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellitus (sometimes referred to as GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and usually goes away after the baby is born. It is diagnosed when higher than normal blood glucose levels first appear during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is the fastest growing type of diabetes in Australia, affecting thousands of pregnant women. Between 5% and 10% of pregnant women will develop gestational diabetes and this usually occurs around the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy. All women are tested for gestational diabetes as part of the 24-28 week routine examination with their GP. Women who have one or more of the risk factors are advised to have a diabetes test when pregnancy is confirmed then again at 24 weeks if diabetes was not detected in early pregnancy. While there is no one reason for why women develop gestational diabetes, you are at risk of developing gestational diabetes if you: Are over 25 years of age Have a family history of type 2 diabetes Are overweight Are from an Indigenous Australian or Torres Strait Islander background Are from a Vietnamese, Chinese, middle eastern, Polynesian or Melanesian background Have had gestational diabetes during previous pregnancies Have previously had Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have previously given birth to a large baby Have a family history of gestational diabetes Most women are diagnosed after special blood tests. A Glucose Challenge Test (GCT) is a screening test where blood is taken for a glucose measurement one hour after a glucose drink. If this test is abnormal then an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) is done. For an OGTT a blood sample is taken before and two hours after the drink. For many people, being diagnosed with gestational diabetes can be upsetting. However, it is important to remember Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Is Rare In Primigravida Pakistani Women

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Is Rare In Primigravida Pakistani Women

Gestational diabetes mellitus is rare in primigravida Pakistani women We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Gestational diabetes mellitus is rare in primigravida Pakistani women Ali Jawa, Farhan Raza, [...], and Javed Akram Gestational diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Similar to other members of the Asian race, Pakistani women are also considered to be at a high risk for developing gestational diabetes. In order to better understand whether this heightened risk attributed to race really exists, we conducted a prospective study to assess the glycemic status of primigravida women presenting to our hospital. The mean age of 135 subjects enrolled was 22 (16-31), with 21 (16%), 60 (44%), and 54 (40%) subjects in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. The mean fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 69.9 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), 129 mg/dL (7.2 mmol/L), and 103.6 mg/dL (5.76 mmol/L), respectively. Of 135 women, 6 had a blood pressure reading 140/90 mm Hg and only one met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. In our study, despite using the newly proposed International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study (IADPS) cut-offs for diagnosis of gestational diabetes, the incidence rate of gestational diabetes mellitus in primigravida was still <1%. Larger trials are needed to truly assess t Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes -- The Basics

Gestational Diabetes -- The Basics

Gestational diabetes -- diabetes that develops during pregnancy -- is a relatively common complication of pregnancy, affecting about 6% of all pregnant women. You may have a greater risk of developing gestational diabetes if you: Are obese when you become pregnant Have high blood pressure or other medical complications Have given birth to a large (greater than 9 pounds) baby before Have given birth to a baby that was stillborn or suffering from certain birth defects Have had gestational diabetes in previous pregnancies Have a family history of diabetes Come from certain ethnic backgrounds, including African, Hispanic, Asian, Native American, or Pacific Islander Are older than 30 But half of women who develop gestational diabetes have no risk factors. If left untreated, gestational diabetes can cause serious complications for your newborn. For example, babies of untreated mothers with gestational diabetes may grow too large (called macrosomia), increasing the risk of problems during delivery, such as injuries to the baby's shoulders and arms and nerves in these areas. Having a very large baby may also increase your risk for requiring a cesarean section or other assistance during delivery (such as a forceps or vacuum delivery). Your baby may also experience a sudden drop in blood sugar after birth, requiring treatment with a sugar solution given through a needle in the vein. Your newborn baby may also have a higher risk of developing jaundice (a condition that causes yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes) and breathing problems. The risk of birth defects in infants whose mothers have gestational diabetes is very low because most pregnant women develop gestational diabetes after the 20th week of pregnancy, when the fetus has already fully developed. The risk of birt Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: Can I Lower My Risk?

Gestational Diabetes: Can I Lower My Risk?

As many as 9 out of every 100 pregnant women will develop a condition known as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It can put you at risk for problems during pregnancy and delivery. When you're pregnant, your cells become slightly more resistant to insulin. This causes the amount of glucose or sugar in your blood to rise. The extra sugar helps make more nutrients available to your baby. But if your cells become too resistant and the glucose can't into them, your blood sugar level becomes too high. It can cause problems for you and your growing baby. Although some things mean you're more likely to get it, you can steps to lower your risk. Who Gets It? No one can say for sure who will have gestational diabetes, but your chances go up if you: Are Hispanic, African-American, Native American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander Were overweight before your pregnancy Have a family member with diabetes Are age 25 or older Had gestational diabetes in an earlier pregnancy Had a very large baby (9 pounds or more) or a stillbirth Have had abnormal blood sugar tests before Talk to your doctor about how likely you are to get it and what symptoms to watch for. Diet Your doctor or a nutritionist can help you choose foods that may keep your blood glucose within a healthy range. They can also teach you about ideal portions and meal timing. In general, limit sweets and track how many carbohydrate-rich foods you eat. Include fiber in your meals. This can come from vegetables, fruits, whole-grain breads, whole-grain crackers, and cereals. One large study looked at diets of women before they got pregnant. Each daily increase in fiber by 10 grams reduced their risk of gestational diabetes by 26%. In addition to what you eat, taking fiber supplements may be helpful in helping you reach your f Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes: What You Need To Know

Gestational Diabetes: What You Need To Know

This pregnancy complication is more common than you might think. Learn who's at risk for it, how it's detected, and what can be done to treat it. For years, doctors believed that gestational diabetes affected three to five percent of all pregnancies, but new, more rigorous diagnostic criteria puts the number closer to 18 percent. The condition, which can strike any pregnant woman, usually develops in the second trimester, between weeks 24 and 28, and typically resolves after baby is born. If gestational diabetes is treated and well-managed throughout your pregnancy, "There's no reason you can't deliver a very healthy baby," says Patricia Devine, M.D., perinatologist at New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. But gestational diabetes that goes untreated, or isn't carefully monitored, can be harmful for both mother and baby. Consult our guide for risk factors, signs of gestational diabetes, and treatment options. What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes, or diabetes that is diagnosed during pregnancy in a woman who previously did not have diabetes, occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar efficiently. "A hormone produced by the placenta makes a woman essentially resistant to her own insulin," Dr. Devine explains. How does gestational diabetes differ from type 1 or 2 diabetes? Gestational diabetes affects only pregnant women. People who have type 1 diabetes, sometimes referred to as juvenile diabetes, are generally born with it. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 95 percent of all cases of diabetes in the U.S.; it occurs in adulthood, and is triggered by lifestyle factors such as obesity and lack of physical activity. What causes it? It's unclear why some women develop gestational diabetes while others do not. Doctors th Continue reading >>

Faqs About Gestational Diabetes

Faqs About Gestational Diabetes

This is the most comprehensive page on some of the most frequently asked questions about GD. Let us know if we missed something and we will add it in our list of questions. Note: GD means Gestational Diabetes. What is GD? What are the signs and symptoms? What kind of weight gain should I expect? Gestational vs type 2 diabetes. How does apple cider vinegar effect? What are the cut off values for GD? What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? What are the screening tests available? What should the fasting blood glucose be when pregnant? What is the correlation between GD and jaundice with the newborn? What foods should I avoid? What is the correlation with gestational hypertension and GD? When do you get tested for this issue? What causes it? Who is at risk? What is the risk of getting diabetes after being diagnosed with GD? What is the risk of my child getting diabetes after I am diagnosed? What are some healthy breakfast ideas for someone with this issue? Is there a risk if taking Zantac? Does Zofran cause it? Are Zone bars okay to eat while pregnant? Is the Zone diet okay to do while pregnant? What is the prevalence of GD in New Zealand? Is yogurt okay to eat? Is it normal to have yeast infections? Is it okay to take Xylitol during pregnancy? Is it okay to have a vbac? Does vitamin D help? What are the considerations for vegetarians? What are the risks if you don’t treat? Am I at greater risk of GD since I am carrying twins? What are the risks for the baby when mom has GD? What should I do about this issue after I deliver the baby? Is there any way to prevent it? What is the pathophysiology? PCOS and GD. What is the prevalence? Does oatmeal help? When is the usual onset? Does obesity increase the chance of getting it? When do I have to take Metformin Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

During pregnancy, some women develop high blood sugar levels. This condition is known as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM typically develops between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it’s estimated to occur in up to 9.2 percent of pregnancies. If you develop GDM while you’re pregnant, it doesn’t mean that you had diabetes before your pregnancy or will have it afterward. But GDM does raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. If poorly managed, it can also raise your child’s risk of developing diabetes and add other risk factors to you and your baby during pregnancy and delivery. It’s rare for GDM to cause symptoms. If you do experience symptoms, they will likely be mild. They may include: fatigue blurred vision excessive thirst excessive need to urinate The exact cause of GDM is unknown, but hormones likely play a role. When you’re pregnant, your body produces larger amounts of some hormones, including: human placental lactogen estrogen hormones that increase insulin resistance These hormones affect your placenta and help sustain your pregnancy. Over time, the amount of these hormones in your body increases. They may interfere with the action of insulin, the hormone that regulates your blood sugar. Insulin helps move glucose out of your blood into cells, where it’s used for energy. If you don’t have enough insulin, or you have high levels of hormones that prevent insulin from working properly, your blood glucose levels may rise. This can cause GDM. You’re at higher risk of developing GDM if you: are over the age of 25 have high blood pressure have a family history of diabetes were overweight before you became pregnant have previously given birth to a baby weighin Continue reading >>

What To Expect With Gestational Diabetes

What To Expect With Gestational Diabetes

Blood glucose control is key to having a healthy baby A diagnosis of gestational diabetes can cast a shadow over the joys of pregnancy. While the vast majority of these cases end with a healthy baby and mom, gestational diabetes (high blood glucose during pregnancy in a woman who has never had type 1 or type 2 diabetes) does increase risks to the health of both baby and mother. Keeping blood glucose under control is crucial for women with gestational diabetes to help safeguard their babies and themselves. Gestational diabetes is caused by issues that arise as part of a normal pregnancy: hormonal changes and weight gain. Women whose bodies can't compensate for these changes by producing enough of the hormone insulin, which ushers glucose from the blood into cells to produce energy, develop high blood glucose and gestational diabetes. Overweight mothers are at a greater risk for the condition. In the United States, gestational diabetes is reported in somewhere between 2 and 10 percent of pregnancies, but it is now believed that the condition affects 18 percent of women in pregnancy. The larger number is the result of new criteria for diagnosis, not just skyrocketing rates. The American Diabetes Association began recommending this year that gestational diabetes be diagnosed with only one abnormal test result rather than two, the previous method, and this is causing more cases to be detected. Gestational diabetes usually appears roughly halfway through pregnancy, as the placenta puts out large amounts of "anti-insulin" hormones. Women without known diabetes should be screened for gestational diabetes 24 to 28 weeks into their pregnancies. (If high blood glucose levels are detected earlier in pregnancy, the mother-to-be may actually have type 2 diabetes, rather than gestati Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Is Rare In Primigravida Pakistani Women

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Is Rare In Primigravida Pakistani Women

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism / Jul-Sep 2011 / Vol 15 | Issue 3 191 Ali Jawa, Farhan Raza, Khola Qamar, Ali Jawad, Javed Akram Department of Medicine, Jinnah-Allama Iqbal Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (JAIDE), Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder dened as glucose intolerance with onset or rst recognition during pregnancy. Similar to other members of the Asian race, Pakistani women are also considered to be at a high risk for developing gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods: In order to better understand whether this heightened risk attributed to race really exists, we conducted a prospective study to assess the glycemic status of primigravida women presenting to our hospital. Results: The mean age of 135 subjects enrolled was 22 (16-31), with 21 (16%), 60 (44%), and 54 (40%) subjects in the rst, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. The mean fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 69.9 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), 129 mg/dL (7.2 mmol/L), and 103.6 mg/dL (5.76 mmol/L), respectively. Of 135 women, 6 had a blood pressure reading 140/90 mm Hg and only one met the criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. In our study, despite using the newly proposed International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study (IADPS) cut-offs for diagnosis of gestational diabetes, the incidence rate of gestational diabetes mellitus in primigravida was still <1%. Conclusion: Larger trials are needed to truly assess the disease burden of gestational diabetes mellitus in Pakistani women. Key words: Gestational diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups, The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy

Has your doctor diagnosed you with gestational diabetes (GD or GDM), a form of diabetes that appears only during pregnancy? While it might feel overwhelming at first, it turns out that this pregnancy complication is much more common than you might think. In fact, up to 9.2 percent of pregnant women have GD, according to a 2014 analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Know that with careful monitoring and treatment, it can be managed, and you can have a safe and healthy pregnancy. READ MORE: What causes gestational diabetes? Who's most at risk? What are the symptoms? How is it diagnosed? What are the complications? How can you prevent gestational diabetes? How is it treated? What happens to mom and baby after birth? What causes gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes usually starts between week 24 and week 28 of pregnancy when hormones from the placenta block insulin — a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the body's metabolism of fats and carbs and helps the body turn sugar into energy — from doing its job and prevent the body from regulating the increased blood sugar of pregnancy effectively. This causes hyperglycemia (or high levels of sugar in the blood), which can damage the nerves, blood vessels and organs in your body. Who’s most at risk for gestational diabetes? While researchers aren't certain why some women get gestational diabetes while others don’t, they do know that you may be at an increased risk if: You are overweight. Having a BMI of 30 or more going into pregnancy is one of the most common risk factors for gestational diabetes because the extra weight affects insulin's ability to properly keep blood sugar levels in check. You have a higher level of abdominal fat. Recent research published in the American Di Continue reading >>

5 Things You Didn't Realize Are Signs Of Gestational Diabetes

5 Things You Didn't Realize Are Signs Of Gestational Diabetes

Image Point Fr/Shutterstock There are some unexpected and scary things that come up while you're pregnant. Some can be mild conditions, while others can be quite serious and require constant monitoring and treatment. Thankfully gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition that can be screened for in pregnant women early on in the pregnancy. It also can be effectively managed so as to cause no problems for mom or baby. Many moms-to-be who get diagnosed with gestational diabetes are shocked, but there may be some things you didn't realize are signs of gestational diabetes that could prepare you for the doctor's news. According to WebMD, gestational diabetes is not rare and occurs in as many as nine out of 10 pregnant women. The same site noted that anyone can get the condition, but people who are Hispanic, African-American, Native American, Asian American, and Pacific Islander carry a higher risk. Others with an elevated risk include women who were overweight before getting pregnant, have family members with diabetes, have had abnormal blood sugar tests before, have had a very large baby (nine pounds or more) or a stillbirth. According to What To Expect, gestational diabetes usually starts somewhere between weeks 24 and 28. The site explained that it happens when the body doesn't produce enough insulin to deal with an increased amount of glucose, or sugar, that's circulating in your blood that helps a baby grow. Many of the symptoms of gestational diabetes mimic normal pregnancy symptoms and often go unnoticed, but if you notice any of the following five signs you might have gestational diabetes. giphy According to the Mayo Clinic, polydipsia, or excessive thirst, is a classic marker of any diabetes condition. The site explained that if you have diabetes, extra suga Continue reading >>

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