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Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Print Overview Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerve fibers throughout your body, but diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet. Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in your extremities to problems with your digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart. For some people, these symptoms are mild; for others, diabetic neuropathy can be painful, disabling and even fatal. Diabetic neuropathy is a common serious complication of diabetes. Yet you can often prevent diabetic neuropathy or slow its progress with tight blood sugar control and a healthy lifestyle. Symptoms There are four main types of diabetic neuropathy. You may have just one type or symptoms of several types. Most develop gradually, and you may not notice problems until considerable damage has occurred. The signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy vary, depending on the type of neuropathy and which nerves are affected. Peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy. Your feet and legs are often affected first, followed by your hands and arms. Signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are often worse at night, and may include: Numbness or reduced ability to feel pain or temperature changes A tingling or burning sensation Sharp pains or cramps Increased sensitivity to touch — for some people, even the weight of a bed sheet can be agonizing Muscle weakness Loss of reflexes, especially in the ankle Loss of balance and coordination Serious foot problems, such as ulcers, infections, deformities, and bone and joint pain Autonomic neuropathy The autonomic nervous system controls your hea Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

Diabetic neuropathy refers to the damage that affects the nerves of the body in people who have diabetes. It is a progressive disease, and symptoms worsen over a number of years. People who do not control their blood sugar levels and those who have high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, or who are overweight are more susceptible. Neuropathy can affect any nerve in the body, but especially the nerves of the ganglia, the outside of the skull, the spinal cord, and those that impact the functioning of fundamental organs, such as the heart, bladder, intestines, and stomach. Problems can occur in the nerves that control the periphery, or outside, of the body, such as the feet and hands, those that control the automatic functions of the body, such as heart rate and digestion, or just one or a small group of nerves. Different nerves are affected in different ways. Around 60 percent to 70 percent of people with diabetes develop diabetic neuropathy, but symptoms may take 10 to 20 years to appear. The highest rates of neuropathy are found in patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes for 25 years or more. Types of diabetic neuropathy There are four main types of neuropathy, and they are: Peripheral neuropathy, which affects the feet and hands, is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy, affecting the nerves that control the involuntary functions of the body, like digestion Proximal neuropathy, which affects the legs Focal neuropathy, in which damage can occur in any nerve or any group of nerves. The symptoms of neuropathy depend on the nerves affected. A range of problems is associated with diabetic neuropathy. These include cardiovascular issues, intestinal problems such as constant diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, weakness, muscle pain, and para Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy: Causes And Symptoms

Diabetic Neuropathy: Causes And Symptoms

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy—DPN for short—is diabetes-related damage to nerves that sit near the surface of your skin. DPN usually affects the feet and the hands, but can also harm nerves in arms and legs. Approximately 50 percent of people with type 2 diabetes and 20% of those with type 1 diabetes develop this kind of nerve damage.1 DPN can be extremely painful—or cause numbness so that you have little feeling, especially in your feet. DPN damages two different types of nerves close to the surface of your skin. DPN can affect small nerves that protect your body by sending signals about pain and temperature changes to your brain. This condition can also attack large nerves that detect touch, pressure and help you keep your balance. 2 Symptoms are different for each type. Most people with DPN have damage to both types of nerves. DPN usually affects extremities—feet, hands, legs and arms—where nerve fibers are the longest and most numerous. 3 Causes Experts are still investigating exactly how diabetes harms and kills these nerve cells. “The causes remain unknown,” the American Diabetes Association noted in a definitive 2017 review. One thing is certain: The conventional wisdom—that high blood sugar is the cause—is just part of the story. New research is revealing a bigger cast of culprits. These include high cholesterol, high triglycerides (another blood fat), high blood pressure, obesity and smoking, according to a British research report in a widely-cited 2005 study that tracked 1,172 people with diabetes for seven years. 4 The threats are major: Obesity and high triglycerides each doubled risk in people with diabetes in a 2013 University of Utah study of 218 people with type 2 diabetes. 5 Smoking increased risk by as much as 42% in a 2015 Harvard M Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic Neuropathydiabetic Neuropathy Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Diabetic neuropathy definition and facts Diabetes is thought to damage nerves as a result of prolonged elevated levels of blood glucose. Peripheral neuropathy most commonly causes: Autonomic neuropathy causes symptoms related to dysfunction of an organ system, such as: Diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy is usually done by a clinical exam. There is no cure for diabetic neuropathy, but treatments are available to manage the symptoms. Diabetic nerve pain may be controlled by medications such as tricyclic antidepressants, duloxetine (Cymbalta), or certain antiseizure medications. Keeping tight control of blood sugar levels is the best way to prevent diabetic neuropathy and other complications of diabetes. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improve Diabetes Nerve Pain What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy? The symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy depend upon the type of neuropathy that is present. Signs and symptoms can also vary in severity among affected people. Signs and symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy include: Numbness or tingling of the feet and lower legs Pain or burning sensations Loss of sensation in the feet or lower legs Sometimes, but less commonly, these symptoms can occur in the hands or arms Signs and symptoms of diabetic proximal neuropathy include: Pain, usually on one side, in the hips, buttocks, or thighs Signs and symptoms of diabetic autonomic neuropathy depend upon the organ system that is involved and can include: Feeling full after eating a small amount Inability to empty the bladder completely Decrease in vaginal lubrication in women Rapid resting heartbeat Signs and symptoms of diabetic focal neuropathy also depend upon the location of the affected nerve. The symptoms can appear suddenly. It usually does not cause a long t Continue reading >>

American Association Of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

American Association Of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

Patients Donate to Advance Research and Education With your help, the AANEM Foundation can fund research that will improve the lives of patients with neuromuscular diseases. What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Patients with diabetes often develop abnormalities of the peripheral nerves in the extremities after a period of many years. Symptoms usually develop 10-20 years after the initial diabetes diagnosis. Patients can experience numbness or abnormal tingling sensations and pain in the hands and especially in the feet. Other symptoms are lightheadedness, heartburn, swallowing problems, diarrhea or constipation, bladder problems and failure to achieve sexual arousal. This type of neuropathy (nerve injury) usually develops in stages. First one may experience intermittent pain and tingling in extremities, particularly in the feet. In later stages, the pain is more intense and constant. In the last stage, all pain sensation is lost to an area. This greatly increases the risk of severe tissue injury because the patient can no longer detect pain to let them know they are injured. Who gets Diabetic Neuropathy? Decreased blood flow and increased blood sugar level are the causes of diabetic neuropathy. When the blood sugar level is higher than normal for an extended period of time, the blood vessels and nerves start to degenerate. This degeneration is what causes the nerves to be less effective. Electrodiagnostic testing in the form of nerve conduction studies (NCS) are a sensitive way of detecting the development of diabetic neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic testing can also exclude other abnormalities that can be confused with diabetic neuropathy. How is Diabetic Neuropathy treated? Treatment is aimed at slowing down or stopping the blood vessels and nerves from degenerating. Treatment i Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The best way to prevent or treat diabetic neuropathy is to keep your blood sugar (glucose) and blood pressure well controlled, to attend regular diabetes checks and to avoid smoking. The outcome for early diabetic neuropathy can be good but severe neuropathy is often associated with a poor outcome. The best way to prevent or treat diabetic neuropathy is to keep your blood sugar (glucose) and blood pressure well controlled, to attend regular diabetes checks and to avoid smoking. The outcome for early diabetic neuropathy can be good but severe neuropathy is often associated with a poor outcome. What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Your peripheral nervous system is a network of nerves called peripheral nerves. These transmit information between your central nervous system and all the other parts of your body, including your arms, legs and organs. Your peripheral nervous system is divided into: Sensory nerves. Electrical impulses transmitted along your sensory nerves allow you to touch and feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The information from the sensory nerves passes to your spinal cord and brain. Motor nerves. Electrical impulses that pass along these nerves pass information from your brain and spinal cord to stimulate your muscles to move. Autonomic nerves. Your autonomic nervous system controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart and the widening or narrowing of your blood vessels. When something goes wrong in this system, it can cause serious problems which can affect: Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (vasa nervorum) in addition to macrovascular conditions that can accumulate in diabetic neuropathy. Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy[1]; mononeuropathy; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful polyneuropathy; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. Signs and symptoms[edit] Illustration depicting areas affected by diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy affects all peripheral nerves including sensory neurons, motor neurons, but rarely affects the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, diabetic neuropathy can affect all organs and systems, as all are innervated. There are several distinct syndromes based on the organ systems and members affected, but these are by no means exclusive. A patient can have sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy or any other combination. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the nerve(s) affected and may include symptoms other than those listed. Symptoms usually develop gradually over years. Symptoms may include the following: Trouble with balance Numbness and tingling of extremities Dysesthesia (abnormal sensation to a body part) Diarrhea Erectile dysfunction Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) Facial, mouth and eyelid drooping Vision changes Dizziness Muscle weakness Difficulty swallowing Speech impairment Fasciculation (muscle contractions) Anorgasmia Retrograde ejaculation (in males) Burning or electric pain Pathogenesis[edit] The following factors are thought to be involved in the development of dia Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy

Diabetic Neuropathy: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy

Author: Dianna Quan, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), affecting as many as 50% of patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy involves the presence of symptoms or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after other possible causes have been excluded. [ 1 ] In type 1 DM, distal polyneuropathy typically becomes symptomatic after many years of chronic prolonged hyperglycemia, whereas in type 2, it may be apparent after only a few years of known poor glycemic control or even at diagnosis. Symptoms include the following: Sensory Negative or positive, diffuse or focal; usually insidious in onset and showing a stocking-and-glove distribution in the distal extremities Motor Distal, proximal, or more focal weakness, sometimes occurring along with sensory neuropathy (sensorimotor neuropathy) Autonomic Neuropathy that may involve the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems and the sweat glands Physical examination should include the following assessments: Peripheral neuropathy testing Gross light touch and pinprick sensation; vibratory sense; deep tendon reflexes; strength testing and muscle atrophy; dorsal pedal and posterior tibial pulses; skin assessment; Tinel testing; cranial nerve testing Autonomic neuropathy testing Objective evaluation of cardiovagal, adrenergic, and sudomotor function in a specialized autonomic laboratory; may be preceded by bedside screening to assess supine and upright blood pressure and heart rate, with measurement of sinus arrhythmia ratio Two classification systems for diabetic neuropathy are the Thomas system and the symmetrical-versus-asymmetrical system. The Thomas system (modified Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

Diabetes can harm your nerves. That damage, called neuropathy, may be painful. It can happen in several ways, and they all seem to be related to blood sugar levels being too high for too long. To prevent it, work with your doctor to manage your blood sugar. You may hear your doctor mention the four types of diabetes-related neuropathy: peripheral, autonomic, proximal, and focal. Peripheral Neuropathy This type usually affects the feet and legs. Rare cases affect the arms, abdomen, and back. Symptoms include: Tingling Numbness (which may become permanent) Burning (especially in the evening) Pain Early symptoms usually get better when your blood sugar is under control. There are medications to help manage the discomfort. What you should do: Check your feet and legs daily. Use lotion on your feet if they're dry. Take care of your toenails. Ask your doctor if you should go to a podiatrist. Wear shoes that fit well. Wear them all the time, so your feet don't get injured. Autonomic Neuropathy This type usually affects the digestive system, especially the stomach. It can also affect the blood vessels, urinary system, and sex organs. In your digestive system: Symptoms include: Bloating Diarrhea Constipation Heartburn Nausea Vomiting Feeling full after small meals What you should do: You may need to eat smaller meals and take medication to treat it. In blood vessels: Symptoms include: Blacking out when you stand up quickly Faster heartbeat Dizziness Low blood pressure Nausea Vomiting Feeling full sooner than normal If you have it: Avoid standing up too quickly. You may also need to wear special stockings (ask your doctor about them) and take medicine. In Men: Symptoms include: He may not be able to have or keep an erection, or he may have “dry” or reduced ejaculations. What Continue reading >>

Everything You Should Know About Diabetic Neuropathy

Everything You Should Know About Diabetic Neuropathy

What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a serious and common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It’s a type of nerve damage caused by uncontrolled high blood sugar levels. You may not initially have any symptoms. The condition usually develops slowly, sometimes over the course of several decades. If you have diabetes and are experiencing numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness of your hands or feet, call your doctor. These are the early symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. In cases of severe or prolonged peripheral neuropathy, you may experience injuries or infections in your extremities. In some cases, these can lead to amputation. Damage to other nerves of the body can cause other symptoms. That’s why it’s important to regularly monitor your blood sugar levels and contact your doctor if have any symptoms of neuropathy. It’s common for symptoms of neuropathy to appear gradually. In many cases, the first type of nerve damage to occur involves the nerves of the feet. This can lead to symptoms such as the sensation of pins and needles in your feet. Symptoms vary depending on the nerves affected. Common signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include: sensitivity to touch loss of sense of touch difficulty with coordination when walking numbness or pain in your extremities muscle weakness or wasting nausea and indigestion diarrhea or constipation dizziness upon standing excessive sweating vaginal dryness in women and erectile dysfunction in men Symptoms may vary depending on the type of neuropathy you’re experiencing. The term neuropathy is used to describe several types of nerve damage. In people with diabetes, there are four main types of neuropathy you may develop. Peripheral neuropathy The most common form of neuropathy is peripheral neuropa Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

What Is Diabetic Neuropathy?

Diabetic neuropathy is nerve damage that is caused by diabetes . Nerves are bundles of special tissues that carry signals between your brain and other parts of your body. The signals What are the different types of diabetic neuropathy? Types of diabetic neuropathy include the following: Peripheral neuropathy is nerve damage that typically affects the feet and legs and sometimes affects the hands and arms. Autonomic neuropathy is damage to nerves that control your internal organs. Autonomic neuropathy can lead to problems with your heart rate and blood pressure, digestive system, bladder, sex organs, sweat glands, eyes, and ability to sense hypoglycemia . Focal neuropathies are conditions in which you typically have damage to single nerves, most often in your hand, head, torso, and leg. Proximal neuropathy is a rare and disabling type of nerve damage in your hip, buttock, or thigh. This type of nerve damage typically affects one side of your body and may rarely spread to the other side. Proximal neuropathy often causes severe pain and may lead to significant weight loss. Who is most likely to get diabetic neuropathy? If you have diabetes, your chance of developing nerve damage caused by diabetes increases the older you get and the longer you have diabetes. Managing your diabetes is an important part of preventing health problems such as diabetic neuropathy. Managing your diabetes is an important part of preventing health problems such as diabetic neuropathy. You are also more likely to develop nerve damage if you have diabetes and Research also suggests that certain genes may make people more likely to develop diabetic neuropathy. Over time, high blood glucose levels, also called blood sugar, and high levels of fats, such as triglycerides , in the blood from diabetes ca Continue reading >>

Diabetic Neuropathy: A Position Statement By The American Diabetes Association

Diabetic Neuropathy: A Position Statement By The American Diabetes Association

Diabetic neuropathies are the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes. This heterogeneous group of conditions affects different parts of the nervous system and presents with diverse clinical manifestations. The early recognition and appropriate management of neuropathy in the patient with diabetes is important for a number of reasons: Diabetic neuropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion. Nondiabetic neuropathies may be present in patients with diabetes and may be treatable by specific measures. A number of treatment options exist for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy. Up to 50% of diabetic peripheral neuropathies may be asymptomatic. If not recognized and if preventive foot care is not implemented, patients are at risk for injuries to their insensate feet. Recognition and treatment of autonomic neuropathy may improve symptoms, reduce sequelae, and improve quality of life. Among the various forms of diabetic neuropathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) and diabetic autonomic neuropathies, particularly cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), are by far the most studied (1–4). There are several atypical forms of diabetic neuropathy as well (1–4). Patients with prediabetes may also develop neuropathies that are similar to diabetic neuropathies (5–10). Table 1 provides a comprehensive classification scheme for the diabetic neuropathies. Due to a lack of treatments that target the underlying nerve damage, prevention is the key component of diabetes care. Screening for symptoms and signs of diabetic neuropathy is also critical in clinical practice, as it may detect the earliest stages of neuropathy, enabling early intervention. Although screening for rarer atypical forms of diabetic neuropathy may be warranted, DSPN and autonomic neuropathy are the most common Continue reading >>

Diabetic Nerve Problems

Diabetic Nerve Problems

If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can damage the covering on your nerves or the blood vessels that bring oxygen to your nerves. Damaged nerves may stop sending messages, or may send messages slowly or at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. Symptoms may include Shooting pains, burning, or tingling Nausea, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea Problems with sexual function Urinary problems Dizziness when you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling your blood sugar can help prevent nerve problems, or keep them from getting worse. Treatment may include pain relief and other medicines. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

The Nerve Damage Of Diabetes

The Nerve Damage Of Diabetes

Diabetic neuropathy is a nerve disorder caused by diabetes. Symptoms of neuropathy include numbness and sometimes pain in the hands, feet, or legs. Nerve damage caused by diabetes can also lead to problems with internal organs such as the digestive tract, heart, and sexual organs, causing indigestion, diarrhea or constipation, dizziness, bladder infections, and impotence. In some cases, neuropathy can flare up suddenly, causing weakness and weight loss. Depression may follow. While some treatments are available, a great deal of research is still needed to understand how diabetes affects the nerves and to find more effective treatments for this complication. A 10-year clinical study that involved 1,441 volunteers with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) was recently completed by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The study proved that keeping blood sugar levels as close to the normal range as possible slows the onset and progression of nerve disease caused by diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) studied two groups of volunteers: those who followed a standard diabetes management routine and those who intensively managed their diabetes. Persons in the intensive management group took multiple injections of insulin daily or used an insulin pump and monitored their blood glucose at least four times a day to try to lower their blood glucose levels to the normal range. After 5 years, tests of neurological function showed that the risk of nerve damage was reduced by 60 percent in the intensively managed group. People in the standard treatment group, whose average blood glucose levels were higher, had higher rates of neuropathy. Although the DCCT included only patients with IDDM, researchers believe that people with nonins Continue reading >>

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

Nerve Damage (diabetic Neuropathies)

What are diabetic neuropathies? Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness—loss of feeling—in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs. About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. The highest rates of neuropathy are among people who have had diabetes for at least 25 years. Diabetic neuropathies also appear to be more common in people who have problems controlling their blood glucose, also called blood sugar, as well as those with high levels of blood fat and blood pressure and those who are overweight. What causes diabetic neuropathies? The causes are probably different for different types of diabetic neuropathy. Researchers are studying how prolonged exposure to high blood glucose causes nerve damage. Nerve damage is likely due to a combination of factors: metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and possibly low levels of insulin neurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to nerves autoimmune factors that cause inflammation in nerves mechanical injury to nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome inherited traits that increase susceptibility to nerve disease lifestyle factors, such as smoking or alcohol use What are the symptoms of diabetic neuropathies? Symptoms depend on the type of neuropathy and which Continue reading >>

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