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Is Diabetes Mellitus Capitalized

Avoiding Common Capitalization Errors

Avoiding Common Capitalization Errors

In my previous post I detailed the basic rules of capitalization and a few related differences in APA, MLA, Chicago, and AP styles. In today’s post, I will describe some areas of confusion about capitalization I have often observed in my work here at ProofreadingPal. Familial Terms (e.g., mom, uncle) When you are using a familial term as a name, it is functioning as a proper noun and should be capitalized. When you are using such a term to describe a person or a category of people, it should not be capitalized. Look out, Son! I saw Dad slip on a banana peel right where you’re standing. My aunt makes the best tomato soup. All my brothers look like Uncle Jake. References to God(s) The word “god” should be capitalized if it is being used as a proper name of a monotheistic god, as in God in Christianity and Judaism. Otherwise, the word should be lowercased, as in “the god of war.” Pronouns that refer to any god or gods should be lowercased. The main style guides all agree on this, although Chicago does have a note that capitalizing these pronouns is acceptable when writing for a religious audience. I’ll go there tomorrow, God willing. All those Greek gods are so confusing. He has the body of a god, I swear. Likewise, capitalize “bible” if it is being used as the proper name of a religious book, as in the Jewish Bible and the Christian Bible. Do not capitalize it if it is being used as a general term, as in, “This cookbook is my raw food bible.” Acronyms and Initialisms An initialism is an abbreviation using the first letters of a name or phrase where the letters are pronounced separately (e.g., IRS, AARP). An acronym is a similar abbreviation where the letters are pronounced together (e.g., NASA, NAFTA). Initialisms and acronyms are always capitalized, Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Get, Set, Go From Diabetes Capital Of The World To Diabetes Care Capital Of The World

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Get, Set, Go From Diabetes Capital Of The World To Diabetes Care Capital Of The World

Go to: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects earning the dubious distinction of “the diabetes capital of the world.0” It was estimated to have had 31.7 million people having diabetes in year 2000 which is projected to be 79.4 million by year 2030.[1] Both the figures are highest in the world. During the next 2 decades, the world population is expected to increase by 37%, but the prevalence of diabetes will increase by 114%. More bothersome is a 151% projected increase in number of people with diabetes vis a vis just a 40% projected increase in population of India during the same period. According to the Diabetes Atlas 2009 published by the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people with diabetes in India in year 2010 was reported to be around 50.8 million which is expected to rise to 69.9 million by 2025 unless urgent preventive steps are taken.[2] The so-called Asian Indian Phenotype refers to certain unique clinical and biochemical abnormalities in Indians which includes but is not limited to increased insulin resistance, greater abdominal adiposity i.e., higher waist circumference despite lower body mass index. This phenotype makes Indians more prone to diabetes. Although genes are there to be blamed, but the primary driver of the epidemic of diabetes is the rapid epidemiological transition associated with changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity as evident from the higher prevalence of diabetes in the urban population. It is strongly felt by the author that screening for GDM is to type 2 diabetes mellitus what a pap smear is to cervical cancer. Both are modalities of secondary prevention of diseases. Cervical cancer may be perceived to be more deadly but it is the GDM which has already reached a magnitude Continue reading >>

Incorrect Diabetes Terms

Incorrect Diabetes Terms

I am just back from a health conference where I heard too many incorrect terms to wait any longer to make this effort to correct the rest of the world. Several of these terms are “politically incorrect.” One that I have been careful to avoid for years is to label someone who has diabetes as a diabetic. Now, diabetic medications and diabetic foods are fine. But many people who have diabetes actively resist being labeled as a diabetic, as if we were an illness. A correspondent writes, “What I give as an example to doctors and other technical people is: If a person has hemorrhoids, does that make that person one?” Here, I absolutely agree with the American Diabetes Association, which vigorously resists this label, insisting that we are “people with diabetes.” By using the term people with diabetes we follow the general example of “people-first language.” Another term that may or may not be politically incorrect but is certainly objectionable to many people with diabetes is noncompliant. For most of us, to be labeled noncompliant is a worse slander than being called a diabetic. This is particularly true when health care people criticize us for not doing things that they haven’t clearly explained or where we think they are wrong. An endocrinologist friend wisely says, “The ‘noncompliant’ label always grated on me — it’s assuming a model of health care delivery that assumes the doc to be the captain of the ship and the patients to be chained to the oars…” Control is another important issue. People frequently perceive good control as a value judgement. We should replace it with non-emotional terms like “tight control” or “intensive control” or “stringent control” or “aggressive control.” Likewise, poor control is a terribly perjo Continue reading >>

Capitalization - Diseases & Breeds

Capitalization - Diseases & Breeds

This is one that gives many people problems especially for technical writing papers. When does a disease get capitalized? When it is named after a person. Lyme disease Alzheimer's disease type 1 diabetes cancer Lou Gehrig's disease All of the terms that are capitalized are ones that happen to be names of either the discover of the disease or someone who suffered from it. How would you like to have a disease named after you? Although few people write about dogs or other animals in my English classes, this is a good time to go over breeds of animals. Breeds are capitalized when named after specific countries and regions. German shepherd English setter beagle Jersey cow Belgian horse Labrador retrievers Bengal tiger Continue reading >>

Do I Capitalize This Word?

Do I Capitalize This Word?

Dear Style Experts, I am writing a paper in APA Style, and I have a question about the capitalization of a specific word. Can you tell me how to capitalize it? Also, I need to know what the proper APA Style spelling of the word is. Thanks for your help! — Wally in Washington, DC Dear Wally, Your first stop in answering questions about the capitalization or spelling of a specific word in an APA Style paper should be the dictionary. APA uses Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2005) as its standard reference for capitalization and spelling, along with the APA Dictionary of Psychology for psychology-related terms. Along with the guidance provided in the Publication Manual (see pp. 101–104 for capitalization rules), follow the capitalization and spelling you see in those dictionaries for words in your APA Style paper. If more than one option for capitalization and spelling is provided, use the first entry. Now, you might wonder, why is it helpful to look up a word in a dictionary if you want to know how to capitalize it and not just how to spell it? Well, it’s helpful because the dictionary tells you whether a word is a proper noun (i.e., a specific person, place, or thing), and proper nouns are capitalized in English and therefore in APA Style (see Publication Manual sections 4.16 and 4.18). Their opposite, regular or “common” nouns (which refer to general persons, places, or things), are lowercase in English and thus in APA Style as well. What to Capitalize Here are some examples of different types of (capitalized) proper nouns, along with some (lowercased) regular or common noun corollaries: Noun type Proper noun example Common noun example Author or person Freud, Skinner, von Neumann the author, the investigator, the mathematician Company, institution, Continue reading >>

Ama Style

Ama Style

Contributors: Ashley Velázquez. Summary: These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources. This resource discusses references page formatting for the American Medical Association (AMA) style sheet. AMA was developed by the American Medical Association for the purpose of writing medical research. References are found at the end of a manuscript and are titled “Reference List”, and each item should be listed in numerical order (two references should not be combined under a single reference number) as opposed to alphabetically. Additionally, each item should be single-spaced. Sample Reference AuthorLastname, FirstInitial. Title in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case. Year; Issue#: PP-PP. When writing up your references list, be sure to always include the last name and the first and middle initial of the authors without punctuation. However, do use a comma to separate more than one author in a single bibliographic group (e.g., Wheeler T, Watkins PJ). Use sentence case for all titles (capitalize only the first word of the title). Abbreviate and italicize names of journals according to the listing in the National Library of Medicine database. Additionally, each reference is divided with periods into bibliographic groups; each bibliographic group contains bibliographic elements, which may be separated using the following punctuation marks: A comma: if the items are sub-elements of a bibliographic element or a set of closely related elements (e.g., the authors’ names). A semicolon: if the elements in the bibliographic group are different (e.g., between the publisher’s name and the copyright year) or if there are multiple occurrences of logically re Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Idiopathic Diabetes

Idiopathic Diabetes

I love the word "idiopathic." Besides making nice sounds as it rolls off one's tongue (id-dee-oh-PATH-ick), its definition is positively murky: it's used to describe a disorder of obscure or unknown cause. At one world-famous authority, it's stated that the word comes from the Greek: idios (one's own) + pathos (suffering). Yes, that's definitely Greek to me. Down to business. I received an e-mail which read: "I saw [the following] information in a blog, and wondering about it? It is LADA relabeled? Is her doctor right?" The blog stated: "I have Idiopathic Type 1 diabetes, or Type 1b diabetes. I had never heard of this before the doctor called to give me my test results from last week. I had been wondering and wondering about it since last Friday and finally, during lunch, the doctor called to tell me that I have Type 1b diabetes." Well, first of all, the American Diabetes Association hasn't updated its nomenclature to include using letters for subtype designations (e.g., describing a form of diabetes as "type 1A" or "type 1B"). (BTW, I'll go with the majority usage that I find on the ‘net and use capitalized letters when discussing these presumed subtypes, and not put a space between the number and the letter.) Some websites have taken it upon themselves to generate their own definitions. For instance, one website states with pseudo-authoritative confidence that "Type 1 B diabetes is also referred to as idiopathic diabetes, or diabetes of unknown origin. This form of type 1 diabetes is not autoimmune in nature, and tests for islet cell antibodies will come up negative. People with type 1 B have an insulin deficiency and can experience ketoacidosis (a high blood sugar emergency), but their need for insulin injections typically waxes and wanes over time. Patients of Afr Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Retinopathy?

What Is Diabetic Retinopathy?

People with diabetes can have an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy. This is when high blood sugar levels cause damage to blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels can swell and leak. Or they can close, stopping blood from passing through. Sometimes abnormal new blood vessels grow on the retina. All of these changes can steal your vision. Stages of diabetic eye disease There are two main stages of diabetic eye disease. NPDR (non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy) This is the early stage of diabetic eye disease. Many people with diabetes have it. With NPDR, tiny blood vessels leak, making the retina swell. When the macula swells, it is called macular edema. This is the most common reason why people with diabetes lose their vision. Also with NPDR, blood vessels in the retina can close off. This is called macular ischemia. When that happens, blood cannot reach the macula. Sometimes tiny particles called exudates can form in the retina. These can affect your vision too. If you have NPDR, your vision will be blurry. PDR (proliferative diabetic retinopathy) PDR is the more advanced stage of diabetic eye disease. It happens when the retina starts growing new blood vessels. This is called neovascularization. These fragile new vessels often bleed into the vitreous. If they only bleed a little, you might see a few dark floaters. If they bleed a lot, it might block all vision. These new blood vessels can form scar tissue. Scar tissue can cause problems with the macula or lead to a detached retina. PDR is very serious, and can steal both your central and peripheral (side) vision. Continue reading >>

Should Diabetes Mellitus Be Capitalized

Should Diabetes Mellitus Be Capitalized

Do you need any assistance with this question? Send us your paper details now We’ll find the best professional writer for you! Continue reading >>

Preferred Spellings

Preferred Spellings

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z Non-preferred spelling/usage Preferred spelling/usage acetyl CoA acetyl-CoA (with hyphen) acetyl-coenzyme A acetyl coenzyme A (no hyphen) α cell alpha cell adapter adaptor African American, Mexican American, etc. African-American, Mexican-American, etc. (include hyphen, not en-dash) Akaike information criterion Akaike's information criterion AKT Akt (this is treated as the protein name, rather than an abbreviation, and does not need to be written in full) amido black Amido Black (amino acid chains) Gly-Lys-Ala amphetamine (USAN) amfetamine (INN) anti-diabetic drug glucose-lowering drug or hypoglycaemic drug anti-oxidant antioxidant apolipoproteins If using abbreviation, format as e.g. ApoA-I, ApoB-100 (initial capital) around [e.g. 3 ml urine] about 3 ml urine base line baseline B-cell B cell β cell beta cell (but β OK for chemicals, etc.) biobreeding (BB) rats BioBreeding (BB) rats birth weight birthweight bisulfite bisulphite C or COOH terminal C- or COOH-terminal (hyphen optional with terminus) C3 C-3 (third carbon atom) C3 (chain of three carbon atoms) calorie energy (e.g. low-energy diet, % of energy from fat; note that the abbreviation VLCD [very low calorie diet] is acceptable) cAMP cyclic AMP (or use cAMP as a defined abbreviation) CD4+ CD4+ C peptide C-peptide caesarean Caesarean case−cohort case-cohort (with hyphen − N-rule is not appropriate as cases fall within the cohort) case-control case−control (with N-rule) Chinese Han Han Chinese chi-square test χ2 test cholecalciferol vitamin D3 cholesterol ester cholesteryl ester Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel Coenzyme Q10 Coenzyme Q10 colocalise co-localise co-morbid comorbid co-ordi Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Mellitus Capitalized Calcium High

Is Diabetes Mellitus Capitalized Calcium High

You’re not a member of any racial or ethnic group with a high prevalence of diabetes including people Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Is Diabetes Mellitus Capitalized Calcium High he prescribed antibiotics when the wound has looked infected. 2014 PM EST New research suggests that the outeak of the Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa may have originated from contact between humans and Checking blood for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or A1c) shows diabetes control over a 3-month period. Choose Numerology to Debunk Diabetes. Miller PD: Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in chronic renal disease. The studyfunded by Diabetes UKinvolved 11 diabetic participants seven of whom were able to reverse type 2 diabetes with a diet consisting of liquid drinks and non-starchy vegetables. Dizziness andHeadache – How simple and delicious are berries topped with a rich Clin Rheumatol 2005; 24:493-496 Type-1 diabetes is insulin dependent diabetes also called as Juvenile diabetes Prevalence Estimates of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in North America: Blood Glucose Meter/ Monitor Diabetes Kit and Diabetes Tracking System) and Diabetes Testing Supplies (Blood Glucose Test Strips Lancet Lancet Symptoms of diabetes in cats Akira diabetic bbq sauce komplikasi penatalaksanaan melitus akut Sekikawa Document presentation format: 35mm Slides Company: University of Pittsburgh . The Meal Planner automatically generates meal plans and recipes that meet everyone’s health needs. diabetes symptoms hypoglycemia type 2 diabetes gestational diabetes diabetes diet type 1 diabetes low blood sugar glucose insulin resistance dabetic neuropathy But in type 1 diabetes Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials that were published in the English language tested the effect of self Continue reading >>

Capitalization Of Academic Degrees

Capitalization Of Academic Degrees

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) recommends the following except when directly preceding or following a name: bachelor of arts in music education bachelor of arts degree in music education The Associated Press Stylebook (AP) recommends the following: Bachelor of Arts in music education Bachelor of Arts degree in music education Our recommendation is to pick your resource and then be consistent. I believe there’s so much confusion because CMOS and the AP aren’t in agreement on the subject. I don’t think the way CMOS treats the question is logical at all, as far as the rules of grammar are concerned. A Bachelor of Arts or Master of Education, for example, are names, and names and titles are capitalized. The field of study shouldn’t be capitalized unless the word is a proper noun in itself, such as English, French, etc. I have a BA in history, or a Bachelor of Arts in history. In both examples, the capitalization is correct. In my view, the only time ‘history’, or any other program of study, whose name isn’t a proper noun, should be capitalized is when it’s truly part of the degree’s name; therefore, ‘Bachelor of Arts, History’ is correct, at least according to the only infallible source I’m aware of, the rules of grammar for the English language. Our language is complicated, and mastering it often proves to be tremendously difficult, especially for non-native speakers. Unfortunately, it seems that mastery isn’t easily achievable for a disproportionately high percentage of those identifying English as their mother tongue. I’m sorry for going off on a tangent and ranting a bit. I’m just so tired of the determined effort to dumb-down our language because there are too many sub-par English teachers who are saddled with lazy and/or incompetent s Continue reading >>

Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?

Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?

When writing medical terminologies, people are often confused as to when they should capitalize the terminology, italicize it or leave it as such. For diabetes, people are very confused whether or not it should be capitalized. Some tend to type Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in small caps while others would capitalize its first letters. Medical agencies have also varied when it comes to capitalizing Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in its reports or articles. Many have expressed their frustration regarding these types and the way it has to be written. However, back in the past, capitalizing Type 2 diabetes was not a problem for those hoping to ensure that their grammar was correct when using these terminologies. Not many know but diabetes was not previously divided into types such as Type 1 or Type 2 back in the past. In 1979, the nomenclature or classification for diabetes was introduced by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG). Under the document, the two major types of diabetes were given descriptive names based on their clinical structure: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The World Health Organization (WHO) approved this typing a year later; however, since research has continuously discovered new things about the disease, the typing was no longer suitable. Many patients ended up getting the wrong classification for their diabetes type, affecting their evaluation and treatment. Research has also pointed out new types of diabetes which did not fit the two major types cited by the NDDG, thus the necessity to revise the typing and establish new criteria for diagnosis. Eventually, the new classification system indicated four major types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 (Type I), type 2 (Type II), other types and gestationa Continue reading >>

Time To Change Names, Again

Time To Change Names, Again

Every generation or two, people get frustrated with diabetes nomenclature, and after much pushing and shoving, the names of the different varieties of diabetes get changed. Years ago, diabetes was not subdivided. But it was noted that sometimes folks who got diabetes as adults lived longer, and that kids developing diabetes tended to die rapidly, so it seemed logical that diabetes could be subdivided into childhood-onset diabetes and adult-onset diabetes. But as it was also noted that there were lots of adults with diabetes where the disease looked like childhood-onset (that is, these adults were skinny and needed insulin supplementation) and lots of kids with diabetes that looked like they had adult-onset version (that is, these kids were obese and could be treated without insulin supplementation), it became more and more difficult to rationalize that the age of onset should be the determining factor in deciding if someone had this type of diabetes or that type. The alternative that was proposed was to classify people by whether or not they needed insulin supplementation: those that did were called by the ungainly term "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) and those that didn’t, were called by the even uglier term "non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM). That terminology didn’t last long before it was replaced by “Type I” and “Type II” diabetes - later adjusted to remove the capitalization and change the Roman numerals to Arabic, thus becoming type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These are the presently-used terms. Of course, you are well aware that there are lots of other types of diabetes that don’t fit at all into the this-vs-that categorization described above: there’s diabetes with onset during pregnancy (called gestational diabetes), diabe Continue reading >>

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