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Is Diabetes Insipidus Type 1 Or Type 2?

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Tweet Diabetes insipidus, often shortened to DI, is a rare form of diabetes that is not related to blood sugar-related diabetes mellitus, but does share some of its signs and symptoms. Diabetes insipidus is simply excessive urination (polyuria) and complications thereof, caused by an antidiuretice hormone called a vasopressin. Read on to find out more about what diabetes insipidus is, how it affects the body, the different forms of the disease, and how it is diagnosed and treated. What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus? Diabetes Insipidus leads to frequent urination, and this is the most common and clear symptom. In extreme cases, urination can be in excess of 20 litres per day. A secondary symptom is increased thirst, as a result of passing so much water. If this is not met, then dehydration can occur which, in turn, can lead to: Cracked skin Confusion Dizziness and even Unconsciousness Children suffering from the condition may become irritable or listless, with fever and vomiting also possible. How does diabetes insipidus compare with diabetes mellitus? Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus should not be confused. The two conditions are unrelated, with diabetes insipidus a completely different type of illness. Diabetes mellitus is also far more common. Diabetes mellitus occurs due to insulin resistance or insulin deficiency and subsequent high blood glucose levels. Diabetes Insipidus on the other hand develops as a result of the stilted production of a hormone in the brain, which is released to stop the kidneys producing so much urine in order to retain water. Without this hormone, water is not retained and the kidneys constantly work to their maximum capacity. The word "Mellitus" tagged onto the main form of diabetes comes from an old word roughly meaning "to Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus Vs Mellitus

Diabetes Insipidus Vs Mellitus

Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus might share a name and have some similar symptoms, but they are two very different diseases. They also require two very different treatments. Because diabetes mellitus involves blood sugar levels and insulin resistance, it is important for most people to use a blood sugar monitoring device daily and eat low glycemic foods that won’t spike their blood sugar levels. For diabetes insipidus, it isn’t blood sugar that is the problem, but blood water levels. The body produces a hormone called Vasopressin that is supposed to control how much water the kidneys take out of the blood stream. Converted to urine, these fluids flush out the wastes that the kidneys filter out. When this system malfunctions, a person’s thirst increases because the body thinks it needs more water to flush out impurities. By paying attention to the specific signs and symptoms of each disease, it becomes possible to discover which is the problem and find an appropriate solution to the issue. Here are the common symptoms and what they mean for each. Excessive Fatigue For diabetes insipidus, excessive fatigue occurs because of an overall lack of hydration. It may also be caused by an electrolyte imbalance. For diabetes mellitus, excessive fatigue generally occurs because blood sugar levels are too low or too high. Excessive Thirst This symptom occurs in diabetes insipidus because the body senses a lack of Vasopressin and so it demands more fluids because it thinks it needs them. For diabetes mellitus, the excessive thirst occurs because of excessive glucose levels that need to be expelled from the body. Urine for those with diabetes insipidus is clear and transparent, while with diabetes mellitus, it is yellow, pale, and often cloudy. Blurred Vision With diabe Continue reading >>

Everything You Should Know About Diabetes Insipidus

Everything You Should Know About Diabetes Insipidus

What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare condition that occurs when your kidneys are not able to conserve water. DI is not related to diabetes mellitus, which is often referred to simply as diabetes. That means you can have DI without having diabetes. In fact, the condition can occur in anyone. DI results in extreme thirst and frequent urination of dilute and odorless urine. There are several types of DI, and they can often be successfully treated. Keep reading to learn more about this condition. The main symptoms of DI are excessive thirst, which can cause an uncontrollable craving for water, and excessive urine volume. A healthy adult will typically urinate less than 3 quarts of urine a day. People with DI may eliminate up to 16 quarts of urine a day. You may need to get up during the night to urinate frequently, or you may experience bed-wetting. Possible symptoms in young children and infants include: fussiness and irritability unusually wet diapers or bed-wetting, or excessive urine output excessive thirst dehydration high fever dry skin delayed growth Adults can experience some of the above symptoms, plus confusion, dizziness, or sluggishness. DI can also lead to severe dehydration, which can lead to seizures, brain damage, and even death if not treated. You should contact your doctor immediately if you or your child is experiencing these symptoms. To understand diabetes insipidus, it helps to understand how your body normally uses and regulates fluids. Fluids make up as much as 60 percent of your overall body mass. Maintaining the proper amount of fluid in your body is key to your overall health. Consuming water and food throughout the day helps provide fluid to your body. Urinating, breathing, and sweating help to eliminate fluid from your b Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus – When Kidneys Are Unable To Retain Water

Diabetes Insipidus – When Kidneys Are Unable To Retain Water

If you have been wondering what diabetes insipidus is, here are all your questions explained. Diabetes insipidus is not a form of diabetes, but is a rare condition where a person suffers from frequent urination and increased thirst. It’s called as diabetes insipidus because its symptoms are similar to that of diabetes. The condition is caused by inadequate output of vasopressin, the antidiuretic hormone or ADH, by the pituitary gland. It can also be caused by a lack of usual response by the kidney to ADH. The condition is less common than diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) that result from insulin deficiency. Types of Diabetes Insipidus Central diabetes insipidus is caused due to damage to the pituitary gland that results in inadequate or total lack of output of antidiuretic hormone. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused when the kidney is not able to respond to ADH. Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused due to a defect in the thirst mechanism, located in the hypothalamus (a portion of the brain). This form of diabetes insipidus may be confused with central diabetes insipidus. Gestational diabetes insipidusu occurs only during pregnancy and is caused when an enzyme, named oxytocinase (P-LAP), released by the placenta affects the ADH. Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus The main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are excessive urination and excessive thirst. The volume of urine passed out through the day can be anywhere between 3 to 20 liters. In some severe cases, it can go up to 30 liters. Secondary symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea due to dehydration, waking up frequently in the middle of the night to urinate, dry skin, weak muscles and constant fatigue. How Is Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosed? Since diabetes insipidus has symptoms like that of diabetes, special tes Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus And Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Insipidus And Diabetes Mellitus

The word Diabetes is well known and it is mostly associated with a disease involving difficulties with sugar. There are actually two unrelated diseases named Diabetes - Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus. This article is to highlight each and to show the differences between the two. Similarities Both diseases are dependent on the action of hormones; Insulin for Diabetes Mellitus and Vasopressin for Diabetes Insipidus. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. Vasopressin is produced by the Hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. Insulin is necessary for the utilization of sugar/glucose. Vasopressin is the hormone that regulates the body’s retention of water. In both the diseases there are variances derived the same way. A lack of or not enough of the hormone and a specific type of the disease is present. A lack of Insulin and the disease is Diabetes Mellitus Type 1. A lack of Vasopressin and the disease is Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus. When the body is unable to use the hormone effectively another condition is present. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, when the cells are insulin resistant. When the kidneys are insensitive to vasopressin, Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (vasopressin-resistant) is the result. During pregnancy, the body is subjected to a multitude of diverse hormones and chemical reactions, caused mostly by the placenta. This hormonal imbalance can cause a temporary disease that occurs only during the pregnancy. The resistance to Insulin results in gestational diabetes mellitus. A deficiency of vasopressin causes gestagenic diabetes insipidus, also known as gestational diabetes insipidus. With both diseases, the body returns to normal shortly (four to six weeks) after the delivery. Diabetes Insipidus have a fourth condition, with no equivalent in diabet Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus Vs. Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Insipidus Vs. Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood while diabetes insipidus is a disease where kidneys are unable to conserve water. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease while diabetes mellitus is very common; "diabetes" in general usage refers to diabetes mellitus, which is of 3 types — gestational, Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The causes, symptoms, treatment and prognosis for diabetes insipidus are different from diabetes mellitus. Comparison chart Excessive thirst, excess volume of severely diluted urine. High blood sugar, excessive urination, increased thirst, increased hunger. 3 in 100,000 people 7.7 per 1000 people Deficiency of ADH. Brain tumor, head injury, medication such as lithium, genetics Type 1 - Autoimmune Disease; Type 2 - Genetics, lifestyle, infection Typically desmopressin (nasal spray) or IM, IV hypertonic saline solution (3% or 5%). Thiazide diuretics. Insulin and lifestyle management Causes and Types of Diabetes Diabetes insipidus Diabetes insipidus, or DI, is characterized by the inability of kidneys to conserve water when they purify blood. This can be either because of: a deficiency of ADH (antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin), or a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH In the first case, the condition is called central DI, and in the second case it is called nephrogenic DI. Central DI is the more common form of the disease. Central DI can be inherited or caused due to damage to either the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that produces ADH) or the pituitary gland, where ADH is stored. Head injuries, tumors, infections or surgery can inflict such damage. Nephrogenic DI can be inherited (from mother to son) or be caused by kidney disease, hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the body) or by certain drugs such as lithiu Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body loses too much fluid through urination, causing a significant risk of dangerous dehydration as well as a range of illnesses and conditions. There are two forms of the disease: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and central diabetes insipidus (also known as neurogenic diabetes insipidus). A number of factors have been linked to the development of diabetes insipidus, which may also occur in pregnancy or with the use of certain medications. Establishing the cause of the problem can help determine the most appropriate treatment to support the regulation of water balance in the body. Diabetes insipidus is a condition that can be managed successfully. Contents of this article: What is diabetes insipidus? An uncommon condition, diabetes insipidus is a disorder affecting the regulation of body fluid levels. Two key symptoms resemble those of the more common forms of diabetes that affect blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2).1-5 People with diabetes insipidus produce excessive amounts of urine (polyuria), resulting in frequent urination and, in turn, thirst (polydipsia). However, the underlying cause of these two symptoms is quite different from the causes in types 1 and 2 diabetes. In diabetes mellitus, elevated blood sugar prompts the production of large volumes of urine to help remove the excess sugar from the body. In diabetes insipidus, it is the body's water balance system itself that is not working properly. Here are some key points about diabetes insipidus. More detail and supporting information is in the body of this article. Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body fails to properly control water balance, resulting in excessive urination. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by low or absent secretion of t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Print Overview Diabetes insipidus (die-uh-BEE-teze in-SIP-uh-dus) is an uncommon disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body. This imbalance leads to intense thirst even after drinking fluids (polydipsia), and excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). While the names diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus sound similar, they're not related. Diabetes mellitus — which can occur as type 1 or type 2 — is the more common form of diabetes. There's no cure for diabetes insipidus, but treatments are available to relieve your thirst and normalize your urine output. Symptoms The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus are: Extreme thirst Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine Depending on the severity of the condition, urine output can be as much as 16 quarts (about 15 liters) a day if you're drinking a lot of fluids. Normally, a healthy adult will urinate an average of less than 3 quarts (about 3 liters) a day. Other signs may include needing to get up at night to urinate (nocturia) and bed-wetting. Infants and young children who have diabetes insipidus may have the following signs and symptoms: Unexplained fussiness or inconsolable crying Trouble sleeping Fever Vomiting Diarrhea Delayed growth Weight loss When to see a doctor See your doctor immediately if you notice the two most common signs of diabetes insipidus: excessive urination and extreme thirst. Causes Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body can't regulate how it handles fluids. Normally, your kidneys remove excess body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid waste is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before you urinate. When your fluid regulation system is working properly, your kidneys conserve fluid and make less urine when your body water is decreased, suc Continue reading >>

In What Ways Do Diabetes Insipidus & Diabetes Mellitus Differ?

In What Ways Do Diabetes Insipidus & Diabetes Mellitus Differ?

Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are very different conditions. The commonality between the two, besides the word "diabetes," is that both involve thirst and urination. Beyond this point the conditions differ significantly. The National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse defines three main types of diabetes mellitus and various other forms, all acting upon insulin levels that regulate blood sugar. Diabetes insipidus has four types and none of the forms relate to insulin production or regulation. Furthermore, the causes of the conditions, the hormones affected and condition management all differ between diabetes insipidus and mellitus. Video of the Day Diabetes insipidus is uncommon compared to diabetes mellitus in the general population. The cause of diabetes insipidus stems from an antidiuretic hormone, which is produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. MayoClinic.com indicates that the process of fluid excretion signaled by the hormone to the kidneys is disrupted either due to a defect in the kidney tubules or because of damage to the brain impacting the release of the antidiuretic hormone. The cause of diabetes mellitus is an insufficiency in a different hormone that is produced in the pancreas--either in the production of the hormone, or in the body's ability to respond to it. Diabetes mellitus is also referred to as sugar diabetes because the disease centers around the body's inability to properly process glucose, a form of sugar that is the body's primary energy source. Vasopressin is a hormone created and secreted by the brain for controlling water metabolism. According to the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, when this hormone is secreted to the kidneys it directs the kidneys t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Overview Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition where you produce a large amount of urine and often feel thirsty. Diabetes insipidus isn't related to diabetes mellitus (usually just known as diabetes), but it does share some of the same signs and symptoms. The two main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are: passing large amounts of urine, even at night (polyuria) In very severe cases of diabetes insipidus, up to 20 litres of urine can be passed in a day. Read more about the symptoms of diabetes insipidus. When to seek medical advice You should always see your GP if you're feeling thirsty all the time. Although it may not be diabetes insipidus, it should be investigated. Also see your GP if you're: passing more urine than normal – most healthy adults pass urine four to seven times in a 24 hour period passing small amounts of urine at frequent intervals – sometimes, this can occur along with the feeling that you need to pass urine immediately Children tend to urinate more frequently because they have smaller bladders. However, seek medical advice if your child urinates more than 10 times a day. Your GP will be able to carry out a number of tests to help determine what's causing the problem. Read more about diagnosing diabetes insipidus. What causes diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a hormone called vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). AVP plays a key role in regulating the amount of fluid in the body. It's produced by specialist nerve cells in a part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. AVP passes from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland where it's stored until needed. The pituitary gland releases AVP when the amount of water in the body becomes too low. It helps retain water in the body by reducing the amount Continue reading >>

4 Types Of Diabetes Insipidus

4 Types Of Diabetes Insipidus

When the body is unable to regulate how it handles the fluids that are within it, then diabetes insipidus will occur. The kidneys do more than just filter the blood to eliminate impurities. They also have a second job: to remove extra fluids. These extra fluids become urine and this gets stored in the bladder. When working properly, the system is self-regulating and will create less urine when more water is needed for exercise or sweat to cool off the body. It will create more when too many fluids are present. In 3 out of the 4 types of diabetes insipidus, the regulation system malfunctions and causes the kidneys to think that there is too much water in the body. Because of this, they will continually pull out fluids from the blood stream and turn it into urine. Depending on how many fluids are consumed over the course of the day, a person with diabetes insipidus may expel over 20 liters of urine over the course of 24 hours. That’s enough to fill 5 one gallon milk jugs with urine. Normally the human body creates an anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) called Vasopressin that is stored in the pituitary gland. That’s located at the base of the brain and the amount of ADH that gets released is controlled by the hypothalamus. When the body gets dehydrated, more ADH is produced to tell the kidneys to absorb more water. This creates urine concentration. When the body is hydrated, then there is less Vasopressin and this tells the kidneys to take more water out of the blood. Each type of diabetes insipidus has its own unique set of causes, symptoms, and treatments. Here is an in-depth look at this disease and what a diagnosis may mean. 1. Central Diabetes Insipidus Is the Most Common Form Central diabetes insipidus is the most common form of DI because it occurs in all population de Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

Most people have heard of the two main types of diabetes. But did you know the name has nothing to do with high blood sugar? It's a general term for any condition that causes your body to make a lot of urine. And that’s just what, diabetes insipidus does. This condition makes you extra thirsty. As a result, you pee -- a lot. Your body makes a substance called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It’s produced in a part of your brain called the hypothalamus and stored in your pituitary gland. It tells your kidneys to hold onto water, which makes your urine more concentrated. When you’re thirsty or slightly dehydrated, ADH levels rise. Your kidneys reabsorb more water and put out concentrated urine. If you’ve had plenty to drink, ADH levels fall and what comes out is clear and dilute. When your body doesn’t make enough ADH, the condition is called central diabetes insipidus. If you make enough but your kidneys can't respond to it, you have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In either form, the result is the same. Your kidneys can't retain water, so even if you’re dehydrated, they'll put out a lot of pale, or diluted urine. When your kidneys can’t conserve water, you’ll: Get really thirsty Pee a lot -- this is known as polyuria Some people get dehydrated. If you lose too much water, you could have: Lethargy Muscle pains Irritability If you have this condition, you’ll probably wind up at the doctor for help with your thirst and constant need for a bathroom. To diagnose you, the doctor will do a series of blood and urine tests that may take several hours. You’ll go without water the whole time, so you’ll get thirstier. Your doctor will measure the sodium in your blood and pee. He may give you an ADH substitute to see if your kidneys respond by concentrating your ur Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus has several causes. In some people, a part of the brain (called the hypothalamus) doesn’t make enough ADH. ADH helps your body balance water in the urine and blood. In other cases, the pituitary gland (responsible for releasing ADH into the body) doesn’t release enough of the hormone. Damage to either the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland can cause diabetes insipidus. This can occur after a head injury, during brain surgery, or when a tumor grows on the glands. Abnormalities in the kidneys can also cause diabetes insipidus. If the kidneys are abnormal, it can affect the way they process ADH. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by some medicines, such as lithium. About 30% of the time, doctors can’t find the cause. To check for diabetes insipidus, your doctor may order a urine test. This will show how much water is in your urine. It can rule out type 1 or type 2 diabetes (if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, there will be excess sugar in your urine). Your doctor might do a blood test to check for high sodium levels. This is another indication of diabetes insipidus. Your doctor may also order a water deprivation test. During this test, you aren’t allowed to drink any liquids. The staff will weigh you and check your urine and blood every hour for several hours. The results of this test may show that you have diabetes insipidus. If so, you will probably need more tests. Your doctor will likely order pictures of your brain using an MRI (magnetic resonance image) scan. The scans can show problems or tumors in the brain that could be causing your diabetes insipidus. If your symptoms are mild, you might not need treatment. However, your doctor will want to check on you more often. You should make sure you always have something to drink. This will ens Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

What are the types of diabetes insipidus? Central Diabetes Insipidus The most common form of serious diabetes insipidus, central diabetes insipidus, results from damage to the pituitary gland, which disrupts the normal storage and release of ADH. Damage to the pituitary gland can be caused by different diseases as well as by head injuries, neurosurgery, or genetic disorders. To treat the ADH deficiency that results from any kind of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary, a synthetic hormone called desmopressin can be taken by an injection, a nasal spray, or a pill. While taking desmopressin, a person should drink fluids only when thirsty and not at other times. The drug prevents water excretion, and water can build up now that the kidneys are making less urine and are less responsive to changes in body fluids. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results when the kidneys are unable to respond to ADH. The kidneys' ability to respond to ADH can be impaired by drugs-like lithium, for example-and by chronic disorders including polycystic kidney disease, sickle cell disease, kidney failure, partial blockage of the ureters, and inherited genetic disorders. Sometimes the cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is never discovered. Desmopressin will not work for this form of diabetes insipidus. Instead, a person with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may be given hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or indomethacin. HCTZ is sometimes combined with another drug called amiloride. The combination of HCTZ and amiloride is sold under the brand name Moduretic. Again, with this combination of drugs, one should drink fluids only when thirsty and not at other times. Dipsogenic Diabetes insipidus Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect in or damage to the thirst Continue reading >>

Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus Vs Diabetes Insipidus

Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus Vs Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are two medical conditions which are often confused as meaning the same thing. However, you should not mistake DI for DM which occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or becomes resistant to insulin. DI is associated with excessive urination and thirst. Hence, when you consider DI vs DM, you should know that they are not related in any way, though they may share the same symptoms such as excessive urination and excessive thirst. DM is a common condition compared to DI, which is rare. This could be attributed to the fact that DM is more prevalent compared to DI. That means there is a higher number of people diagnosed with DM compared to those diagnosed with DI. Another reason would be that DM is a serious medical condition which requires adopting a healthy lifestyle, such as exercise and diet, and insulin therapy. Any changes in these factors could be fatal in the long or short term. However, DI is not considered as serious a medical condition and can be managed by drinking enough fluids every day. What is DI? Diabetes insipidus is a rare medical condition characterized by high passage of urine due to kidney problems. This condition usually occurs when there is an imbalance of fluids in the body as a result of the kidney failing to regulate body fluids properly. This results in excessive thirst, even after taking water, and excessive urination (polyuria). Because of the high passage of urine, patients with DI may become dehydrated if they do not drink enough water to make up for the lost fluids. When functioning properly, your kidneys will remove excess water from your blood. This water waste will be stored in the bladder in the form urine which will be excreted from your body as urine. In case the fluid reg Continue reading >>

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