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Is Diabetes Insipidus Genetic?

Diabetes Insipidus In Children

Diabetes Insipidus In Children

Diabetes insipidus is a condition that results from insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or vasopressin, a hormone that helps the kidneys and body conserve the correct amount of water. Normally,ADH controls the kidneys' output of urine. It is secreted by the hypothalamus (a small gland located at the base of the brain),stored in the pituitary gland, and then released into the bloodstream. ADH is secreted to decrease the amount of urine output so that dehydration does not occur. Diabetes insipidus, however, causes excessive production of very diluted urine and excessive thirst. The disease is categorized into groups: Central diabetes insipidus.An insufficient production or secretion of ADH; can be a result of damage to the hypothalamus orpituitary gland caused by head injuries, genetic disorders, and other diseases. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.A lack of kidney response to normal levels of ADH can be caused by drugs or chronic disorders, such as kidney failure, sickle cell disease, or polycystic kidney disease. It can also be genetic. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by several conditions, including the following: Malfunctioning hypothalamus (that produces too little ADH) Malfunctioning pituitary gland (that fails to release ADH into the bloodstream) Damage to hypothalamus or pituitary gland during surgery Blockage in the arteries leading to the brain Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord) Sarcoidosis(a rare inflammation of the lymph nodes and other tissues throughout the body) Infants with diabetes insipidus may also exhibit the following symptoms: The symptoms of diabetes insipidus may resemble other problems or medical conditions. Always consult your child'sdoctor for a diagnosis. In addit Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Not to be confused with Neurogenic diabetes insipidus. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (also known as renal diabetes insipidus) is a form of diabetes insipidus primarily due to pathology of the kidney. This is in contrast to central/neurogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by insufficient levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, that is, arginine vasopressin or AVP). Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by an improper response of the kidney to ADH, leading to a decrease in the ability of the kidney to concentrate the urine by removing free water. Signs and symptoms[edit] The clinical manifestation is similar to neurogenic diabetes insipidus, presenting with excessive thirst and excretion of a large amount of dilute urine. Dehydration is common, and incontinence can occur secondary to chronic bladder distension.[1] On investigation, there will be an increased plasma osmolarity and decreased urine osmolarity. As pituitary function is normal, ADH levels are likely to be abnormal or raised. Polyuria will continue as long as the patient is able to drink. If the patient is unable to drink and is still unable to concentrate the urine, then hypernatremia will ensue with its neurologic symptoms.[citation needed] Causes[edit] Acquired[edit] Nephrogenic DI (NDI) is most common in its acquired forms, meaning that the defect was not present at birth. These acquired forms have numerous potential causes. The most obvious cause is a kidney or systemic disorder, including amyloidosis,[2] polycystic kidney disease,[3] electrolyte imbalance,[4][5] or some other kidney defect.[2] The major causes of acquired NDI that produce clinical symptoms (e.g. polyuria) in the adult are lithium toxicity and high blood calcium. Chronic lithium ingestion – appears to affect the tubules by enterin Continue reading >>

Molecular Biology Of Hereditary Diabetes Insipidus

Molecular Biology Of Hereditary Diabetes Insipidus

Abstract The identification, characterization, and mutational analysis of three different genes—the arginine vasopressin gene (AVP), the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 gene (AVPR2), and the vasopressin-sensitive water channel gene (aquaporin 2 [AQP2])—provide the basis for understanding of three different hereditary forms of “pure” diabetes insipidus: Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), and non–X-linked NDI, respectively. It is clinically useful to distinguish two types of hereditary NDI: A “pure” type characterized by loss of water only and a complex type characterized by loss of water and ions. Patients who have congenital NDI and bear mutations in the AVPR2 or AQP2 genes have a “pure” NDI phenotype with loss of water but normal conservation of sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. Patients who bear inactivating mutations in genes (SLC12A1, KCNJ1, CLCNKB, CLCNKA and CLCNKB in combination, or BSND) that encode the membrane proteins of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle have a complex polyuro-polydipsic syndrome with loss of water, sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. These advances provide diagnostic and clinical tools for physicians who care for these patients. Anyone who passes large volumes of urine might be said to be experiencing diabetes insipidus. Years ago, the initial distinction made by physicians in evaluating patients with polyuria was whether their urine was sweet (diabetes mellitus) or not (diabetes insipidus) (1). Diabetes insipidus is a disorder characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes (>30 ml/kg body wt/d for adults) of dilute urine (<250 mmol/kg). This definition excludes osmotic diuresis, which occurs when excess solute is being excrete Continue reading >>

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Central Diabetes Insipidus

In CDI, symptoms may develop over time or abruptly and may affect individuals of any age. CDI is characterized by excessive thirst (polydipsia) and excessive urination (polyuria), even at night (nocturia). The severity and progression of CDI varies from case to case. Some individuals may have a severe form of the disorder (complete CDI) with little or no vasopressin activity. Others may have a mild form of the disorder (partial CDI) with residual vasopressin activity. Without appropriate AVP secretion, individuals with central diabetes insipidus are unable to concentrate the urine by reabsorbing water in the kidneys. This results in obligatory excessive urine output of dilute urine. Consequently, individuals must drink excessively to prevent dehydration. In response to thirst, affected individuals may drink several gallons of water a day. If affected individuals are deprived of water for an extended period of time, rapid dehydration will occur. Thirst cravings can be strong enough to awaken people from sleep. In infants, additional symptoms may occur including irritability, lethargy, vomiting, constipation and fever. If left untreated, repeated episodes of dehydration can potentially result in seizures, brain damage, developmental delays, and physical and mental retardation. However, with proper diagnosis and prompt treatment intelligence and development is usually normal unless more global problems in development of the brain are associated. Affected children may develop bedwetting (enuresis), fatigue, weight loss, and growth retardation. Individuals with CDI are at risk of developing dehydration and cardiovascular symptoms including irregular heartbeats, fever, dry skin and mucous membranes, confusion, seizures, change in consciousness, and potentially coma. Affected Continue reading >>

Genetics And Diagnosis Of Central Diabetes Insipidus - Sciencedirect

Genetics And Diagnosis Of Central Diabetes Insipidus - Sciencedirect

Volume 73, Issue 2 , April 2012, Pages 117-127 Genetics and diagnosis of central diabetes insipidusGntique et diagnostic du diabte insipide central Author links open overlay panel Daniel G.Bichet Get rights and content Most of the central diabetes insipidus cases seen in general practice are acquired but the rare cases of hereditary autosomal dominant or recessive neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus have provided further cellular understanding of the mechanisms responsible for pre-hormone folding, maturation and release. Autosomal dominant central diabetes insipidus is secondary to the toxic accumulation of vasopressin mutants as fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons producing vasopressin. As well, Trpv1/ and Trpv4/ mice have shed new light on the perception of tonicity through the stretch receptors TRPVs expressed both in central and peripheral neurons. The genomic information provided by sequencing the AVP gene is key to the routine care of these patients and, as in other genetic diseases, reduces health costs and provides psychological benefits to patients and families. In addition, simple, inexpensive blood and urine measurements together with clinical characteristics and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could distinguish between central, nephrogenic and polydipsic cases. La grande majorit des cas de diabte insipide vus en pratique gnrale sont acquis; cependant, les cas rares hrditaires de diabte insipide central autosomiques dominant ou rcessif ont permis une comprhension approfondie des mcanismes responsables de la plicature de la prohormone, de sa maturation et de sa scrtion. Les diabtes insipides centraux autosomiques dominants sont secondaires laccumulation, dans le rticulum endoplasmique des cellules mag Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.[1] The amount of urine produced can be nearly 20 liters per day.[1] Reduction of fluid has little effect on the concentration of the urine.[1] Complications may include dehydration or seizures.[1] There are four types of DI, each with a different set of causes.[1] Central DI (CDI) is due to a lack of the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone).[1] This can be due to damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland or genetics.[1] Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidneys do not respond properly to vasopressin.[1] Dipsogenic DI is due to abnormal thirst mechanisms in the hypothalamus while gestational DI occurs only during pregnancy.[1] Diagnosis is often based on urine tests, blood tests, and the fluid deprivation test.[1] Diabetes mellitus is a separate condition with an unrelated mechanism, though both can result in the production of large amounts of urine.[1] Treatment involves drinking sufficient fluids to prevent dehydration.[1] Other treatments depend on the type.[1] In central and gestational disease treated is with desmopressin.[1] Nephrogenic disease may be treated by addressing the underlying cause or the use of a thiazide, aspirin, or ibuprofen.[1] The number of new cases of diabetes insipidus each year is 3 in 100,000.[4] Central DI usually starts between the ages of 10 and 20 and occurs in males and females equally.[2] Nephrogenic DI can begin at any age.[3] The term "diabetes" is derived from the Greek word meaning siphon.[5] Signs and symptoms[edit] Excessive urination and extreme thirst and increased fluid intake (especially for cold water and sometimes ice or ice water) are typical for DI.[6] The symptoms of excessive urination Continue reading >>

Causes

Causes

Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a chemical called vasopressin (AVP), which is also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) . AVP is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland until needed. The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that controls mood and appetite. The pituitary gland is located below your brain, behind the bridge of your nose. AVP regulates the level of water in your body by controlling the amount of urine your kidneys produce. When the level of water in your body decreases, your pituitary gland releases AVP to conserve water and stop the production of urine. In diabetes insipidus, AVP fails to properly regulate your body's level of water, and allows too much urine to be produced and passed from your body. There are two main types of diabetes insipidus: cranial diabetes insipidus – where the body doesn't produce enough AVP, so excessive amounts of water are lost in large amounts of urine nephrogenic diabetes insipidus – where AVP is produced at the right levels but, for a variety of reasons, the kidneys don't respond to it in the normal way. Possible underlying causes for both types of diabetes insipidus are described below. Cranial diabetes insipidus The three most common causes of cranial diabetes insipidus are: a brain tumour that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland a severe head injury that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland complications that occur during brain or pituitary surgery No cause can be found for about a third of all cases of cranial diabetes insipidus. These cases, known as idiopathic, appear to be related to the immune system attacking the normal, healthy cells producing AVP. It's unclear what causes the immune system to do this. Less common causes of cranial diabetic insipidus include: Continue reading >>

Omim Entry - # 125800 - Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic, Autosomal

Omim Entry - # 125800 - Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic, Autosomal

DIABETES INSIPIDUS, NEPHROGENIC, AUTOSOMAL - Autosomal recessive [SNOMEDCT: 258211005 ] [UMLS: C0441748 HPO: HP:0000007 ] [HPO: HP:0000007 UMLS: C0441748 , C4020899 ] - Short stature [SNOMEDCT: 422065006 , 237837007 , 237836003 ] [ICD10CM: R62.52 , E34.3 ] [ICD9CM: 783.43 ] [UMLS: C0013336 , C0349588 , C2237041 , C2919142 HPO: HP:0004322 , HP:0003510 ] [HPO: HP:0004322 UMLS: C0349588 ] - Failure to thrive [SNOMEDCT: 54840006 , 433476000 , 432788009 ] [ICD10CM: R62.51 ] [ICD9CM: 783.41 ] [UMLS: C2315100 , C0015544 , C3887638 HPO: HP:0001508 ] [HPO: HP:0001508 UMLS: C0231246 , C2315100 ] - Polydipsia [SNOMEDCT: 17173007 , 267026004 ] [ICD10CM: R63.1 ] [ICD9CM: 783.5 ] [UMLS: C0085602 HPO: HP:0001959 ] [HPO: HP:0001959 UMLS: C0085602 ] - Polyuria [SNOMEDCT: 28442001 , 718402002 , 56574000 ] [ICD10CM: R35 , R35.8 ] [ICD9CM: 788.42 ] [UMLS: C0032617 HPO: HP:0000103 ] [HPO: HP:0000103 UMLS: C0032617 ] - Lower urinary tract dilatation may occur over time [UMLS: C1844656 ] - Seizures [SNOMEDCT: 91175000 ] [ICD10CM: R56.9 ] [ICD9CM: 780.3 ] [UMLS: C0036572 HPO: HP:0001250 ] [HPO: HP:0001250 UMLS: C0014544 , C0036572 ] - Mental retardation can occur in patients with repeated episodes of dehydration [UMLS: C1844655 ] - Irritability [SNOMEDCT: 55929007 ] [ICD9CM: 799.22 ] [UMLS: C2700617 , C0022107 HPO: HP:0000737 ] [HPO: HP:0000737 UMLS: C2700617 ] - Unexplained fevers [UMLS: C1844662 HPO: HP:0001955 ] [HPO: HP:0001955 UMLS: C1844662 ] - Hypernatremia [SNOMEDCT: 39355002 ] [ICD10CM: E87.0 ] [UMLS: C1522136 , C0020488 HPO: HP:0003228 ] [HPO: HP:0003228 UMLS: C0020488 ] - High serum osmolality [UMLS: C1852094 ] - Inappropriately low urine osmolality [UMLS: C1852095 ] - Normal or increased levels of serum arginine vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, 192340 ) - Normal extrarenal respo Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a disorder in which a defect in the small tubes (tubules) in the kidneys causes a person to produce a large amount of urine. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidney tubules, which allow water to be removed from the body or reabsorbed, do not respond to a chemical in the body called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin.[1] ADH normally tells the kidneys to make the urine more concentrated. As a result of the defect, the kidneys release an excessive amount of water into the urine, producing a large quantity of very dilute urine.[2] The most common symptoms are frequent urination (polyuria), especially during nighttime (nocturia), and drinking too much liquids (polydipsia). It can be either acquired or hereditary. The acquired form is brought on by certain drugs and chronic diseases and can occur at any time during life. About 90% of all cases of hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus result from mutations in the AVPR2 gene, and about 10% of cases are caused by mutations in the AQP2 gene.[3][4] Treatment consists of plenty of water intake; medication, such as thiazide diuretics and NSAIDs; and a low-salt, low-protein diet.[5] Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

NORD gratefully acknowledges Jeff M. Sands, MD, Juha P. Kokko Professor of Medicine and Physiology, Renal Division Director, Executive Vice-Chair of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, for assistance in the preparation of this report. Synonyms of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus NDI vasopressin-resistant diabetes insipidus General Discussion Summary Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare kidney disorder that may be inherited or acquired. NDI is not related to the more common diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. NDI is a distinct disorder caused by complete or partial resistance of the kidneys to arginine vasopressin (AVP). Vasopressin is an antidiuretic hormone used by the kidney to manage water balance in the body. NDI causes chronic excessive thirst (polydipsia), excessive urine production (polyuria), and potentially dehydration. If left untreated, repeated episodes of severe dehydration may develop, eventually resulting in serious complications. Most cases of hereditary NDI are inherited as X-linked recessive disorders. Rare cases are inherited as an autosomal recessive or dominant disorder. Two different genes have been identified that cause hereditary NDI. NDI may also be acquired during life as a result of drug use (e.g., lithium therapy), kidney disease, obstruction of the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), and prolonged metabolic imbalances such as low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) or high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). NDI may also be a temporary complication associated with pregnancy. Introduction Th Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body loses too much fluid through urination, causing a significant risk of dangerous dehydration as well as a range of illnesses and conditions. There are two forms of the disease: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and central diabetes insipidus (also known as neurogenic diabetes insipidus). A number of factors have been linked to the development of diabetes insipidus, which may also occur in pregnancy or with the use of certain medications. Establishing the cause of the problem can help determine the most appropriate treatment to support the regulation of water balance in the body. Diabetes insipidus is a condition that can be managed successfully. Contents of this article: What is diabetes insipidus? An uncommon condition, diabetes insipidus is a disorder affecting the regulation of body fluid levels. Two key symptoms resemble those of the more common forms of diabetes that affect blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2).1-5 People with diabetes insipidus produce excessive amounts of urine (polyuria), resulting in frequent urination and, in turn, thirst (polydipsia). However, the underlying cause of these two symptoms is quite different from the causes in types 1 and 2 diabetes. In diabetes mellitus, elevated blood sugar prompts the production of large volumes of urine to help remove the excess sugar from the body. In diabetes insipidus, it is the body's water balance system itself that is not working properly. Here are some key points about diabetes insipidus. More detail and supporting information is in the body of this article. Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the body fails to properly control water balance, resulting in excessive urination. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by low or absent secretion of t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Print Overview Diabetes insipidus (die-uh-BEE-teze in-SIP-uh-dus) is an uncommon disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body. This imbalance leads to intense thirst even after drinking fluids (polydipsia), and excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). While the names diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus sound similar, they're not related. Diabetes mellitus — which can occur as type 1 or type 2 — is the more common form of diabetes. There's no cure for diabetes insipidus, but treatments are available to relieve your thirst and normalize your urine output. Symptoms The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus are: Extreme thirst Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine Depending on the severity of the condition, urine output can be as much as 16 quarts (about 15 liters) a day if you're drinking a lot of fluids. Normally, a healthy adult will urinate an average of less than 3 quarts (about 3 liters) a day. Other signs may include needing to get up at night to urinate (nocturia) and bed-wetting. Infants and young children who have diabetes insipidus may have the following signs and symptoms: Unexplained fussiness or inconsolable crying Trouble sleeping Fever Vomiting Diarrhea Delayed growth Weight loss When to see a doctor See your doctor immediately if you notice the two most common signs of diabetes insipidus: excessive urination and extreme thirst. Causes Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body can't regulate how it handles fluids. Normally, your kidneys remove excess body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid waste is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before you urinate. When your fluid regulation system is working properly, your kidneys conserve fluid and make less urine when your body water is decreased, suc Continue reading >>

Omim Entry - # 304800 - Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic, X-linked

Omim Entry - # 304800 - Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic, X-linked

DIABETES INSIPIDUS, NEPHROGENIC, X-LINKED - X-linked recessive [SNOMEDCT: 203592006 ] [UMLS: C1279481 , C1845977 HPO: HP:0001419 ] [HPO: HP:0001419 UMLS: C1845977 ] - Short stature [SNOMEDCT: 422065006 , 237837007 , 237836003 ] [ICD10CM: R62.52 , E34.3 ] [ICD9CM: 783.43 ] [UMLS: C0013336 , C0349588 , C2237041 , C2919142 HPO: HP:0004322 , HP:0003510 ] [HPO: HP:0004322 UMLS: C0349588 ] - Failure to thrive [SNOMEDCT: 54840006 , 433476000 , 432788009 ] [ICD10CM: R62.51 ] [ICD9CM: 783.41 ] [UMLS: C2315100 , C0015544 , C3887638 HPO: HP:0001508 ] [HPO: HP:0001508 UMLS: C0231246 , C2315100 ] - Polydipsia [SNOMEDCT: 17173007 , 267026004 ] [ICD10CM: R63.1 ] [ICD9CM: 783.5 ] [UMLS: C0085602 HPO: HP:0001959 ] [HPO: HP:0001959 UMLS: C0085602 ] - Polyuria [SNOMEDCT: 28442001 , 718402002 , 56574000 ] [ICD10CM: R35 , R35.8 ] [ICD9CM: 788.42 ] [UMLS: C0032617 HPO: HP:0000103 ] [HPO: HP:0000103 UMLS: C0032617 ] - Lower urinary tract dilatation may occur over time [UMLS: C1844656 ] - Seizures [SNOMEDCT: 91175000 ] [ICD10CM: R56.9 ] [ICD9CM: 780.3 ] [UMLS: C0036572 HPO: HP:0001250 ] [HPO: HP:0001250 UMLS: C0014544 , C0036572 ] - Mental retardation can occur in patients with repeated episodes of dehydration [UMLS: C1844655 ] - Irritability [SNOMEDCT: 55929007 ] [ICD9CM: 799.22 ] [UMLS: C2700617 , C0022107 HPO: HP:0000737 ] [HPO: HP:0000737 UMLS: C2700617 ] - Unexplained fevers [UMLS: C1844662 HPO: HP:0001955 ] [HPO: HP:0001955 UMLS: C1844662 ] - Hypernatremia [SNOMEDCT: 39355002 ] [ICD10CM: E87.0 ] [UMLS: C1522136 , C0020488 HPO: HP:0003228 ] [HPO: HP:0003228 UMLS: C0020488 ] - Decreased urine osmolality [UMLS: C0854057 ] - Normal or increased levels of serum arginine vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, 192340 ) - Abnormal extrarenal response to dDAVP (no increase in von Willebrand factor o Continue reading >>

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a disorder of water balance. The body normally balances fluid intake with the excretion of fluid in urine. However, people with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus produce too much urine (polyuria), which causes them to be excessively thirsty (polydipsia). Affected individuals can quickly become dehydrated if they do not drink enough water, especially in hot weather or when they are sick. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be either acquired or hereditary. The acquired form is brought on by certain drugs and chronic diseases and can occur at any time during life. The hereditary form is caused by genetic mutations, and its signs and symptoms usually become apparent within the first few months of life. Infants with hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may eat poorly and fail to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). They may also be irritable and experience fevers, diarrhea, and vomiting. Recurrent episodes of dehydration can lead to slow growth and delayed development. If the condition is not well-managed, over time it can damage the bladder and kidneys leading to pain, infections, and kidney failure. With appropriate treatment, affected individuals usually have few complications and a normal lifespan. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus should not be confused with diabetes mellitus, which is much more common. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting from a shortage of the hormone insulin or an insensitivity to this hormone. Although nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus have some features in common, they are separate disorders with different causes. Continue reading >>

Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus

Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus

Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a disorder of water balance. The body normally balances fluid intake with the excretion of fluid in urine. However, people with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus produce too much urine (polyuria), which causes them to be excessively thirsty (polydipsia). Affected people need to urinate frequently, which can disrupt daily activities and sleep. People with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus can quickly become dehydrated if they do not drink enough water. Dehydration can lead to constipation and dry skin. If the disorder is not treated, more serious complications of dehydration can occur. These include confusion, low blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus can be either acquired or familial. The acquired form is brought on by injuries, tumors, and other factors, and can occur at any time during life. The familial form is caused by genetic mutations; its signs and symptoms usually become apparent in childhood and worsen over time. Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus should not be confused with diabetes mellitus, which is much more common. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting from a shortage of the hormone insulin or an insensitivity to this hormone. Although neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus have some features in common, they are separate disorders with different causes. Continue reading >>

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