Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced. Such a deficiency results in increased concentrations of glucose in the blood, which in turn damage many of the body's systems, in particular the blood vessels and nerves. There are two principle forms of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin-dependent) in which the pancreas fails to produce the insulin which is essential for survival. This form develops most frequently in children and adolescents, but is being increasingly noted later in life. Type 2 diabetes (formerly named non-insulin-dependent) which results from the body's inability to respond properly to the action of insulin produced by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is much more common and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide. It occurs most frequently in adults, but is being noted increasingly in adolescents as well. Certain genetic markers have been shown to increase the risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is strongly familial, but it is only recently that some genes have been consistently associated with increased risk for Type 2 diabetes in certain populations. Both types of diabetes are complex diseases caused by mutations in more than one gene, as well as by environmental factors. Diabetes in pregnancy may give rise to several adverse outcomes, including congenital malformations, increased birth weight and an elevated risk of perinatal mortality. Strict metabolic control may reduce these risks to the level of those of non-diabetic expectant mothers. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) refer to levels of blood glucose concentration above the normal r Continue reading >>
Genetics & Diabetes : What's Your Risk?
A school nurse anxiously wants to know if there is a reason why several children from her small grade school have been diagnosed with type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes. Is it an epidemic? Will there be more cases? Is a recent chicken pox outbreak to blame? A man in his 50s develops type 2 diabetes. His mother developed diabetes in her 60s. Should this man's brother and sister be concerned, too? What about his children's chances of developing diabetes? A married couple wants to have children, but they are concerned because the husband has type 1 diabetes. They wonder what the risk is that their child would have diabetes. A couple has three young children. One of the children develops type 1 diabetes. There's no history of diabetes anywhere in either parent's families. Is this just a fluke? What are the chances the other children will develop diabetes? Chances are if you or a loved one have diabetes, you may wonder if you inherited it from a family member or you may be concerned that you will pass the disease on to your children. Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center report that, while much has been learned about what genetic factors make one more susceptible to developing diabetes than another, many questions remain to be answered. While some people are more likely to get diabetes than others, and in some ways type 2 (adult onset diabetes) is simpler to track than type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes, the pattern is not always clear. For more than 20 years researchers in the Epidemiology and Genetics Section at Joslin in Boston (Section Head Andrzej S. Krolewski, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator James H. Warram, M.D., Sc.D., and colleagues) have been studying diabetes incidence and hereditary factors. They are continuing a scientific journey begun by Elliott P. Joslin, M.D., Continue reading >>
New Study Finds Type 2 Diabetes May Be Transmissible
New research suggests that type 2 diabetes might be transmissible and spread from person to person, according to a study in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. Type 2 Diabetes The pancreas produces insulin, a hormone, to convert glucose (also called blood sugar) into energy. People with diabetes can’t produce enough insulin or their body doesn’t respond to insulin, and typically must monitor blood sugar levels and inject insulin into the body periodically. Type 2 diabetes–the most common form of diabetes, is also called adult-onset diabetes, which means it was acquired. More than 420 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes, and its causes remain largely unknown. It has been linked to being overweight and/or consuming too much glucose, but not everyone that is overweight and over consuming sugar gets the disease. The new study performed by researchers at the University Houston has found that type 2 diabetes shares similarities with a group of transmissible neurodegenerative diseases known as “prion diseases.” “Mad Cow” and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Connection Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE’s), are a group of progressive neurodegenerative conditions–the most notorious being the so-called “mad cow disease” and the human equivalent, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It has been known that up to 80 percent of all people with type 2 diabetes also have an accumulation of what are called misfolded islet amyloid polypeptide proteins (IAPP). IAPP cells grow in a process called folding, and it is thought that misfolded IAPP damages the beta cells in the pancreas such that they impair the body’s ability to produce insulin needed to lower blood sugar levels. Misfolded prion proteins also are suspected to be the causes of Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Type 2 diabetes has several causes: genetics and lifestyle are the most important ones. A combination of these factors can cause insulin resistance, when your body doesn’t use insulin as well as it should. Insulin resistance is the most common cause of type 2 diabetes. Genetics Play a Role in Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes can be hereditary. That doesn’t mean that if your mother or father has (or had) type 2 diabetes, you’re guaranteed to develop it; instead, it means that you have a greater chance of developing type 2. Researchers know that you can inherit a risk for type 2 diabetes, but it’s difficult to pinpoint which genes carry the risk. The medical community is hard at work trying to figure out the certain genetic mutations that lead to a risk of type 2. Lifestyle Is Very Important, Too Genes do play a role in type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle choices are also important. You can, for example, have a genetic mutation that may make you susceptible to type 2, but if you take good care of your body, you may not develop diabetes. Say that two people have the same genetic mutation. One of them eats well, watches their cholesterol, and stays physically fit, and the other is overweight (BMI greater than 25) and inactive. The person who is overweight and inactive is much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes because certain lifestyle choices greatly influence how well your body uses insulin. Lack of exercise: Physical activity has many benefits—one of them being that it can help you avoid type 2 diabetes, if you’re susceptible. Unhealthy meal planning choices: A meal plan filled with high-fat foods and lacking in fiber (which you can get from grains, vegetables, and fruits) increases the likelihood of type 2. Overweight/Obesity: Lack of exercise and unhealthy me Continue reading >>
Diabetes In The Family: Is It Inherited?
I’m asking this on behalf of a friend whose grandfather and father have diabetes. Is it more likely that my friend will get it too? Is diabetes fatal? Diabetes occurs in two forms; type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes), which occurs in young people and is the more severe form, requiring insulin injections type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes), which is milder and occurs in older people and is usually controlled with diet and tablets. The details of whether diabetes can be inherited, and how this occurs, are not clear. About 10 per cent of people getting the more severe Type 1 diabetes have a close relative with this type of diabetes. That is not the same as saying that 10 per cent of people with affected relatives will get diabetes, but there is an unpredictable association. Type 2 diabetes also has a tendency to occur in families, but this is also not very strong and not predictable. In your friend’s case, if grandfather and father are affected, they probably have the milder Type 2 form of diabetes, so your friend has little risk of developing diabetes at a young age. It may be there is an increased risk of him developing diabetes in later life, but it would be the milder Type 2 form. I am a little confused that you say, ‘he takes pills and does a blood sugar test’. If you are referring to your friend then this probably means he has the mild form of diabetes already, and is probably an older person. You ask if you can get very ill with diabetes and die. Diabetes is a serious condition, but these days if patients follow their diet and take their pills or insulin treatment regularly, and keep their blood sugar within certain limits, they rarely get seriously ill and can live a long and active life. That is not to say there are no dangers with di Continue reading >>
Obesity, Diabetes, And Epigenetic Inheritance
Disease risk can be transmitted epigenetically via egg and sperm cells, a mouse study shows. While scientists have identified several genetic risk factors for diabetes and obesity, some have proposed epigenetic alterations in gametes as another potential mechanism of disease risk inheritance. Now, a mouse study by researchers in Germany provides new evidence in support of this epigenetic inheritance theory, showing that different diets in otherwise identical mice can determine glucose intolerance and obesity risk in offspring via egg and sperm cells. The team’s findings were published today (March 14) in Nature Genetics. “The view so far was that [risk] is all determined by genes—it’s fate,” said study coauthor Johannes Beckers of the Helmholtz Zentrum München. “But our findings give back a certain responsibility to the parents. They really have the possibility to affect what offspring inherit in their epigenome.” Approximately 90 percent of nearly 350 million cases of diabetes worldwide are classified as type 2. In addition to environmental factors often cited to explain the high prevalence of the disease—including poor diets and sedentary lifestyles—several epidemiological and mouse studies have hinted that diet-induced susceptibility to obesity and diabetes, acquired during parents’ lifetimes, can be inherited. However, previous analyses of the phenomenon have relied on in vivo fertilization to produce offspring, explained Beckers, making it difficult to distinguish heritable, epigenetic determinants in the gametes from other factors that can influence offspring development, such as the composition of paternal seminal fluid or diet-induced changes in the uterus during pregnancy. To circumvent this problem, Beckers’s team turned to in vitro fert Continue reading >>
Which Type Of Diabetes Is More Likely To Be Inherited And Why?
Question: Which type of diabetes is more likely to be inherited and why? Answer: Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in childhood, while type 2 diabetes usually develops in adults. However, some adults develop a form of diabetes that looks very similar to type 1 diabetes, and now with the huge increase in obesity, many children and adolescents are getting type 2 diabetes. Now, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have a genetic component; that means of course, that they tend to run in families. However, we often regard diseases that develop in childhood as being more likely to be due to genetics. But this is not the case for diabetes, and in fact, studies show that type 2, which mostly commonly develops in adulthood, seems to have a greater genetic basis than the childhood form of type 1 diabetes. For example, as you know, identical twins share 100 percent of their genetic material; however, if one twin has type 1 diabetes, the chance of that the other twin will develop it is only 10 to 20 percent. In contrast, if one twin has type 2, or the adult form of diabetes, the other twin has up to a 90 percent chance of developing type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, we know that overeating and lack of physical activity are very important contributors. Meanwhile, for type 1 diabetes, it's more the exposure to toxins in the environment, possibly viruses, and other external factors that can increase risk to this form of diabetes. Next: What Is The Risk That A Child Will Develop Diabetes If One Or Both Parents Are Diabetic? Previous: What Are The Meanings and Significance Of These Terms Related To Diabetes: 'Beta Cells,' 'Islets,' 'Glucagon,' and 'Amylin'? Continue reading >>
Is Diabetes A Hereditary Disease?
The entire approach and foundation of Orthodox Medicine is based on Luis Pasteur's Germ Theory, a flawed concept. A disease condition is viewed by the orthodoxy as an isolated event, confined to the area in which it manifests itself (E.g. an ear infection, eye infection, gum infection, lung cancer, skin cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. ). Under this theory, for unknown reasons, microbes or tumors indiscriminately grow in the patient and must be cut (surgery), burned (radiation), or poisoned (drugs) out of the body. In the orthodox model, the solution is sought through mechanical and chemical means. Seeking to understand WHY the infection or disease condition appeared in the first place, is not explored. The quick fix with a prescription for drugs to smother the symptoms is the typical orthodox 'answer'. A contemporary of Pasteur, Antoine Bechamp, had a different opinion as to why disease conditions 'took hold'. Bechamp felt that the ENVIRONMENT, or the ECOLOGY of the blood played the critical role in deciding whether disease conditions would manifest or not. It is important to discover the stressors (environmental, biological, chemical, psychological, and emotional) in a patient's life that cause a weakening of a particular bodily system; which in turn allows the manifestation of a disease condition in a weakened area. In order to maintain a state of health, all systems within the body need to exist in a state of balance or equilibrium. Imbalance leads to conditions of discomfort (dis-ease) which eventually spirals into ill health if not corrected. The Chinese and Indians (Ayurvedic medicine) had worked all of this out thousands of years ago. Doctors at the International Council for Truth in Medicine are revealing the truth about diabetes that has been suppressed f Continue reading >>
Hypothesis A Unifying Hypothesis For Hereditary And Acquired Diabetes
Abstract Data on insulin and glucagon release in response to a variety of stimuli in subjects with various degrees of glucose intolerance have indicated that differential and selective functional impairment of both alpha and beta pancreatic cells is characteristic. Subjects under consideration include those with genetic diabetes and the naturally acquired model of diabetes and prediabetes found in chronic pancreatitis. The glucoreceptor mechanism in both types of islet cell is damaged early, so that the response of both insulin and glucagon to hyperglycaemia is impaired, while the response to gut hormone (and hence to food) remains relatively intact. The early lesion in these syndromes of diabetes may thus be an acquired or inherited selective blindness of alpha and beta cells to glucose. Continue reading >>
Want To Find Out If Diabetes Is Hereditary? Here's Your Answer
Diabetes is the sweet disease that can lead to many health problems including heart diseases, stroke and even gout. Diabetes is becoming a very common disease not only in the Western world, but also in developing countries. Researchers are searching for answers that lead to concrete causes of diabetes. Many times, it is seen that diabetes runs in families. It is a condition that develops when the body is not able to produce or use the stored glucose in the body. This causes the blood sugar or glucose levels in the body to rise. When sugar or starchy foods are eaten they are broken down into glucose. This glucose is then converted into energy by the body with the help of insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. If there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body, it will lead to improper absorption of glucose by the body. Thus, the level of glucose in the blood rises leading to increase in blood sugar level. There are two types of diabetes that can affect people. Type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile onset or insulin dependent diabetes and Type 2 diabetes, or adult onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes are the two types. Type 1 diabetes affects children and young adults, as their body does not produce any insulin. Thus, making them dependent on insulin injections for survival. Type 2 diabetes occurs in people over 40 and those who are obese, have a family history of diabetes and unhealthy lifestyle. Diabetes is a disease that is commonly seen in adults as well as children and young adults these days. Most of the time, if one or both or the parents have diabetes, their children seem to develop diabetes during some time of their life. This is very common and people often think diabetes runs in their families. Genes are passed on from parents to their ch Continue reading >>
Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes
What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>
How Does A Person Acquire Diabetes
Diabetes is a condition where the body, or to be precise the pancreas, loses its ability to create insulin, the chemical necessary to regulate blood sugar levels. As we take in food, a substance called glucose enters through the bloodstream, and it is insulin's role to make sure that that glucose is carried to different parts of the body, in turn fuels us with the energy we need. Diabetes is often considered as a silent disease, much like cancer and nearly five out of ten people are unaware that they have diabetes. So how did we get such a disease? A known fact about diabetes is that it can be hereditary, especially if a family member has a history of diabetes. Obesity is also one of the most common factors, leading to the lack of exercise and high blood pressure levels. US studies have shown that diabetes can also develop when a mother gives birth to a child who weighs more than 9 pounds. There are two types of diabetes: The Type 1 diabetes inflicts mostly children when the pancreas completely loses its ability to secrete insulin. Common diabetic symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination and continued weight loss despite of excessive hunger. They begin to be insulin dependent and its dire results may also include blindness and amputation of certain limbs in the body. Type Two diabetes is far more common than Type One. Its symptoms may include those of Type One, but its leading concern is that nearly half of diabetics may not be able to have such symptoms and the cause of hereditary diabetes to children. They are often considered as non-insulin dependents, in which an excessive secretion of insulin passes through the bloodstream, causing the body to develop a high resistance to the chemical. The end result would be the high blood glucose content, which can b Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors
There are several risk factors that may make it more likely that you’ll develop type 1 diabetes—if you have the genetic marker that makes you susceptible to diabetes. That genetic marker is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Several HLA complexes have been connected to type 1 diabetes, and if you have one or more of those, you may develop type 1. (However, having the necessary HLA complex is not a guarantee that you will develop diabetes; in fact, less than 10% of people with the “right” complex(es) actually develop type 1.) Other risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Viral infections: Researchers have found that certain viruses may trigger the development of type 1 diabetes by causing the immune system to turn against the body—instead of helping it fight infection and sickness. Viruses that are believed to trigger type 1 include: German measles, coxsackie, and mumps. Race/ethnicity: Certain ethnicities have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes. In the United States, Caucasians seem to be more susceptible to type 1 than African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1, as do people in South America. Geography: It seems that people who live in northern climates are at a higher risk for developing type 1 diabetes. It’s been suggested that people who live in northern countries are indoors more (especially in the winter), and that means that they’re in closer proximity to each other—potentially leading to more viral infections. Conversely, people who live in southern climates—such as South America—are less likely to develop type 1. And along the same lines, researchers have noticed that more cases are diagnosed in the winter in northern countries; the diagnosis rate Continue reading >>
Genetic, Acquired, And Related Factors In The Etiology Of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease entity, but a heterogenous group of disorders with a striking diversity of etiopathogenetic mechanisms as well as clinical manifestations. Lack of a known genetic marker for the disease(s) and variable influences of environmental factors on the expression of a putative diabetic genome have resulted in considerable debate over its etiology. Over the past few years, systematic epidemiologic studies, along with knowledge gained from a close association of certain human-leukocyte-antigens with the diabetic diathesis and possible role of host-immune factors, and gene-virus interaction have led to considerable advancement in the understanding of the disease-complex. Pending the availability of definite genetic marker(s), we propose a new, tentative classification based on the etiologic mechanisms. We also suggest that the term "prediabetes" be abandoned as a prospective entity, since as presently employed, this connotation carries a risk probability no different than the terms like prehypertension or precoronary thrombosis. (Arch Intern Med 137:461-469, 1977) Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes: Prevalence And Relevance Of Genetic And Acquired Factors For Its Prediction
Type 2 Diabetes: Prevalence and Relevance of Genetic and Acquired Factors for Its Prediction Wolfgang Rathmann , PD Dr. med. MSPH (USA),1 Christa Scheidt-Nave , Dr. MPH,2 Michael Roden , Prof. Dr. med. univ.,*,3,4 and Christian Herder , Dr. phil. nat. M. Sc. PD4 1Institute of Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Dsseldorf 3Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Heinrich-Heine-Universitt Dsseldorf 4Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Dsseldorf 4Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Dsseldorf 1Institute of Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Dsseldorf 2Department of Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, Robert Koch-Institute Berlin 3Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Heinrich-Heine-Universitt Dsseldorf 4Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Dsseldorf *Institut fr Klinische Diabetologie, Deutsches Diabetes-Zentrum, Leibniz-Zentrum fr Diabetesforschung an der, Heinrich-Heine-Universitt Dsseldorf, Klinik fr Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Universittsklinikum Dsseldorf, Aufm Hennekamp 65, 40225 Dsseldorf, Germany, [email protected] This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in Germany is of major societal interest, as is the question of the predictive value of genetic and acquired risk factors. We present clinically relevant aspects of these topics on the basis of a select Continue reading >>
- Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Youth With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study
- Genetic factors may link early menopause with diabetes
- Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes