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Is Diabetes Hereditary Disease?

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In this video, Dr. Korf talks about evidence supporting a multifactorial mode of inheritance, models explaining multifactorial inheritance, and the genetics of common disorders. Please visit: www.openpediatrics.org OPENPediatrics is an interactive digital learning platform for healthcare clinicians sponsored by Boston Children's Hospital and in collaboration with the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. It is designed to promote the exchange of knowledge between healthcare providers around the world caring for critically ill children in all resource settings. The content includes internationally recognized experts teaching the full range of topics on the care of critically ill children. All content is peer-reviewed and open access-and thus at no expense to the user. For further information on how to enroll, please email: [email protected] Please note: OPENPediatrics does not support nor control any related videos in the sidebar, these are placed by Youtube. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. Multifactorial Inheritance, by Dr. Bruce Korf. In collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham. My name is Bruce

Multifactorial Inheritance In Type 1 Diabetes

Abstract To date, twelve separate chromosome regions have been implicated in the development of human type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The major disease locus, IDDM1 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21, accounts for about 35% of the observed familial clustering and its contribution to disease susceptibility is likely to involve polymorphic residues of class II molecules in T-cell-mediated autoimmunity. IDDM2 is encoded by a minisatellite locus embedded in the 5 regulatory region of the insulin gene. Familial clustering of disease can be explained by the sharing of alleles of at least 10 loci. IDDM1 and IDDM2 interact epistatically. For a multifactorial disease, such as type 1 diabetes, important information concerning the pathways and mechanisms involved can be gained from examining such interactions between loci, using methods that simultaneously take account of the joint effects of the various underlying genetic components. Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Nikhil

    My friend's father has diabetes (who was diagnosed with diabetes long after my friend's birth). The doctor told the friend that he has more chances of getting diabetes than a normal person and he must make lifestyle changes as he is more likely to get the disease. Does it mean that diabetes is genetic (hereditary)?

  2. Charles

    Does it mean that diabetes is genetic (hereditary)?
    Yes, Type 2 Diabetes most definitely contains a genetically inherited component. However, there is also a very strong environmental influence, which is the reason why your friend's doctor recommended that your friend change his lifestyle (because the onset of T2D is heavily determined by environmental factors, and is by no means 100% genetically predetermined).
    According to the World Health Organization...
    Genetics in the Development of (Type 2) Diabetes
    It has long been known that T2D is, in part, inherited. Family studies have revealed that first degree relatives of individuals with T2D are about 3 times more likely to develop the disease than individuals without a positive family history of the disease (Flores et al., 2003; Hansen 2003; Gloyn 2003). It has also been shown that concordance rates for monozygotic twins, which have ranged from 60-90%, are significantly higher than those for dizygotic twins. Thus, it is clear that T2D has a strong genetic component.
    Environmental Risk Factors
    The major environmental risk factors for T2D are obesity (> 120% ideal body weight or a body mass index > 30 k/m2) and a sedentary lifestyle (van Dam, 2003; Shaw and Chisholm, 2003). Thus, the tremendous increase in the rates of T2D in recent years has been attributed, primarily, to the dramatic rise in obesity worldwide (Zimmet et al., 2001). It has been estimated that approximately 80% of all new T2D cases are due to obesity (Lean, 2000). This is true for adults and children. In the Pima Indians, 85% of the T2D children were either overweight or obese (Fagot-Campagna et al., 2000). Another study in the US reported that IGT was detected in 25% of obese children age 4-10 years, and in 21% of obese adolescents (Sinha et al., 2002). Undiagnosed T2D was detected in 4% of the adolescents.
    ..
    The other major T2D risk factor is physical inactivity. In addition to controlling weight, exercise improves glucose and lipid metabolism, which decreases T2D risk. Physical activity, such as daily walking or cycling for more than 30 minutes, has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of T2D (Hu et al., 2003). Physical activity has also been inversely related to body mass index and IGT. Recently, intervention studies in China (Pan et al., 1997), Finland (Tuomilehto J et al., 2001) and the US (Diabetes Prevention Program Study Group, 2002) have shown that lifestyle interventions targeting diet and exercise decreased the risk of progression from IGT to T2D by approximately 60% . In contrast, oral hypoglycemic medication only reduced the risk of progression by about 30%.
    That being said, I would strongly nudge your friend in the right direction, and start asking them to go on walks or bike rides (with you), and remind them from time to time to drink less sodas and processed foods (assuming that they do).
    Just as a side note, the American Heart Association recommends that only an additional 36g of sugar be added to your daily diet (for an adult male; 25g for adult female).

  3. Erin Giglio

    The trouble with questions like this--"is this disease genetic?"--is that diseases are complicated phenotypes that arise from interactions with both individuals' genetic makeup and also the changes in gene expression that happen as a result of the environment of that individual over their lifetime.
    To put it another way: neither nature without nurture nor nurture without nature are particularly interesting, because the first amounts to a little vial of DNA in a microcentrifuge tube and the second amounts to, uh, a whole lot of nothing.
    In the case of Type II diabetes, there is both a strong environmental component--persistent obesity in humans is so likely to lead to diabetes that one of the two original mouse obesity model strains was named 'db' for diabetes--and also a genetic component that affects the likelihood of developing Type II diabetes in a number of ways. Some genetic variants may be less likely to develop obesity even under the high-fat diets that typically are used to create obese phenotypes in mice. Some variants may be more or less likely to develop insulin resistance even in the presence of high levels of adipose tissue. Both of these variations would affect your likelihood of getting Type II diabetes... depending on your environment and the level of body fat you carry, and that last one is going to be dependent on not only your genetic makeup but also your environment and (almost certainly) epigenetic influences from your parents.
    With respect to Type II diabetes and actual specific genetic variations that have been identified, there's the twin study cited in another answer here, which was done in Danish twins and really just looked at whether there was a genetic component done at all. GWAS studies have, predictably, resulted in several candidate loci, all with relatively small effects on risk--which makes sense, because metabolism is a complex thing and many players are probably involved in competing roles. (I'd link more, but I'm new here--hitting up a Google Scholar search for "type ii diabetes genetic variance" nets you a whole bunch more GWAS studies talking about specific types of variation noted.)

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Is diabetes hereditary Diabetes is actually rapidly growing to be one of the most frequent disorders with the european world. Sort 3 diabetes, that's more common as compared to form 1 diabetes, is growing on plague charges with considerable problems like cardiovascular disease, swing and about gout they have remaining analysts and medical professionals scrambling pertaining to advice about what will cause diabetes and just how far better address it.Is diabetes hereditary Among the concerns to be solved initial is actually; "is diabetes anatomical? " it will help analysts develop treatment plans that can help prevent or perhaps treat this kind of monster condition. Whilst analysts continue to be not clear about what will cause diabetes there are lots of aspects they've got recognized that include a common link inside diabetes issue. Is diabetes hereditary Whiles the actual predisposition to have diabetes is actually anatomical, there are many connected with heredity aspects and environment disorders that can play in to in the event that a person grows diabetes. Diabetes is actually precisely what is grouped just as one autoimmune condition, where our body views the main human body j

Hereditary Addison's Disease In Relation To Diabetes Mellitus

This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. THE recognized types of adrenocortical insufficiency may be classified into several clinical subgroups: congenital hypoplasia of the adrenal cortex without any other abnormality,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 with anencephaly12 or with hypoplasia of the pituitary gland13 14 15 16; primary hypoadrenocorticism and spastic paraplegia with gliosis and perivascular infiltration of the cerebral hemispheres (Addison—Scholz disease)17 18 19 or with spastic paraplegia of unestablished origin20 , 21; atrophy and fibrosis of the adrenal glands without recognizable cause and without other concomitants22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39; adrenal atrophy and fibrosis of unknown origin with hypoparathyroidism or moniliasis or both40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51; injury or destruction of the adrenal glands by tuberculosis or other identifiable causes or . . . *From the Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism (Department of Medicine) and the Addison H. Gibson Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, and the Medical Center and Shadyside hospitals. Aided by grants from the John A. Hartford Foundation, Incorporated, the West Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Nikhil

    My friend's father has diabetes (who was diagnosed with diabetes long after my friend's birth). The doctor told the friend that he has more chances of getting diabetes than a normal person and he must make lifestyle changes as he is more likely to get the disease. Does it mean that diabetes is genetic (hereditary)?

  2. Charles

    Does it mean that diabetes is genetic (hereditary)?
    Yes, Type 2 Diabetes most definitely contains a genetically inherited component. However, there is also a very strong environmental influence, which is the reason why your friend's doctor recommended that your friend change his lifestyle (because the onset of T2D is heavily determined by environmental factors, and is by no means 100% genetically predetermined).
    According to the World Health Organization...
    Genetics in the Development of (Type 2) Diabetes
    It has long been known that T2D is, in part, inherited. Family studies have revealed that first degree relatives of individuals with T2D are about 3 times more likely to develop the disease than individuals without a positive family history of the disease (Flores et al., 2003; Hansen 2003; Gloyn 2003). It has also been shown that concordance rates for monozygotic twins, which have ranged from 60-90%, are significantly higher than those for dizygotic twins. Thus, it is clear that T2D has a strong genetic component.
    Environmental Risk Factors
    The major environmental risk factors for T2D are obesity (> 120% ideal body weight or a body mass index > 30 k/m2) and a sedentary lifestyle (van Dam, 2003; Shaw and Chisholm, 2003). Thus, the tremendous increase in the rates of T2D in recent years has been attributed, primarily, to the dramatic rise in obesity worldwide (Zimmet et al., 2001). It has been estimated that approximately 80% of all new T2D cases are due to obesity (Lean, 2000). This is true for adults and children. In the Pima Indians, 85% of the T2D children were either overweight or obese (Fagot-Campagna et al., 2000). Another study in the US reported that IGT was detected in 25% of obese children age 4-10 years, and in 21% of obese adolescents (Sinha et al., 2002). Undiagnosed T2D was detected in 4% of the adolescents.
    ..
    The other major T2D risk factor is physical inactivity. In addition to controlling weight, exercise improves glucose and lipid metabolism, which decreases T2D risk. Physical activity, such as daily walking or cycling for more than 30 minutes, has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of T2D (Hu et al., 2003). Physical activity has also been inversely related to body mass index and IGT. Recently, intervention studies in China (Pan et al., 1997), Finland (Tuomilehto J et al., 2001) and the US (Diabetes Prevention Program Study Group, 2002) have shown that lifestyle interventions targeting diet and exercise decreased the risk of progression from IGT to T2D by approximately 60% . In contrast, oral hypoglycemic medication only reduced the risk of progression by about 30%.
    That being said, I would strongly nudge your friend in the right direction, and start asking them to go on walks or bike rides (with you), and remind them from time to time to drink less sodas and processed foods (assuming that they do).
    Just as a side note, the American Heart Association recommends that only an additional 36g of sugar be added to your daily diet (for an adult male; 25g for adult female).

  3. Erin Giglio

    The trouble with questions like this--"is this disease genetic?"--is that diseases are complicated phenotypes that arise from interactions with both individuals' genetic makeup and also the changes in gene expression that happen as a result of the environment of that individual over their lifetime.
    To put it another way: neither nature without nurture nor nurture without nature are particularly interesting, because the first amounts to a little vial of DNA in a microcentrifuge tube and the second amounts to, uh, a whole lot of nothing.
    In the case of Type II diabetes, there is both a strong environmental component--persistent obesity in humans is so likely to lead to diabetes that one of the two original mouse obesity model strains was named 'db' for diabetes--and also a genetic component that affects the likelihood of developing Type II diabetes in a number of ways. Some genetic variants may be less likely to develop obesity even under the high-fat diets that typically are used to create obese phenotypes in mice. Some variants may be more or less likely to develop insulin resistance even in the presence of high levels of adipose tissue. Both of these variations would affect your likelihood of getting Type II diabetes... depending on your environment and the level of body fat you carry, and that last one is going to be dependent on not only your genetic makeup but also your environment and (almost certainly) epigenetic influences from your parents.
    With respect to Type II diabetes and actual specific genetic variations that have been identified, there's the twin study cited in another answer here, which was done in Danish twins and really just looked at whether there was a genetic component done at all. GWAS studies have, predictably, resulted in several candidate loci, all with relatively small effects on risk--which makes sense, because metabolism is a complex thing and many players are probably involved in competing roles. (I'd link more, but I'm new here--hitting up a Google Scholar search for "type ii diabetes genetic variance" nets you a whole bunch more GWAS studies talking about specific types of variation noted.)

  4. -> Continue reading
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Are Diseases Like Diabetes, Arthritis And Hypertension Hereditary?

Answered by: Dr Monica Mahajan | Associate Director, Internal Medicine, Max Hospital, New Delhi Q: Is it true that certain diseases such as blood pressure, diabetes, cancer or arthritis are hereditary? If one of the parents has it then children will also have it. Please clarify. A:The role of heredity in various diseases is being extensively evaluated but exact data is not available. The incidence of hypertension is 30-60% higher if there is a strong family history. Diabetes is of two types - type 1 and type 2. Both have a genetic basis but a lot of environmental factors also come into play. Genes alone are not enough. One proof of this is in identical twins. If one twin has diabetes, the other gets the disease at most only half the time. When one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other's risk is at most 3 in 4. So the risk of a genetic basis is stronger in adult type of diabetes or type 2 diabetes. In general, if a person has type 2 diabetes, the risk of his child getting diabetes is 1 in 7 if the person was diagnosed before age 50 and 1 in 13 if he was diagnosed after age 50. Different arthritis has different heredity patterns. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in first-degree re Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Nikhil

    My friend's father has diabetes (who was diagnosed with diabetes long after my friend's birth). The doctor told the friend that he has more chances of getting diabetes than a normal person and he must make lifestyle changes as he is more likely to get the disease. Does it mean that diabetes is genetic (hereditary)?

  2. Charles

    Does it mean that diabetes is genetic (hereditary)?
    Yes, Type 2 Diabetes most definitely contains a genetically inherited component. However, there is also a very strong environmental influence, which is the reason why your friend's doctor recommended that your friend change his lifestyle (because the onset of T2D is heavily determined by environmental factors, and is by no means 100% genetically predetermined).
    According to the World Health Organization...
    Genetics in the Development of (Type 2) Diabetes
    It has long been known that T2D is, in part, inherited. Family studies have revealed that first degree relatives of individuals with T2D are about 3 times more likely to develop the disease than individuals without a positive family history of the disease (Flores et al., 2003; Hansen 2003; Gloyn 2003). It has also been shown that concordance rates for monozygotic twins, which have ranged from 60-90%, are significantly higher than those for dizygotic twins. Thus, it is clear that T2D has a strong genetic component.
    Environmental Risk Factors
    The major environmental risk factors for T2D are obesity (> 120% ideal body weight or a body mass index > 30 k/m2) and a sedentary lifestyle (van Dam, 2003; Shaw and Chisholm, 2003). Thus, the tremendous increase in the rates of T2D in recent years has been attributed, primarily, to the dramatic rise in obesity worldwide (Zimmet et al., 2001). It has been estimated that approximately 80% of all new T2D cases are due to obesity (Lean, 2000). This is true for adults and children. In the Pima Indians, 85% of the T2D children were either overweight or obese (Fagot-Campagna et al., 2000). Another study in the US reported that IGT was detected in 25% of obese children age 4-10 years, and in 21% of obese adolescents (Sinha et al., 2002). Undiagnosed T2D was detected in 4% of the adolescents.
    ..
    The other major T2D risk factor is physical inactivity. In addition to controlling weight, exercise improves glucose and lipid metabolism, which decreases T2D risk. Physical activity, such as daily walking or cycling for more than 30 minutes, has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of T2D (Hu et al., 2003). Physical activity has also been inversely related to body mass index and IGT. Recently, intervention studies in China (Pan et al., 1997), Finland (Tuomilehto J et al., 2001) and the US (Diabetes Prevention Program Study Group, 2002) have shown that lifestyle interventions targeting diet and exercise decreased the risk of progression from IGT to T2D by approximately 60% . In contrast, oral hypoglycemic medication only reduced the risk of progression by about 30%.
    That being said, I would strongly nudge your friend in the right direction, and start asking them to go on walks or bike rides (with you), and remind them from time to time to drink less sodas and processed foods (assuming that they do).
    Just as a side note, the American Heart Association recommends that only an additional 36g of sugar be added to your daily diet (for an adult male; 25g for adult female).

  3. Erin Giglio

    The trouble with questions like this--"is this disease genetic?"--is that diseases are complicated phenotypes that arise from interactions with both individuals' genetic makeup and also the changes in gene expression that happen as a result of the environment of that individual over their lifetime.
    To put it another way: neither nature without nurture nor nurture without nature are particularly interesting, because the first amounts to a little vial of DNA in a microcentrifuge tube and the second amounts to, uh, a whole lot of nothing.
    In the case of Type II diabetes, there is both a strong environmental component--persistent obesity in humans is so likely to lead to diabetes that one of the two original mouse obesity model strains was named 'db' for diabetes--and also a genetic component that affects the likelihood of developing Type II diabetes in a number of ways. Some genetic variants may be less likely to develop obesity even under the high-fat diets that typically are used to create obese phenotypes in mice. Some variants may be more or less likely to develop insulin resistance even in the presence of high levels of adipose tissue. Both of these variations would affect your likelihood of getting Type II diabetes... depending on your environment and the level of body fat you carry, and that last one is going to be dependent on not only your genetic makeup but also your environment and (almost certainly) epigenetic influences from your parents.
    With respect to Type II diabetes and actual specific genetic variations that have been identified, there's the twin study cited in another answer here, which was done in Danish twins and really just looked at whether there was a genetic component done at all. GWAS studies have, predictably, resulted in several candidate loci, all with relatively small effects on risk--which makes sense, because metabolism is a complex thing and many players are probably involved in competing roles. (I'd link more, but I'm new here--hitting up a Google Scholar search for "type ii diabetes genetic variance" nets you a whole bunch more GWAS studies talking about specific types of variation noted.)

  4. -> Continue reading
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