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Is Diabetes Caused By Pathogens?

Bacteria And Other Weird Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes

Bacteria And Other Weird Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes

Bacteria and other weird causes of type 2 diabetes Jack is a 27-year-old journalist based in Coventry, UK. He is a type 1 diabetic who enjoys sport, boring weekends, MTV and once won a talent show for dancing to Dario Gs 1997 hit Sunchyme. Earlier this month, a study linked prolonged exposure to toxins from a certain bacteria to the development of type 2 diabetes. With this in mind, weve taken a look at some of the more unusual links to the onset of type 2 diabetes, compared to the more well-known causes . The bacteria link is courtesy of microbiologists from the University of Iowa. They first observed insulin resistance and glucose tolerance two symptoms of type 2 in rabbits that were exposed to a toxin produced by the Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria. This is found on the skin and in the human respiratory tract. They also noted that following staph colonisation examinations on four patients with diabetes, the superantigen levels (toxins produced by all strains of bacteria) among those heavily colonised by staph were comparable to the doses that led to the rabbits developing type 2 symptoms. The research team believe that colonisation of staph bacteria is increasingly likely during weight gain, but hope that their findings could lead to a vaccine against superantigens and prevent type 2 diabetes developing. Last month, a Swedish study revealed that exposure to traffic noise could increase the risk of type 2 diabetes . This was due to the stress it caused people. This stress reportedly led to a heightened likelihood of obesity, with researchers observing a link between traffic noise and waist size. As stress increases the risk of obesity by slowing down the metabolism, people burn fewer calories. Moreover, stress increases cortisol production, which can augment g Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes 'could Be Caused By Germs'

Type 1 Diabetes 'could Be Caused By Germs'

Type 1 diabetes 'could be caused by germs' Researchers believe the discovery could be 'really helpful' in curing a condition that affects 350,000 in the UK Scientists say the breakthrough could open the door for people to be screened for certain bacteria ( Rex Features ) Some germs may be responsible for people getting type 1 diabetes, according to a groundbreaking scientific study. Researchers from Cardiff Universitys Institute of Infection & Immunity discovered that certain germs trigger killer T-cells, a form of white blood cell that can cause diabetes. The killer T-cells destroy insulin-producing beta cells, leading to an insulin deficiency. Diabetes care 'varies hugely' across England Dr David Cole, a senior research fellow in charge of the study, told The Independent: These findings could bereally helpful for us going forward, now that we are getting a better idea of the environmental risk factors that cause diabetes. The behaviour of the T-cells is really like a case of friendly fire, or mistaken identity as they are provoked into attacking the beta cells. It could potentially open the door for people to be screened for certain bacteria, lowering the risk of them developing type 1 diabetes through non-genetic causes. The team at Cardiff created this cartoon to help the public visualise their findings (Cardiff University) During their experiments the Cardiff team shone powerful X-rays into infected blood samples, revealing the bacteria which may cause the condition. Researchers had previously isolated a killer T-cell from a patient with type 1 diabetes to view the interaction, which kills the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The Cardiff studies reveal that killer T-cells are highly cross-reactive, and respond to a variety of different pathogen trigge Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes May Be Triggered By Bacteria

Type 1 Diabetes May Be Triggered By Bacteria

The development of type 1 diabetes may be driven by some forms of bacteria, suggests a new study by researchers from Cardiff University in the United Kingdom. Study co-author Dr. David Cole, of the School of Medicine at Cardiff, and colleagues reveal how bacteria activate "killer T cells" - white blood cells that attack healthy cells instead of protecting them - to destroy insulin-producing cells, causing type 1 diabetes. The researchers recently published their findings in The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Type 1 diabetes accounts for around 5 percent of all diabetes cases. Previously known as "juvenile diabetes," the condition is most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes arises when the body is unable to produce insulin - the hormone responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. Killer T cells have high 'cross-reactivity' While the precise cause of type 1 diabetes is unclear, past research has shown that the condition occurs when killer T cells destroy beta cells - the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. In a previous study, Prof. Sewell and colleagues found high "cross-reactivity" among killer T cells, meaning that they can react to numerous triggers, including pathogens. "Killer T cells sense their environment using cell surface receptors that act like highly sensitive fingertips, scanning for germs," explains Dr. Cole. "However, sometimes these sensors recognize the wrong target, and the killer T cells attack our own tissue. We, and others, have shown this is what happens during type 1 diabetes when killer T cells target and destroy beta cells." Once these beta cells are destroyed, insulin is no longer produced, meaning patients will require lifelong insulin therapy in order to control blood glucose levels. Study sheds li Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Infections

Diabetes And Infections

For people with diabetes, high blood sugars increase the risk of infections starting and spreading more quickly. High blood sugars also slow down the healing process and make infections more resistant to treatment. The first line of defense when it comes to managing the risk for infections is to manage your blood sugar levels as close to your target range as possible because high blood sugar can slow or limit your body’s ability to fight off infection. Some of the more likely places for infections in people with diabetes include the bladder, vagina, feet, kidneys, skin and gums. The Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism published a study by scientists who explain that the greater frequency of infections in people with diabetes is caused by numerous factors such as: high blood sugar levels that weaken the immune system micro- and macro-angiopathies (blood vessel disease) neuropathy which masks pain signals of an injury decrease in antibacterial activity of urine gastrointestinal and urinary function impairment frequent medical interventions due to other health issues People with diabetes are much more likely than people without diabetes to have a bladder infection which is also known as a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTI infections may involve the ureters, urethra, kidneys or bladder and you may experience pain, tiredness, nausea and fever. If you have a UTI, it is crucial to treat the infection because if not, the bacteria may spread to your kidneys and cause a dangerous kidney infection. An American Diabetes Association (ADA) published article states that more than 50% of men and women with diabetes live with some type of bladder dysfunction which involves symptoms like “urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia, and incontinence.” Early detection and treat Continue reading >>

What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?

What Infections Are You At Risk For With Diabetes?

What Infections Are You at Risk for With Diabetes? By Heather M. Ross | Reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient's immune system defenses. In addition, some diabetes-related health issues, such as nerve damage and reduced blood flow to the extremities, increase the body's vulnerability to infection. What Kinds of Infections Are Most Likely If You Have Diabetes? When you have diabetes, you are especially prone to foot infections , yeast infections , urinary tract infections , and surgical site infections . In addition, yeast cells (Candida albicans) are more likely to colonize the mucous membranes (e.g., mouth, vagina, nose) in people with diabetes. These Candida cells then interfere with the normal infection-fighting action of white blood cells. With white blood cells impaired, Candida can replicate unchecked, causing yeast infections. High blood sugar levels contribute to this process. Other Sources of Diabetes-Related Infection Diabetic neuropathy ( nerve damage ) causes problems with sensation, particularly in the feet. This lack of sensation sometimes means foot injuries go unnoticed. Untreated injuries can lead to infection. Some types of neuropathy can also lead to dry, cracked skin, which allows a convenient entry point for infection into the body. People with diabetes often have low blood flow to the extremities. With less blood flow, the body is less able to mobilize normal immune defenses and nutrients that promote the body's ability to fight infection and promote healing. We know healthy eating is key to help manage diabetes, but that doesn't make it easy. Our free nutrition guide is here to help. Sign up and receive your free copy! Why Are Infecti Continue reading >>

Your Diabetes Puts You At Greater Risk Of Infections

Your Diabetes Puts You At Greater Risk Of Infections

Diabetes mellitus is a complex, chronic disease. By 2025, the disease will have affected a whopping 380 million people worldwide. Reduced immunity is one of the worst health challenges of diabetes. It makes diabetics vulnerable to a host of infections. Such infections include both common ones as well as those unique to diabetics. An example is rhinocerebral mucormycosis, a type of fungal infection. Diabetics with uncontrolled sugar are at high risk of getting this infection. Those with diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state are particularly vulnerable. Nearly 70% of all reported cases of this fungus in the U.S. happen to diabetics. Diabetes And Infections: What’s The Connection? High blood sugar levels compromise how immune cells work. Our immune system produces special proteins called “antibodies.” These antibodies attach to bacterial cells that cause diseases. And they “mark” these cells for destruction by other cells of the immune system. When blood glucose levels are high, these antibodies get “glycated.” In other words, they are literally “stuck” to glucose molecules, making them ineffective. Hyperglycemia also hampers the production of “cytokines.” Cytokines are the chemical messengers of the immune system. Cytokines play a vital role in communication between cells. This communication is crucial for fighting off infections quickly. High blood sugar also hampers other immune cells called “phagocytes,” which are responsible for destroying bacterial cells. High blood sugar also feeds viruses and bacteria, helping them multiply faster. What Are the Common Infections Related to Diabetes? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Diabetics are at a higher risk of serious infections in their upper urinary tract. These infections affect Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Might Be Caused By Your Bacteria

Type 2 Diabetes Might Be Caused By Your Bacteria

With over 350 million people a year diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the disease has become a major world pandemic. It’s already known to have a strong genetic component, and obesity is one of the largest risk factors for developing it, but scientists may have found another aspect. It turns out, there might be a bacterial side to it too. Researchers from the University of Iowa have shown that exposing rabbits to the toxins produced by the common bacterium Staphylococcus aureus for a prolonged period of time produces symptoms of Type 2 diabetes, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. Prior research has found that as people become more obese, there is an increase in the number of Staphylococcus bacteria found on them, and the scientists behind the latest study suggest that this might be influencing the development of diabetes. “What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonized by staph bacteria—to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin,” explained Patrick Schlievert, author of the recent study published in the journal mBio. “People who are colonized by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.” It’s becoming increasingly accepted that our microbiome, the microorganisms that live on and in us in the trillions, have a significant impact on how our bodies function. When people start to gain weight, it’s been shown that their microbiome changes correspondingly, favoring bacteria that in turn promote the development of obesity. It’s also been shown that the rate of staph bacteria colonization increases in correspondence with a person’s body mass index (BMI). Schlievert had already shown which toxins, o Continue reading >>

Viruses And Bacteria

Viruses And Bacteria

William was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 2, following a virus. Viruses are thought to be one of the triggers of type 1 diabetes. Viruses and other infectious agents are associated with both an increased and a decreased risk of type 1 diabetes. One hypothesis argues that viruses can cause type 1 diabetes by damaging insulin producing beta cells. Another hypothesis (the hygiene hypothesis) argues that exposures in early childhood stimulate the immune system to control autoimmune reactions (Kondrashova and Hyöty, 2014). We'll look at both hypotheses below. A number of viruses have been associated with type 1 diabetes and/or type 1-associated autoantibodies in humans, including enterovirus, rubella, mumps, rotavirus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Many viruses have also been shown to affect the development of diabetes in laboratory animals (reviewed in van der Werf et al. 2007). Viruses have even been associated with type 1-related autoimmunity in wild animals (Warvsten et al. 2017). Most studies that have evaluated the association between viruses and type 1 have found that it is highly likely that some viruses do play a role in type 1 diabetes development (Principi et al. 2017). In addition to causing diabetes in animals, enteroviruses are associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in human studies (e.g., Abdel-Latif et al. 2017; Boussaid et al. 2017), and have been detected in the pancreases of people with type 1 diabetes (Busse et al. 2017; Kondrashova and Hyöty, 2014; Krogvold et al. 2014). A meta-analysis that combined data from 24 separate studies found a significant association between enterovirus infection and both type 1 and type 1 related autoantibodies (Yeung et al. 2011). Cytomegalovirus has also been found in the pancreas of someone with type 1 Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Begins With Bacterial Infection, Suggesting Room For A Vaccine

Type 2 Diabetes Begins With Bacterial Infection, Suggesting Room For A Vaccine

Type 2 Diabetes Begins With Bacterial Infection, Suggesting Room For A Vaccine Scientists working in rabbit models have recreated the hallmark symptoms of type 2 diabetes using a common strain of bacteria found on the skins surface, a new study reports. The findings could pave the way for anti-bacterial treatments and vaccination against microbial invaders. Between 90 to 95 percent of diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes, an insulin deficiency that develops through lack of exercise and poor diet . This has led to the widespread belief that obesity poses direct risks to developing the disease; however, the new research suggests an alternate route to diagnosis, namely, the Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria living on the surface of the skin. At any given time, 30 percent of folks are colonized in the [nostrils] and other mucosal surfaces with S. aureus, with nearly all of us occasionally colonized, Dr. Patrick Schlievert, the studys senior author and professor of microbiology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine, told Medical Daily in an email. As people gain weight, their skin effectively becomes wetter due to increased sweating and greater skin folds, making an ideal home for bacteria to colonize and enter the body. We find that the colonization rate goes up to 100 percent. Schlievert and his colleagues recently wanted to learn more about what happens when staph bacteria colonies grow to extraordinary numbers. Prior studies had shown a superantigen effect. When the bacteria reach a certain threshold, they initiate a defense mechanism against the bodys immune system, targeting key cells involved with immune-related functions, called T-cells. In their latest study, the investigators exposed a group of rabbits to the staph superantigen. Once in the body, the ba Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes May Be Caused By Bacteria

Type 2 Diabetes May Be Caused By Bacteria

IOWA CITY, Iowa, June 2 (UPI) -- Researchers at the University of Iowa have discovered that a primary cause for type 2 diabetes may be persistent exposure to a toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus, or staph, bacteria. The potential discovery is in line with recent studies finding microbe interaction with the microbiome, the ecosystem of bacteria that colonize human bodies and are essential to the way they operate, can cause illnesses beyond just infections, such as cervical cancer and stomach ulcers. In the study, researchers exposed rabbits to the staph toxin for prolonged periods of time. The toxin interacted with fat cells and the immune system, causing chronic systemic inflammation leading to symptoms of type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In humans, obesity is one of the major risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Obesity also, however, alters the microbiome. Previous studies have shown that superantigens produced by the staph bacteria disrupt the immune system and can wreak havoc on the body. "What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonized by staph bacteria -- to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin," said Patrick Schlievert, professor and department executive officer of microbiology at the UI Carver College of Medicine, in a press release. "People who are colonized by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing." As part of the study, researchers examined four patients with diabetes and estimate the exposure to staph antigens from colonies on their skin is roughly equivalent to the rabbits' exposure. "I think we have a way to intercede here and alter the course of diabetes," Schlievert says. "We ar Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms - Disruption In Your Bowel Could Be Causing Condition

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms - Disruption In Your Bowel Could Be Causing Condition

Scientists have been looking into how people develop abnormal blood glucose levels, one of the causes of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or the insulin produced does not work properly and can be linked to lifestyle factors such as being overweight. Metabolic syndrome - an umbrella term for diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure - has been dubbed the ‘new silent killer’ by medics. The condition, a cluster of three or more risk factors which include abdominal obesity - fat around the middle, high blood pressure, and diabetes, affect one in four adults in the UK. Now experts believe that developing the condition and type 2 diabetes in particular could be caused by bacteria penetrating the lining of the colon. They are also looking at ways to prevent it occurring. Crohn’s and colitis, two types of inflammatory bowel disease are through to occur when bacteria in the gut - called gut microbiotica - is disturbed. Gut microbiotica live on the outer regions of the mucus in the intestinal tract. Fri, August 19, 2016 Diabetes is a common life-long health condition. There are 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and an estimated 500,000 who are living undiagnosed with the condition. bacteria that are able to encroach upon the epithelium might be able to promote inflammation that drives metabolic diseases However, if the macrobiotic penetrate the cells in the the gut, it could contribute to metabolic syndrome. The researchers also said people with inflammatory bowel disease often have gut bacteria in contact with the epithelium - cells in the gut. However, now experts believe type 2 diabetes could be closely linked to the same thing. Experts from Georgia in the US used samples of cells from participants i Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Bacteria In The Gut? Toxins Trigger Insulin Resistance And High Blood Sugar Levels, Study Finds

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Bacteria In The Gut? Toxins Trigger Insulin Resistance And High Blood Sugar Levels, Study Finds

Bacteria responsible for common skin infections, food poisoning and MRSA could also trigger one of the most prevalent diseases of our time - type 2 diabetes. Researchers in the US discovered exposure to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria causes hallmark symptoms of the disease in rabbits. They hope their findings will help pave the way for new anti-bacterial therapies or vaccines to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes. In 2012, an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes, according to the World Health Organisation. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90 per cent of all people with diabetes, the WHO adds. Scientists at the University of Iowa found that prolonged exposure to a toxin produced by the S.aureus bacteria causes rabbits to develop insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and systemic inflammation. Professor Patrick Schlievert, who led the study, said: 'We basically reproduced type 2 diabetes in rabbits simply through chronic exposure to the staph superantigen. The findings suggest that therapies aimed at eliminating staph bacteria might prove a potential treatment for the condition. Obesity is a known risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. But being obese can also alter a person's microbiome - the ecosystem of bacteria that colonise a person's gut, and affect their health. Professor Schlievert said: 'What we are finding is that as people gain weight, they are increasingly likely to be colonised by staph bacteria - to have large numbers of these bacteria living on the surface of their skin. 'People who are colonised by staph bacteria are being chronically exposed to the superantigens the bacteria are producing.' Professor Schlievert's past research has shown that superantigens - the toxins produced by all strains of staph bacteria - disrupt the immune s Continue reading >>

The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection

The Root Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes Could Be A Common Childhood Viral Infection

A young child becomes very thirsty very often and seems tired all the time. A visit to the pediatrician determines she has type 1 diabetes. The onset of type 1 diabetes may seem sudden, and it can be, but the disease may actually have been triggered by common childhood viruses years earlier. Type 1 diabetes—also called diabetes mellitus—was previously called juvenile-onset diabetes because most people affected with this disease are diagnosed as children and young adults. It isn't the most common form of diabetes and only 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. That doesn't make it any less serious—in fact, it can be a life-threatening disease. When we eat something, our body converts carbohydrates and starches in the food into sugar (glucose), which is then processed by our bodies to either be used or stored for later. People with type 1 diabetes have trouble keeping their blood sugar level even: It spikes when they eat something and goes very low if they don't. That's because their pancreas doesn't make insulin, the hormone that in a healthy human moves glucose from the blood into cells where it can be used for energy, keeping it from spiking after eating. Type 1 diabetics must constantly monitor their blood sugar and take insulin to keep their levels within a normal range to keep this process running. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a disease where the body forms antibodies to itself and attacks parts of its own body. In this case, antibodies are formed to the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. Experts believe type 1 diabetes may be caused by a genetic risk factors and environmental factors, including viruses. A viral link to type 1 diabetes is one of the findings in a new study led by Hanna Honkanen and Heikki Hyöty in th Continue reading >>

Staph Bacteria May Be A Trigger For Type 2 Diabetes

Staph Bacteria May Be A Trigger For Type 2 Diabetes

A growing body of research indicates that exposure to bacteria and viruses affects one’s likelihood for developing a number of chronic health conditions. Increasingly, scientists are uncovering proof that certain features of the human microbiome may be a root cause of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. A new study published this week adds to this evidence, implicating staph bacteria as one potential cause of the disease. For the study, published in the journal mBio, a team of microbiologists at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine exposed rabbits to the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The researchers found that exposure to high levels of this toxin caused the animals to develop symptoms of the disease, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. Their study suggests that drugs that eradicate or neutralize staph bacteria in the body may hold some promise as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes, which affects close to 30 million people in the U.S. Because obesity is one of the common risk factors for the condition, the authors suggest extreme weight gain has a cascade effect: Obesity alters the microbiome and makes a person—or in this case, a rabbit—more susceptible to staph bacteria. Then a higher than normal exposure to toxins produced by the bacteria will trigger the disease. Prior research has found that the toxins produced by staph bacteria disrupt normal immune system functioning, which can result in sepsis, inflammation of the heart and toxic shock, all of which can be fatal. But this new study shows staph toxins also affect fat cells. To test their theory, the team of researchers measured the amount of staph bacteria and staph-related toxins on the skin of four patients with diabetes. They then calculated that the Continue reading >>

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