diabetestalk.net

Is Diabetes Caused By Environmental Factors?

How Genes And Environment Conspire To Trigger Diabetes

How Genes And Environment Conspire To Trigger Diabetes

MORE Diabetes appears to be a disease written deeply in human genes, a feature millions of years old, which can emerge yet also retreat through the influence of environmental forces such as diet, a new study suggests. Researchers looked at how obesity, in particular, can trigger the onset of Type 2 diabetes in both mice and humans by manipulating how genes are expressed. They found that obesity, in effect, can change the chemical tags associated with DNA, called the epigenome. These epigenetic changes modify how genes behave and can alter the production of proteins necessary for proper metabolism and secretion of insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. The good news is that diseases brought on by such epigenetic changes can be reversed, the scientists at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore said in their study, published Jan. 6 in the journal Cell Metabolism. The study may help explain why Type 2 diabetes, a disease that was hardly seen a few generations ago, now affects more than 300 million adults worldwide, with some populations far more affected than others — a conspiracy of both genetic and epigenetic factors. [8 Reasons Our Waistlines Are Expanding] In people with Type 2 diabetes, the body has lost either the ability to produce enough insulin, or the ability to respond to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is the hormone that triggers the body's cells to take up sugar from the bloodstream, so in people with Type 2 diabetes, the level of sugar in the blood rises too high. It is well established that people who are obese are at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, so the Hopkins scientists first studied obese mice to understand how obesity is related to the disease. The mice in the study were clones — all had identical genetics. The r Continue reading >>

Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic/hereditary? | Causes & Treatment - Dlife

Is Type 1 Diabetes Genetic/hereditary? | Causes & Treatment - Dlife

What Are the Causes and Genetic Components of Type 1 Diabetes? Reviewed by: Dr. QinYang, M.D., Ph.D. 4/18. The exact causes of type 1 diabetes are not yet known. But genetics, family history, and environmental factors appear to play a role in the development of this serious health condition. In this section, well examine each of the potential causes. Type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease; this means it is a disease that involves many genes. These gene groups are located on structures called chromosomes within the cell. These genes make proteins that help maintain our immune system, fighting off unwanted cells or infectious agents. Discrepancies in the functioning of these genes lead to a discrepancy in the synthesis of the proteins. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the -cells of the pancreas are regarded as external harmful agents by the bodys immune system, and the body seeks to destroy them. Around 20-40 different chromosomal gene groups have been linked to type 1 diabetes. The largest contributing gene for type 1 diabetes is called IDDM1; it is located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) II region on chromosome six. This gene accounts for at least 40 percent of the familial hereditary cause of type 1 diabetes. Approximately one in every 250 children in the United States is born into a family already affected by type 1 diabetes. Children born into an affected family have a five percent increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes by age 20. In comparison, children with no such family history have only a 0.3 percent chance of developing this condition. A child with a family history of type 1 diabetes can be classified further based on which family member has the disease. The chances of a child developing type 1 diabetes are as follows: Five percent chance if Continue reading >>

Environmental Risk Factors For Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

Environmental Risk Factors For Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

Environmental Risk Factors for Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review Tashi Dendup ,1,* Xiaoqi Feng ,1,2 Stephanie Clingan ,1 and Thomas Astell-Burt 1,2,* 1Population Wellbeing and Environment Research Lab (PowerLab), School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; [email protected] (X.F.); [email protected] (S.C.) 1Population Wellbeing and Environment Research Lab (PowerLab), School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; [email protected] (X.F.); [email protected] (S.C.) 2Menzies Centre for Health Policy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 1Population Wellbeing and Environment Research Lab (PowerLab), School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; [email protected] (X.F.); [email protected] (S.C.) 1Population Wellbeing and Environment Research Lab (PowerLab), School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; [email protected] (X.F.); [email protected] (S.C.) 2Menzies Centre for Health Policy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia 1Population Wellbeing and Environment Research Lab (PowerLab), School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; [email protected] (X.F.); [email protected] (S.C.) 2Menzies Centre for Health Policy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia *Correspondence: [email protected] (T.D.); [email protected] (T.A.-B.); Tel.: +61-2-4221-5081 (T.D.) Received 2017 Nov 29; Accepted 2017 Dec 23. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an op Continue reading >>

Five Environmental Causes Of Diabetes

Five Environmental Causes Of Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is usually blamed on people’s genes or their behavior, not on the environment. But diabetes rates are soaring worldwide. Genes could not change that fast. Here are five ways environmental changes are causing diabetes. This information is updated from my book Diabetes: Sugar-Coated Crisis, published in 2007. Since then, things have changed, mostly for the worse. Hopefully, knowing how the environment makes people sick will help you protect yourself against it. Unhealthful food. People were not made to eat large quantities of refined carbohydrates — the “white things,” such as sweets, breads, pastas, etc. These foods don’t occur in nature and do not trigger normal digestion and absorption. Refined carbohydrates. Carbs that have had their bran and germ layers — which contain most of the fiber and nutrients — removed are widely available, cheap, taste good, and may well be addictive. They raise your serotonin and dopamine levels, making you feel good for a short while. Then your blood glucose drops and you feel miserable again, and you need another fix. Barriers to physical activity. People used to move their bodies in the course of work, food gathering, transportation, and recreation. Most of this is now done by machines, so you have to consciously seek physical activity. This is much harder when you have too many other demands, not enough support, and mixed motivation. (“Life is hard enough already without having to exercise.”) Stress. Stress is the body’s response to a threat, often called the “fight-or-flight” response. Stress hormones, particularly cortisol, raise blood glucose levels and blood pressure. They do this so muscles involved in fight or flight will have enough fuel. Under stress, only the cells actually being used to Continue reading >>

Environmental Triggers And Determinants Of Type 1 Diabetes

Environmental Triggers And Determinants Of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is perceived as a chronic immune-mediated disease with a subclinical prodromal period characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets in genetically susceptible subjects. A series of evidence supports a critical role of exogenous factors in the development of type 1 diabetes, such as 1) the fact that <10% of individuals with HLA-conferred diabetes susceptibility do progress to clinical disease, 2) a pairwise concordance of type 1 diabetes of <40% among monozygotic twins, 3) a more than 10-fold difference in the disease incidence among Caucasians living in Europe, 4) a several-fold increase in the incidence over the last 50 years, and 5) migration studies indicating that the disease incidence has increased in population groups who have moved from a low-incidence to a high-incidence region. This article discusses the trigger-booster hypothesis claiming that the diabetic disease process is triggered by an exogenous factor with definite seasonal variation and driven by one or several other environmental determinants. In addition, there are a series of modifying factors affecting the fate and pace of the process. Accordingly, progression to clinical type 1 diabetes typically requires the unfortunate combination of genetic disease susceptibility, a diabetogenic trigger, and a high exposure to a driving antigen. Clinical type 1 diabetes represents end-stage insulitis, and it has been estimated that at the time of diagnosis, only 10–20% of the insulin-producing β-cells are still functioning. Environmental factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes both as triggers and potentiators of β-cell destruction (1–3), although the contribution of any individual exogenous factor has not yet been definit Continue reading >>

The Complex Interplay Of Genetic And Lifestyle Risk Factors In Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview

The Complex Interplay Of Genetic And Lifestyle Risk Factors In Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview

Scientifica Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 482186, 11 pages 1Genetic & Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden 2Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA 3Genetic Epidemiology & Clinical Research Group, Section for Medicine, Department of Public Health & Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, 90186 Umeå, Sweden Academic Editors: A. B. Abou-Samra, G. Da Silva Xavier, and B. R. Gauthier Copyright © 2012 Paul W. Franks. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the scourges of modern times, with many millions of people affected by the disease. Diabetes occurs most frequently in those who are overweight or obese. However, not all overweight and obese persons develop diabetes, and there are those who develop the disease who are lean and physically active. Certain ethnicities, especially indigenous populations, are at considerably higher risk of obesity and diabetes than those of white European ancestry. The patterns and distributions of diabetes have led some to speculate that the disease is caused by interactions between genetic and obesogenic lifestyle factors. Whilst to many this is a plausible explanation, remarkably little reliable evidence exists to support it. In this review, an overview of published literature relating to genetic and lifestyle risk factors for T2D is provided. The review also describes the concepts and rationale that have motivated the view that gene-lifestyle interactions cause diabetes and overviews the empiric Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes

We not yet know the cause of type 2 diabetes. There is widespread agreement that a combination of genetics and environmental factors are correlated with a diabetes diagnosis. For example, although weight gain increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, most people who are obese do not develop type 2 diabetes. Likewise, there are significant numbers of people with a normal weight who develop type 2 diabetes. Some theorize that weight gain may be a symptom rather than a cause of diabetes because insulin resistance often leads to difficulty losing weight. The American Diabetes Association and the Mayo Clinic list the type 2 diabetes risk factors. Genes and family history. This seem to be very influential when it comes to who gets diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The ADA Complete Guide to Diabetes says that “if a person with type 2 diabetes has an identical twin, there is a 60-75% chance that the twin will develop diabetes.” Various genes that have mutated seem to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. These mutated genes can be passed down through families by way of DNA. Ethnicity. Certain ethnic groups have more risk of developing type 2 diabetes. African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are all groups who develop type 2 diabetes at a higher rate than whites. Obesity. Obesity is another factor which is closely tied to type 2 diabetes risk. About 75% of people of people with type 2 diabetes are obese or were obese at one time. Genes play a role here, too. Some genes predispose people to obesity and therefore also to a higher diabetes risk. Age. This is also factor for developing type 2 diabetes. About 50% of people with type 2 diabetes are over age 55. Pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes means blood sugars are elevated but not quite Continue reading >>

Diabetes Risk Factors

Diabetes Risk Factors

Diabetes is a condition that affects the body’s ability to use blood sugar for energy. The three types are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in childhood, although it can occur in adults also. Type 1 diabetes affects the body’s ability to produce insulin. This hormone is vital to helping the body utilize blood sugar. Without enough insulin, the extra blood sugar can damage the body. According to the American Diabetes Association, 5 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a condition that affects a body’s ability to use insulin properly. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes make some insulin. However, they can’t make enough to keep up with rising blood sugar levels. Doctors associate type 2 diabetes with lifestyle-related factors like obesity. Gestational diabetes is a condition that causes women to have very high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This condition is typically temporary. Having risk factors does not mean that someone will get diabetes. Doctors don’t know the exact cause of type 1 diabetes. Family history of type 1 diabetes is considered a risk factor. According to the American Diabetes Association, the child of a man with type 1 diabetes has a 1 in 17 chance of developing type 1 diabetes. If a woman has type 1 diabetes, her child has a 1 in 25 chance if the child was born when the woman was younger than 25. Women with type 1 diabetes who give birth at age 25 or older have a 1 in 100 chance of having a child with type 1 diabetes. Having a parent with type 2 diabetes also increases diabetes risk. Because diabetes is often related to lifestyle choices, parents may pass on poor health habits to their children. This increases their risk Continue reading >>

An Exploration Of The Hygiene And Overload Hypotheses

An Exploration Of The Hygiene And Overload Hypotheses

Objective To assess the relationship between selected maternal and infant characteristics and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus, specifically characteristics identified from birth records that may pertain to the hygiene or overload hypotheses. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Washington State from 1987 to 2005. Participants All children younger than 19 years hospitalized for type 1 diabetes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 250.x1 and 250.x3) identified (n = 1852) from hospital discharge data and linked with their birth certificates. Controls (n = 7408) were randomly selected from birth records, frequency matched on year of birth. Main Exposures Maternal factors included age, race, educational attainment, marital status, use of Medicaid insurance, body mass index, prepregnancy weight, prior births, timing and adequacy of prenatal care, and cesarean delivery. Infant factors included birth weight, size for gestational age, and gestational age. Main Outcome Measure The main outcome was first hospitalization for type 1 diabetes mellitus; adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association of selected maternal and infant characteristics with type 1 diabetes. Results Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, type 1 diabetes was negatively associated with having older siblings (for ≥3 siblings, odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.70) and with indicators of lower economic status or care access, such as an unmarried mother (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.91), inadequate prenatal care (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.40-0.71), or Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.77). Related to the overload hypothesis, maternal body mass index of 30 or higher (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.64) was associated with increased risk of d Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Causes: Environmental Factors - Type2diabetes.net

Type 2 Diabetes Causes: Environmental Factors - Type2diabetes.net

Several environmental factors have been identified as playing an important role in causing type 2 diabetes. These include being overweight or obese, not getting regular physical activity, smoking, and eating excess calories. You can lower your risk for developing type 2 diabetes and, if you have type 2 diabetes, improve your ability to control your high blood sugar by2: Getting to and staying at a healthier weight. By adopting a healthy pattern of eating and getting regular physical activity you can lose weight and decrease your diabetes risk. If you have diabetes, reducing your weight and keeping excess weight off will improve your ability to control your blood sugar. A strong body of research has shown that weight loss results in improved sensitivity to insulin and a correction in the balance of hormones involved in glucose control. Regular moderate physical activity. Regular moderate physical activity, such as walking briskly, has been shown to decrease risk for type 2 diabetes. Smoking. Studies have established a link between smoking and risk of developing diabetes (one study even showed that second-hand smoke increased risk). However, the link is not as clear as with obesity and lack of physical activity. Additionally, quitting smoking is sometimes accompanied by weight gain. You should definitely consider kicking the habit, if you smoke, but conventional wisdom says that you should also accompany smoking cessation with a plan for losing weight and getting regular physical activity. A healthy, carlorie-appropriate pattern of eating. When it comes to what you eat, most research shows that controlling calorie intake (and body weight) is the most important factor in decreasing risk for type 2 diabetes. Adopting an energy-appropriate, nutrient-dense pattern of eating Continue reading >>

Environmental/lifestyle Factors In The Pathogenesis And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes

Environmental/lifestyle Factors In The Pathogenesis And Prevention Of Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status. In general, these factors promote an increase in body mass index. Since loss of β-cell function is the ultimate cause of developing overt type 2 diabetes, environmental and lifestyle changes must have resulted in a higher risk of β-cell damage in those at genetic risk. Multiple mechanistic pathways may come into play. Strategies of diabetes prevention should aim at promoting a ‘diabetes-protective lifestyle’ whilst simultaneously enhancing the resistance of the human organism to pro-diabetic environmental and lifestyle factors. More research on diabetes-protective mechanisms seems warranted. Background Over the past decades, there has been a major increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence in most regions of the world [1]. After adjusting for the impact of ageing populations, diabetes prevalence in adults (85–95% T2D) almost doubled between 1980 and 2014 worldwide. Increases were more pronounced in low- and middle-income countries and in men compared to women [1]. Recognition of the environmental and lifestyle factors responsible for these changes in theory may lead to the development of strategies to decrease the number of new cases to reach those of 20–40 years earlier. This review presents the current state Continue reading >>

Causes Of Diabetes

Causes Of Diabetes

Tweet Diabetes causes vary depending on your genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health and environmental factors. There is no common diabetes cause that fits every type of diabetes. The reason there is no defined diabetes cause is because the causes of diabetes vary depending on the individual and the type. For instance; the causes of type 1 diabetes vary considerably from the causes of gestational diabetes. Similarly, the causes of type 2 diabetes are distinct from the causes of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to function normally. This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause, because the body is attacking itself. There is no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved: Viral or bacterial infection Chemical toxins within food Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction Underlying genetic disposition may also be a type 1 diabetes cause. Type 2 diabetes causes Type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial - more than one diabetes cause is involved. Often, the most overwhelming factor is a family history of type 2 diabetes. This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause. There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, any or all of which increase the chances of developing the condition. These include: Living a sedentary lifestyle Increasing age Bad diet Other type 2 diabetes causes such as pregnancy or illness can be type 2 diabetes risk factors. Gestational diabetes causes The causes of diabetes in pregnancy also known as gestational diabetes remain unknown. However, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of deve Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Diabetes is a complex set of diseases with no single cause. Genetic factors make some people more vulnerable to diabetes, particularly with the right environment. In addition, certain lifestyle factors can cause type 2 diabetes in individuals with no known family history. This complex interaction between genes, lifestyle, and environment points to the importance of taking steps to minimize individual diabetes risk. Is type 1 diabetes hereditary? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means that it causes the body's immune system to attack healthy cells. It is often called juvenile diabetes because most people are diagnosed in childhood, and the condition then lasts their lifetime. Doctors used to think type 1 diabetes was wholly genetic. Newer studies have shown, however, that children develop type 1 diabetes 3 percent of the time if their mother has the condition, 5 percent of the time if their father has it, or 8 percent if a sibling has type 1 diabetes. Consequently, researchers now believe that something in the environment has to trigger type 1 diabetes. Some risk factors include: Cold weather. People develop type 1 diabetes in winter more frequently than summer. It is also more common in places with cool climates. Viruses. Researchers think some viruses might activate type 1 diabetes in people who are otherwise vulnerable. Measles, mumps, coxsackie B virus, and rotavirus have been linked to type 1 diabetes. Research suggests that people who develop type 1 diabetes may have autoimmune antibodies in their blood for many years before showing symptoms. As a result, the disease may develop over time, or something may have to activate the autoimmune antibodies for symptoms to appear. Is type 2 diabetes hereditary? Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of the d Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

Symptoms

Symptoms

Print Overview Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. If you have diabetes, no matter what type, it means you have too much glucose in your blood, although the causes may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes — when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes — and gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered. Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not experience symptoms initially. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe. Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are: Increased thirst Frequent urination Extreme hunger Unexplained weight loss Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's not enough available insulin) Fatigue Irritability Blurred vision Slow-healing sores Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections Although type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, it typically appears during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than 40. When to see a doctor If you suspect you or your child may have diabetes. If you notice any poss Continue reading >>

More in diabetes