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Is Diabetes Capitalized

Is India The Diabetes Capital Of The World?

Is India The Diabetes Capital Of The World?

News and opinion on healthy longevity from a unique perspective P Pushpam, a resident of Chennai, India, was denied her job appointment with the Indian Railways on the grounds that she was a chronic diabetic. The court ruled in her favor and pointed out the impracticality of discriminating against people suffering from diabetes in a country that has over 40 million diabetics. As India makes its demographic transition toward lower birth rates and higher life expectancy, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases is on the rise. India is the Diabetes Capital of the World with over 60 million diabetics in the country, that is projected to at least double by 2030. The country ranks second, between China with 90 million and USA with 24 million diabetics. About 17% of the country has diabetes and about 77 million are considered to be pre-diabetic, which refers to those individuals who have higher than normal blood glucose levels, but not high enough to categorize them as diabetic. Smoking, poor physical activity and alcohol use are some pertinent risk factors of diabetes in India. A survey revealed that close to 40% of Indian men are daily smokers and approximately 18% of the study respondents had poor physical activity levels. The survey also suggested that in addition to these individual level risk factors, environmental factors, specifically indoor air pollution contributes to the increasing prevalence of diabetes. The incidence of solid fuel use, contributing to air pollution in India is 83.5%. An urban lifestyle, and increasing strength of the food, fertilizer, pharmaceutical and beverage industries in the past decades, also contributes to a higher prevalence of diabetes. The increasing prevalence of diabetes management among the elderly places a huge burden on the Indi Continue reading >>

10 Capitalization Rules Every Writer Should Know

10 Capitalization Rules Every Writer Should Know

If you were standing outside my office door, you would hear a loud banging noise. That's my head banging on my desk out of sheer frustration. The reason? Capitalization. I have documents to edit that are filled with words that shouldn’t be capitalized—such as “federal,” “state,” “statutes,” “deadlines,” “laws”—but are uppercase. I have documents to edit that are filled with words that should be capitalized—such as “West Texas” and “Supreme Court”—but are not. So to keep the head banging to a minimum, let’s go through the rules of capitalization. 1. Capitalize the first word in a sentence. This is the most basic rule of capitalization. 2. Capitalize the pronoun “I.” Another basic one, but in today’s text-message driven world, it bears mentioning. 3. Capitalize proper nouns: the names of specific people, places, organizations, and sometimes things. For instance, “Austin, Texas,” “Patrick O’Brian,” “Ragan Communications,” “Supreme Court.” This seems to be the rule that trips up many people because they don’t know whether a word is a proper noun. But as the AP Stylebook points out: “Capitalize nouns that constitute the unique identification for a specific person, place, or thing: John, Mary, America, Boston, England. Some words, such as the examples given, are always proper nouns. Some common nouns receive proper noun status when they are used as the name of a particular entity: General Electric, Gulf Oil.” There are also derivatives of proper nouns. Capitalize words that are derived from a proper noun and still depend on it for their meaning, such as “American,” “French,” and “Shakespearean.” But lower case words that are derived from proper nouns that no longer depend on it for their meaning Continue reading >>

Why Ebola Is Capitalized But Diabetes Isn’t

Why Ebola Is Capitalized But Diabetes Isn’t

Ebola and West Nile virus are capitalized. But why? Not every disease is. Here’s a quick explanation, drawn from style guides and assorted other readings: Diseases named after regions are capitalized. Ebola is the name of a river in Zaire, and it was near the Ebola River that the virus first caused disease in humans. Thus, the disease became known as the Ebola virus. West Nile in West Nile virus is capitalized for a similar reason: It was first found in a patient in the West Nile district of northern Uganda. Diseases named after people are capitalized. Some disease names are capitalized because they are named after the person who discovered them. For example, Alzheimer’s disease is named after a German doctor named Alois Alzheimer, and Down’s syndrome is named after a British doctor named John Langdon Down. Should disease names have apostrophes? Alzheimer’s disease versus Alzheimer disease? Somewhat peripheral to our capitalization question: When people start considering disease names, they often wonder why some have apostrophes and some don’t, and why you sometimes see the same name written with and without an apostrophe. You sometimes see disease names such as Alzheimer (without the apostrophe) because there is a movement to omit the apostrophe from names based on the discovering physician. Some patient advocacy groups have lobbied that the apostrophe implies the disease belongs to the physician and that such names are inappropriate. On the other hand, the argument that an apostrophe means the doctors own the disease is linguistically simplistic, and the sentiment is not universal among advocacy groups. For example, the British Alzheimer’s Society makes its opinion clear: “Alzheimer’s is often misspelt without an apostrophe which is incorrect….” Re Continue reading >>

Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?

Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?

When writing medical terminologies, people are often confused as to when they should capitalize the terminology, italicize it or leave it as such. For diabetes, people are very confused whether or not it should be capitalized. Some tend to type Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in small caps while others would capitalize its first letters. Medical agencies have also varied when it comes to capitalizing Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in its reports or articles. Many have expressed their frustration regarding these types and the way it has to be written. However, back in the past, capitalizing Type 2 diabetes was not a problem for those hoping to ensure that their grammar was correct when using these terminologies. Not many know but diabetes was not previously divided into types such as Type 1 or Type 2 back in the past. In 1979, the nomenclature or classification for diabetes was introduced by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG). Under the document, the two major types of diabetes were given descriptive names based on their clinical structure: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The World Health Organization (WHO) approved this typing a year later; however, since research has continuously discovered new things about the disease, the typing was no longer suitable. Many patients ended up getting the wrong classification for their diabetes type, affecting their evaluation and treatment. Research has also pointed out new types of diabetes which did not fit the two major types cited by the NDDG, thus the necessity to revise the typing and establish new criteria for diagnosis. Eventually, the new classification system indicated four major types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 (Type I), type 2 (Type II), other types and gestationa Continue reading >>

What Are The Common Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes?

What Are The Common Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes?

India is the diabetes capital of the world. Type 2 diabetes or insulin resistant diabetes is a silent killer. Many people never realize they have diabetes before significant organ damage occurs. The common signs and symptoms include Obesity especially truncal (around the waist or pot belly) is a high risk factor. Polyuria or excessive urination because glucose acts like an osmotic agent in kidney pulling water out. Nocturia or desire to pass urine in night secondary to polyuria. Polydypsia or excessive thirst due to loss of water in urine. Excessive hunger(polyphagia) Some people can also have weight loss. Poor wound healing Fatigue In late stages Visual loss due to retinal damage Kidney failure and hypertension due to kidney damage. Leg ulcers and gangrene due to poor wound healing. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for heart attack and stroke (metabolic syndrome). Diabetics are also more prone for cancers. Diabetic keto acidosis (DKA) is a life threatening medical emergency caused by very high sugar and dehydration. Patient can become comatose, have seizures and have rapid breathing. Many diabetics discontinue medications abruptly without their doctors advice as their blood sugars become normal. These patients may come to the emergency with DKA. Prediabetes or mild diabetes can be controlled with diet and excercise and weight loss. A recent study showed losing 15 kg weight can completely reverse diabetes. Continue reading >>

Concise Review: Cell-based Therapies And Other Non-traditional Approaches For Type 1 Diabetes

Concise Review: Cell-based Therapies And Other Non-traditional Approaches For Type 1 Diabetes

Abstract The evolution of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) therapy has been marked by consecutive shifts, from insulin replacement to immunosuppressive drugs and targeted biologics (following the understanding that T1D is an autoimmune disease), and to more disease-specific or patient-oriented approaches such as antigen-specific and cell-based therapies, with a goal to provide efficacy, safety, and long-term protection. At the same time, another important paradigm shift from treatment of new onset T1D patients to prevention in high-risk individuals has taken place, based on the hypothesis that therapeutic approaches deemed sufficiently safe may show better efficacy if applied early enough to maintain endogenous β cell function, a concept supported by many preclinical studies. This new strategy has been made possible by capitalizing on a variety of biomarkers that can more reliably estimate the risk and rate of progression of the disease. More advanced (“omic”-based) biomarkers that also shed light on the underlying contributors of disease for each individual will be helpful to guide the choice of the most appropriate therapies, or combinations thereof. In this review, we present current efforts to stratify patients according to biomarkers and current alternatives to conventional drug-based therapies for T1D, with a special emphasis on cell-based therapies, their status in the clinic and potential for treatment and/or prevention. Stem Cells 2016;34:809–819 Continue reading >>

India Is The Diabetes Capital Of The World. Add To It's A Country With Torrid Temperatures And Those Who Administer Insulin While Travelling Find It A Harrowing Experience To Store. Any Suggestions On How To Help Them?

India Is The Diabetes Capital Of The World. Add To It's A Country With Torrid Temperatures And Those Who Administer Insulin While Travelling Find It A Harrowing Experience To Store. Any Suggestions On How To Help Them?

I am an Insulin dependent diabetic and I am taking insulin injections since last 5 years. I have been advised by my doctor(s) that once removed out of the cold chain, the vial will retain its efficacy for 30 days, at normal room temperatures. Assuming that one is taking about 30-40 units/day, a vial will come for 7-9 days, which is within this threshold limit of 30 days. I find many people traveling with Insulin Pen in their pockets along with the regular pens used for writing. Suggest that you clarify this with your Doctor, before hand. Best wishes Ask New Question Continue reading >>

Avoiding Common Capitalization Errors

Avoiding Common Capitalization Errors

In my previous post I detailed the basic rules of capitalization and a few related differences in APA, MLA, Chicago, and AP styles. In today’s post, I will describe some areas of confusion about capitalization I have often observed in my work here at ProofreadingPal. Familial Terms (e.g., mom, uncle) When you are using a familial term as a name, it is functioning as a proper noun and should be capitalized. When you are using such a term to describe a person or a category of people, it should not be capitalized. Look out, Son! I saw Dad slip on a banana peel right where you’re standing. My aunt makes the best tomato soup. All my brothers look like Uncle Jake. References to God(s) The word “god” should be capitalized if it is being used as a proper name of a monotheistic god, as in God in Christianity and Judaism. Otherwise, the word should be lowercased, as in “the god of war.” Pronouns that refer to any god or gods should be lowercased. The main style guides all agree on this, although Chicago does have a note that capitalizing these pronouns is acceptable when writing for a religious audience. I’ll go there tomorrow, God willing. All those Greek gods are so confusing. He has the body of a god, I swear. Likewise, capitalize “bible” if it is being used as the proper name of a religious book, as in the Jewish Bible and the Christian Bible. Do not capitalize it if it is being used as a general term, as in, “This cookbook is my raw food bible.” Acronyms and Initialisms An initialism is an abbreviation using the first letters of a name or phrase where the letters are pronounced separately (e.g., IRS, AARP). An acronym is a similar abbreviation where the letters are pronounced together (e.g., NASA, NAFTA). Initialisms and acronyms are always capitalized, Continue reading >>

Is Cheddar A Proper Noun? How To Capitalize Your Brand Content

Is Cheddar A Proper Noun? How To Capitalize Your Brand Content

You’d think proper nouns would be easy for journalists to identify, since we’ve had many years of training in the English language. But I’d argue that determining if a word is a proper noun – and if it should be capitalized – sends more journalists and content marketing writers to the dictionary, Associated Press Stylebook and Internet than any other writing question. So, how do you know what is a proper noun, and how do you format it? Merriam-Webster Dictionary online defines a proper noun as “a noun that designates a particular being or thing, does not take a limiting modifier, and is usually capitalized in English.” In the content marketing world, that means any brand names or product names should be capitalized, unless of course, the company has a registered trademark style of lowercase, like “iPod.” In this post I’ll cover a few other important proper noun guidelines to follow as you’re writing any kind of branded content. Keep proper nouns consistent Make sure all your product names appear the same way everywhere, especially in the text (not the logo) on your website. If all mention are consistent, it’ll be easier for journalists to get the names right. Most importantly, your brand will look more professional to your customers. If you can’t even keep your own naming conventions right, what other mistakes does your brand make? You also want to communicate to your customers that you are confident in your identity. Your customers will also be less confused if you keep all your spelling and naming conventions consistent. Treat product and event names differently from generic uses Proper nouns get even trickier to handle when companies trademark phrases as the name of a program, or an event the company holds/sponsors. Let’s say there’s a c Continue reading >>

Aclp Writing Tips & Word Usage

Aclp Writing Tips & Word Usage

The following is a brief overview of ACLP style and usage guidelines, along with some helpful writing tips and resources. These basic standards will serve as the authority for all ACLP communication vehicles, including the ACLP website, the ACLP Bulletin/Child Life Focus, ACLP publications, and any other printed or electronic materials made available to the public. WRITING FOR ACLP ACLP encourages a writing style that is clear, concise, and free of spelling and grammar errors. Strunk and White’s classic Elements of Style is an easy pocket reference on writing well, and is widely available in bookstores. Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL) is also an excellent resource (visit All ACLP communications published should be free of political, racial, religious, gender or ethnic bias. Authors are encouraged to use terminology that is sensitive to individuals who have a disease or disability. ACLP endorses the concept of “people first, not their disability.†Whenever possible, terminology should reflect the “person with a condition†(e.g., children with diabetes, families of children with emotional disorders) rather than the condition as an adjective (e.g., diabetic children, emotionally disturbed youth). STYLE GUIDELINES—APA All print and online communications from ACLP follow the most recent edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA Style Guide). If you cannot find information on this Tip Sheet, please refer to the APA Style Guide, or contact the Manager of Communications at [email protected]. REFERENCES If your statements or conclusions are based on someone else’s work, they must be referenced. Any information that comes from a source other than you must be properly ack Continue reading >>

Time To Change Names, Again

Time To Change Names, Again

Every generation or two, people get frustrated with diabetes nomenclature, and after much pushing and shoving, the names of the different varieties of diabetes get changed. Years ago, diabetes was not subdivided. But it was noted that sometimes folks who got diabetes as adults lived longer, and that kids developing diabetes tended to die rapidly, so it seemed logical that diabetes could be subdivided into childhood-onset diabetes and adult-onset diabetes. But as it was also noted that there were lots of adults with diabetes where the disease looked like childhood-onset (that is, these adults were skinny and needed insulin supplementation) and lots of kids with diabetes that looked like they had adult-onset version (that is, these kids were obese and could be treated without insulin supplementation), it became more and more difficult to rationalize that the age of onset should be the determining factor in deciding if someone had this type of diabetes or that type. The alternative that was proposed was to classify people by whether or not they needed insulin supplementation: those that did were called by the ungainly term "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) and those that didn’t, were called by the even uglier term "non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM). That terminology didn’t last long before it was replaced by “Type I” and “Type II” diabetes - later adjusted to remove the capitalization and change the Roman numerals to Arabic, thus becoming type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These are the presently-used terms. Of course, you are well aware that there are lots of other types of diabetes that don’t fit at all into the this-vs-that categorization described above: there’s diabetes with onset during pregnancy (called gestational diabetes), diabe Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

The Best Company For Investing In The Diabetes Market

The Best Company For Investing In The Diabetes Market

The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention estimates that 29.1 million Americans suffer from diabetes, with that number reaching as high as 387 million around the globe. By 2035, the worldwide number is estimated to grow to as many 592 million patients. Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by the body's inability to produce or effectively utilize insulin, which prevents the body from adequately regulating blood glucose levels. Diabetes is typically classified into two major groups: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the body attacking its own insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Without any natural insulin production, patients with type 1 diabetes must rely on frequent insulin injections in order to regulate and maintain blood glucose levels. As of 2012, about 1.25 million American had been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results when the body is unable to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or becomes insulin resistant, and this type is much more common than type 1. About 19 million Americans have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and a further 8.1 million have type 2 but remain undiagnosed. Treating diabetes is both complicated and costly. The most recent estimates from the American Diabetes Association indicate that total costs to treat diabetes in the U.S. reached $245 billion in 2012 alone, up from $174 billion in 2007. It's no surprise that a market with that level of spending has attracted investors' attention. There are plenty of ways for investors to gain exposure to the diabetes treatment market, such as Big Pharma companies like Sanofi, Novo Nordisk, and Eli Lilly, who produce a range of drugs used to treat the disease. On the opposite end of the diversity sp Continue reading >>

10 Types Of Words You Never Knew Had To Be Capitalized

10 Types Of Words You Never Knew Had To Be Capitalized

Brand names and trademarks Popsicle seems like a generic term like ice cream, but it's actually a registered trademark. You have to capitalize all of those. Capitalize terms like Magic Markers, Band-Aid, Scotch Tape, and even TV Dinner. However, you don't need to capitalize the generic word that comes after it. Like Kleenex tissue or Pepsi soda or Honda sedan. Check out the reason why Coke tastes better at McDonald's. IMG Stock Studio /Shutterstock You always capitalize the names of all religious figures: God, Buddha, Zeus, Moses, Lakshmi, the Virgin Mary, Yaweh, and all the rest. Capitalize every one of them. Use a capital if you're using a stand-in term like the Creator or Maker. The only time you won't capitalize "god" is when you're not referring to a specific god, as in "Pray to the weather gods for a sunny picnic day." You also don't need to capitalize the word when you're using the it as a description, as in, "Her prowess on the tennis court was like a gift from the gods." While you're at it, go ahead and capitalize the titles of all religious books too, like the Bible and the Koran. Here are 6 surprising quotes from the Bible. Cultural events and movements and holidays Anna Om/Shutterstock You definitely need to capitalize major cultural events like the Civil Rights Movement, Women's Liberation, Woodstock, the Boston Tea Party, and the Civil War. Also capitalize all holidays and major celebrations like Thanksgiving, Halloween, Kwanzaa, and St. Patrick's Day. In fact, if you're adding "day" or "eve" to a holiday, you always capitalize it. As in, New Year's Day. Capitalize birthday if you use it as Lincoln's Birthday—no need for the capital if it's just your own! Don't miss the reasons why we celebrate Presidents' Day. Mom, Dad, and your family members Syda Prod Continue reading >>

Review Of Basal‐plus Insulin Regimen Options For Simpler Insulin Intensification In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Review Of Basal‐plus Insulin Regimen Options For Simpler Insulin Intensification In People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: Abstract To identify simple insulin regimens for people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus that can be accepted and implemented earlier in primary and specialist care, taking into consideration each individual's needs and capabilities. Methods Using randomized clinical trials identified by a search of the PubMed database, as well as systematic reviews, meta‐analyses and proof‐of‐concept studies, this review addresses topics of interest related to the progressive intensification of a basal insulin regimen to a basal‐plus regimen (one basal insulin injection plus stepwise addition of one to three preprandial short‐acting insulin injections/day) vs a basal‐bolus regimen (basal insulin plus three short‐acting insulin injections per day) in people with Type 2 diabetes. The review explores approaches that can be used to define the meal for first prandial injection with basal‐plus regimens, differences among insulin titration algorithms, and the importance of self‐motivation and autonomy in achieving optimum glycaemic control. A basal‐plus regimen can provide glycaemic control equivalent to that obtained with a full basal‐bolus regimen, with fewer injections of prandial insulin. The first critical step is to optimize basal insulin dosing to reach a fasting glucose concentration of ~6.7 mmol/l; this allows ~40% of patients with baseline HbA1c >75 mmol/mol (9%) to be controlled with only one basal insulin injection per day. Compared with a basal‐bolus regimen, a basal‐plus insulin regimen is as effective but more practical, and has the best chance of acceptance and success in the real world. Continue reading >>

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