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Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?

Exploring Occupational Therapy’s Role In Diabetes: An Experiential Internship Abbey Lacey Pacific University

Exploring Occupational Therapy’s Role In Diabetes: An Experiential Internship Abbey Lacey Pacific University

Pacific University CommonKnowledge Entry-Level OTD Capstones School of Occupational Therapy Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Occupational Therapy Commons This Capstone (Entry-Level OTD) is brought to you for free and open access by the School of Occupational Therapy at CommonKnowledge. It has been accepted for inclusion in Entry-Level OTD Capstones by an authorized administrator of CommonKnowledge. For more information, please contact [email protected] Recommended Citation Lacey, Abbey, "Exploring Occupational Therapy’s Role in Diabetes: An Experiential Internship" (2016). Entry-Level OTD Capstones. 16. Exploring Occupational Therapy’s Role in Diabetes: An Experiential Internship Abstract One quarter of adults aged 65 years or older in the United States have diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2016). Associated complications, including neuropathy, vision loss, and foot damage can be difficult for individuals with diabetes to manage. Additionally, self-cares, particularly medication management, are more complex for an individual with diabetes. Research supports the use of self-management education and a multidisciplinary team approach to manage diabetes and its comorbidities. In this advocacy project, an occupational therapy doctoral student intern explored occupational therapy’s role on the diabetes management team at a large medical center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Following a needs assessment, the student intern worked with members of the multidisciplinary team to develop necessary resources and advocate for occupational therapy’s increased role in diabetes care within this facility. Feedback from involved parties indicates that occupational therapy has a unique and valued role in diabetes management. Degree Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Cost And Effects

Diabetes: The Cost And Effects

Throughout history, human kind has been afflicted by epidemics like cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza etc that have wiped off millions of lives across the globe. In modern times, we have seen HIV/Aids, Ebola and most recently Zika virus adding to the list of epidemics. The common factor in all these cases is that they are communicable diseases. But the biggest epidemic of the 21st century that is affecting the global population is a non-communicable disease – diabetes. According the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas 2015, some 415mn people or 8.8 per cent of adults aged 20-79, worldwide are estimated to have diabetes. About 75 per cent of them live in low- and middle- income countries. If these trends continue, by 2040 some 642mn people, or one adult in ten, will have diabetes. Oman has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world and in 2015 there were over 300,000 cases in the country according to IDF. Diabetes has far-reaching consequences that not only affects an individual's health, but his/her's family's well being, finances employment and a country's economy as whole. According to various reports, majority of the countries spend 5-20 per cent of their health expenditure for the disease and the losses in GDP worldwide from 2011 to 2030, including both the direct and indirect costs of diabetes, will total US$1.7tn. It comprises US$900bn for high-income countries and US$800bn for low- and middle-income countries. Dr Ali Saif al Mamari, senior consultant & head of Endocrinology at Sultan Qaboos University, says, “Around 13-17 per cent of Omanis have diabetes, which is a cause of great concern. The government provides free medical care to Omanis and a significant amount of its healthcare budget goes to the treatment of diabet Continue reading >>

Could This Simple Vitamin Deficiency Be The Cause Of Diabetes Epidemic?

Could This Simple Vitamin Deficiency Be The Cause Of Diabetes Epidemic?

Are you eating enough veggies, especially sweet potatoes, carrots and leafy greens? If not, you may need to start adding those up to your diet because a new research shows a clear link between vitamin A deficiency and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes on the rise It may seem like diabetes is becoming the biggest epidemic of the twenty-first century. The most common type of this disease is type 2 diabetes, marked by insulin resistance, which is also becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. This condition is defined by the inability of liver cells, muscles and fat to respond properly to insulin, which leads to overproduction of insulin and in the end, the inability of insulin-producing beta cells to function properly. A link between vitamin A and diabetes Researchers at the New York’s Weill Cornell Medical College wanted to find out whether there was a link between type 2 diabetes and vitamin A deficiency, so they conducted a study with two groups of adult mice. One group was genetically modified to be unable to store dietary vitamin A, while the other one was a healthy control group, able to store vitamin A normally from food. The results showed that the genetically modified mice experienced beta cell death, which means they were unable to produce insulin. Furthermore, when the researchers removed vitamin A from the healthy group, they discovered that this lead to a significant beta cell loss. The good news are that whenever they put vitamin A to the diet of mice, they starting with producing beta cells normally, so insulin production rose steadily too and returning blood glucose levels to normal. The Takeaway The results of the study are clear as day – vitamin A deficiency can indeed lead to insulin resistance, which in turn can lead to type 2 diabetes. This, however, can Continue reading >>

Century Health Challenges: Can We All Become Healthy, Wealthy, And Wise?

Century Health Challenges: Can We All Become Healthy, Wealthy, And Wise?

21st Introduction The title of my talk – Can We All Become Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise? – comes of course from Ben Franklin’s adage: “Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.” If only it were that simple . . . I don’t want to lecture you about your sleeping patterns, but Ben Franklin’s aphorism correctly appreciates that there is a relationship between these three conditions and I’d like to explore some of these connections with you. Entering a new century, we have unprecedented opportunities to improve the health of all Americans, but doing so will require applying our wealth and our wisdom in ways that might not be self-evident. In my remarks today, I’d like to give you a public health perspective on where these opportunities lie. The public health perspective is broad and compelling and based on a record of extraordinary accomplishment. For example, if we look back at the beginning of the century we’ve just completed, we can see a dramatic change in one of the prominent markers of overall health status: life expectancy. A person born in 1900 could expect to live, on average, to the age of 45. Today, life expectancy is nearly 80 years. What may surprise you about this statistic is not that we’ve gained 35 years of longevity, but rather where these gains have come from. In fact, only 5 or so of these “extra” years can be attributed to advances in clinical medicine. Public health can take the credit for the other 30 years, thanks to improvements in sanitation, health education, the development of effective vaccines, and other advances. As the eminent British historian of the Wellcome Institute, Roy Porter, has observed, “the retreat of the great lethal diseases was due in the first instance, more to urban improvement Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Pakistan: A Major Public Health Concern

Diabetes Mellitus In Pakistan: A Major Public Health Concern

1 Department of Medicine & Allied, Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar, Pakistan 2 Department of Pharmacy Services, Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar, Pakistan Correspondence Address: Iftikhar Ali Department of Pharmacy Services, Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Sector A3, Phase V, Hayatabad, Peshawar Pakistan Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None DOI: 10.4103/2045-080X.174943 How to cite this article: Hussain A, Ali I. Diabetes mellitus in Pakistan: A major public health concern. Arch Pharma Pract 2016;7:30-2 Dear Editor, Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide with an increasing incidence. As a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, it poses an enormous challenge to public health. Reaching epidemic proportions globally, it has emerged as a great socioeconomic burden for the developing world. There is a significant rise in the prevalence of this illness over the past two decades is cause for alarm. According to the current statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), it has been projected that approximately1 in 11 adults (415 million) has diabetes and is expected to reach 1 in 10 adults (642 million) by 2040. Statistically, the prevalence of DM in Pakistan is high; ranging from 7.6% (5.2 million populace) to 11% in 2011, it is estimated to reach 15% (14 million) by 2030. This places Pakistan at number 7 in the list of countries with a prevalence of DM, and, if the present situation continues, is expected to move to 4 Place. This concerning position presents a challenge for health care professionals and health care policy makers in Pakistan. According to various population-based studies and national surveys, the overall ratio of DM is about 22.04% in Continue reading >>

Correlation Between Hemoglobin A1c And Serum Lipid Profile In Afghani Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Hemoglobin A1c Prognosticates Dyslipidemia

Correlation Between Hemoglobin A1c And Serum Lipid Profile In Afghani Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Hemoglobin A1c Prognosticates Dyslipidemia

Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased prevalence of dyslipidemia, which contributes to their high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study is an attempt to determine the correlation between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum lipid profile and to evaluate the importance of HbA1c as an indicator of dyslipidemia in Afghani patients with T2DM. A total of 401 Afghani patients with T2DM (men, 175; women, 226; mean age, 51.29 years) were included in this study. The whole blood and sera were analyzed for fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines. Diabetes was defined as per American Diabetes Association criteria. The correlation of FBS, HbA1c with lipid ratios and individual lipid indexes were analyzed. The statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical package version 16.0. The mean age ± standard deviation of male and female patients were 51.71 ± 11.70 and 50.97 ± 10.23 years respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. The correlation between HbA1c and HDL-C was negative and was statistically nonsignificant. Furthermore, HbA1c was found to be a predictor of hypercholesterolemia, LDL-C and TG via a linear regression analysis. Patients with HbA1c value greater than 7.0% had significantly higher value of cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio compared with patients with an HbA1c value up to 7.0%. Apart from a reliable glycemic index, HbA1c can also be used as a predictor of dyslipidemia and thus early diagnosis of dyslip Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Epidemic

Diabetes: The Epidemic

On Barbara Young's office table is a graph. A bar chart, actually: four columns of green, purple, red and bright blue showing the progression, in England, of rates of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes over the past five years. The first two are flatlining or falling. Cancer, in red, is rising, but slowly. Trace a line between the blue bars from 2005 to 2010, and it soars off the chart. "Diabetes," says Young flatly, "is becoming a crisis. The crisis. It's big, it's scary, it's growing and it's very, very expensive. It's clearly an epidemic, and it could bring the health service to its knees. Something really does need to happen." Baroness Young is, admittedly, the chief executive of Diabetes UK, Britain's main diabetes charity and campaigning group. It's her job to say such things. But the figures are behind her all the way: diabetes is fast becoming the 21st century's major public-health concern. The condition is now nearly four times as common as all forms of cancer combined, and causes more deaths than breast and prostate cancer combined. Some 2.8m people in the UK have been diagnosed with it; an estimated 850,000 more probably have type 2 diabetes but don't yet know. Another 7m are classified as high-risk of developing type 2; between 40% and 50% of them will go on to develop it. By the year 2025, more than 5m people in this country will have diabetes. The implications for the NHS, obviously, don't bear thinking about. Diabetes already costs the service around £1m an hour, roughly 10% of its entire budget. That's not just because the condition generally has to be managed with medication or insulin, but because by the time they are diagnosed, around half the people with type 2 – by far the most common and fastest growing form – have developed a Continue reading >>

In The Fifth Century Bc, Heraclitus Observed That

In The Fifth Century Bc, Heraclitus Observed That

A Healthcare Model for the 21st Century C i t y C l u b o f C l e v e l a n d | a u g u s t 1 8 , 2 0 1 0 It is an honor to be invited here today. The City Club Forum has always been an outstanding platform for the discussion of important issues. nothing is permanent but change. Healthcare is changing. I’d like briefly to outline these changes, and discuss the effect on patients, diseases, treatments, delivery systems, caregivers and, finally, costs. Healthcare and the economy are in the midst of historic realignments. Cleveland Clinic needs to innovate and evolve if we are to continue to serve our patients and remain an economic engine for the region. Let me begin with a look at the changes in our own community. The city of Cleveland has shrunk dramatically over the past sixty years. The population has fallen – from nine hundred thousand to less than four hun- dred thousand. Cuyahoga County has seen similar but less dramatic change. The population has dropped from 1.7 million to less than 1.3 million. We are treating a different mix of diseases today than in the past. Infant mortality has decreased by ninety-five percent. Devastating infectious diseases like tuberculosis and polio have been virtually eliminated. Life expectancy has gone up to seventy-eight years. We’re seeing more patients who are sixty-five and older. This number is set to explode to more than fifty million people over the next ten years. As life expectancy goes up, the causes of disease and death are changing. Chronic diseases of aging were only three of the six major causes of death in 1960. Today, they are six of the seven major causes of death. Alzheimer’s disease is now more common than diabetes. There are five million cases today. That number will nearly triple by 205 Continue reading >>

See The Light: Good Eye Health Is Extra Important For Diabetics

See The Light: Good Eye Health Is Extra Important For Diabetics

Diabetes, and its prevalence among adults and children, is quickly becoming one of the biggest epidemics of the 21st century. Its growing prevalence has become a topic of concern and health professionals are redoubling their efforts to educate the public to its harmful health complications, including heart attack, stroke — and eye conditions that can cause blindness. “Diabetes is an endocrine disorder that causes blood sugar levels to rise higher than normal. The most common form is type 2 diabetes, where the body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level,” says Dr. Phillip J. Calenda, an ophthalmologist at NewYork-Presbyterian Hudson Valley Hospital in Cortlandt Manor. “High blood sugar can lead to problems such as cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. In fact, diabetes is the primary cause of blindness in adults ages 20 to 74. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. “In most instances, cataracts are associated with age-related changes in the eye, though other factors, such as medication, surgery, sun exposure, and disease can also play a role in its development,” says Dr. Calenda. Diabetes can lead to cataracts in younger people as well, and the condition worsens at a faster rate than for non-diabetics. If left untreated, cataracts can cause blindness. In fact, the condition is the leading cause of blindness in the world, according to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. A minimally invasive surgical procedure eliminates cataracts from the eyes, but whether surgery is needed depends on the degree of vision loss and whether it affects quality Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?

Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?

Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Worldwide, the prevalence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate. About 18 million people die every year from cardiovascular disease, for which diabetes and hypertension are major predisposing factors. Today, more than 1.7 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and 312 million of them are obese. In addition, at least 155 million children worldwide are overweight or obese. A diabetes epidemic is underway. According to an estimate of International Diabetes Federation comparative prevalence of Diabetes during 2007 is 8.0 % and likely to increase to 7.3% by 2025. Number of people with diabetes is 246 million (with 46% of all those affected in the 40–59 age group) and likely to increase to 380 m by 2025. The comparative prevalence of IGT is 7.5% in 2007 and likely to go up to 6.0 by 2025. The number of people with IGT is 308 million in 2007 and likely to be 418 m by 2025. (1) Almost 80% of the total adult diabetics are in developing countries. The regions with the highest rates are the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, where 9.2 % of the adult population is affected, and North America (8.4%). The highest numbers, however, are found in the Western Pacific, where some 67 million people have Diabetes, followed by Europe with 53 million. India leads the global top ten in terms of the highest number of people with diabetes with a current figure of 40.9 million, followed by China with 39.8 million. Behind them come USA; Russia; Germany; Japan; Pakistan; Brazil; Mexico and Egypt. Two major concerns are that much of this increase in Diabetes will occur in developing countries and that there is a growing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes at a younger age in Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Hidden Epidemic

Diabetes: The Hidden Epidemic

With an infected toe, Rommel Barro went to see a doctor in one of the largest hospitals in Davao City. When the doctor told him that his foot had to be amputated, he was totally unprepared for what he heard. He went home and refused to see any other healthcare provides. As expected, the wound got worsened that even neighbors could already smell the foul odor. They complained to their barangay captain, who approached Dr. Isagani Braganza for help. Dr. Braganza is a physician who is involved in an innovative projected initiated by Handicap International which is implemented in collaboration with local health authorities and supported by the World Diabetes Foundation (whose story of Rommel was featured in its website). Rommel has no other choice but to see Dr. Braganza. When he came to the consulting room at the Jacinto Health Center, the doctor welcome him. After removing his tennis shoe and sock, the doctor saw as swollen ankle and a foot with a missing second toe. All over the world, diabetes is fast becoming a threat to public health. In the Philippines, diabetes is the eighth leading cause of mortality, according to a handout circulated by The Diabetes Store. About 500 Filipinos are added to the demographic daily. Unknowingly, diabetes has exceeded projected rates worldwide. In 2000, the International Diabetes Federation estimated about 320 million diabetics globally by 2025. But even before that forecasted year, there were already 415 million diabetics in 2015. Considered before as a “disease of affluence,” diabetes is now taking its place as one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century. “Diabetes is going to be the biggest epidemic in human history,” warns Dr. Paul Zimmet, director of the International Diabetes Institute in Victoria, Australia Continue reading >>

A Twenty-first Century Cancer Epidemic Caused By Obesity: The Involvement Of Insulin, Diabetes, And Insulin-like Growth Factors

A Twenty-first Century Cancer Epidemic Caused By Obesity: The Involvement Of Insulin, Diabetes, And Insulin-like Growth Factors

Copyright © 2013 Rosalyne L. Westley and Felicity E. B. May. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world. The progression from obesity to diabetes mellitus type 2, via metabolic syndrome, is recognised, and the significant associated increase in the risk of major human cancers acknowledged. We review the molecular basis of the involvement of morbidly high concentrations of endogenous or therapeutic insulin and of insulin-like growth factors in the progression from obesity to diabetes and finally to cancer. Epidemiological and biochemical studies establish the role of insulin and hyperinsulinaemia in cancer risk and progression. Insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1 and IGF-2, secreted by visceral or mammary adipose tissue have significant paracrine and endocrine effects. These effects can be exacerbated by increased steroid hormone production. Structural studies elucidate how each of the three ligands, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2, interacts differently with isoforms A and B of the insulin receptor and with type I IGF receptor and explain how these protagonists contribute to diabetes-associated cancer. The above should inform appropriate treatment of cancers that arise in obese individuals and in those with diabetes mellitus type 2. Novel drugs that target the insulin and insulin-like growth factor signal transduction pathways are in clinical trial and should be effective if appropriate biomarker-informed patient stratification is implemented. Continue reading >>

Chronic Disease: The Epidemic Of The Twentieth Century Dora Anne Mills University Of New England, Doraamills@gmail.com

Chronic Disease: The Epidemic Of The Twentieth Century Dora Anne Mills University Of New England, [email protected]

Maine Policy Review Volume 9 | Issue 1 Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Commons, Epidemiology Commons, Health Policy Commons, and the Public Health Education and Promotion Commons This Article is brought to you for free and open access by [email protected] Recommended Citation Mills, Dora Anne. "Chronic Disease: The Epidemic of the Twentieth Century." Maine Policy Review 9.1 (2000) : 50 -65, 50 · MAINE POLICY REVIEW · Winter 2000 CHRONIC DISEASE Chronic Disease: The Epidemic of the Twentieth Century by Dora Anne Mills One hundred years ago, the leading causes of death were infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, influenza and pneu- monia. Of equal concern were water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. Yet today, as a result of public health measures to clean up our drinking water and provide immunizations, and by improvements in medical care, such diseases have been eradicated. - As Dora Anne Mills points out, as we begin a new century, we have much to celebrate but still more to consider. Today, we face an epidemic unlike any found in 1900. One hundred years ago only one-in-six people died of a chronic condition; today, three-quarters of Maine people die from four chronic, and mostly preventable, diseases: cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes. Not only does Maine have the fourth highest death rate due to chronic disease, it also leads the nation in the three behavioral risk factors that cause or exacerbate chronic disease: tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity. - In this article, Mills first chronicles Maine�s c hronic disease epidemic, and second, lays out a plan for strengthening the state�s disease prevention and health promotion effor Continue reading >>

Resveratrol Shows Neuronal And Vascular-protective Effects In Older, Obese, Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Resveratrol Shows Neuronal And Vascular-protective Effects In Older, Obese, Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Abstract Diabetes-induced CVD is the most significant complication of prolonged hyperglycaemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant compound, when administered at a dose that can be reasonably obtained through supplementation could prevent the development of cardiovascular complications in older, obese, diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 6-month old, obese, male Wistar rats via a single intravenous dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Randomly selected animals were administered resveratrol (2 mg/kg) via oral gavage daily for 8 weeks. Body weights, blood glucose levels, food intake and water consumption were monitored, and assessments of vascular reactivity, tactile allodynia and left ventricular function were performed. Resveratrol therapy significantly improved tactile allodynia and vascular contractile functionality in diabetic rats (P<0·05). There were no significant changes in standardised vasorelaxation responses, plasma glucose concentrations, water consumption, body weight, left ventricular hypertrophy, kidney hypertrophy, heart rate or left ventricular compliance with resveratrol administration. Resveratrol-mediated improvements in vascular and nerve function in old, obese, diabetic rats were associated with its reported antioxidant effects. Resveratrol did not improve cardiac function nor mitigate the classic clinical symptoms of diabetes mellitus (i.e. hyperglycaemia, polydypsia and a failure to thrive). This suggests that supplementation with resveratrol at a dose achievable with commercially available supplements would not produce significant cardioprotective effects in people with diabetes mellitus. Continue reading >>

Do You Have Wifi-caused-diabetes, Also Called Type 3 Diabetes. Diabetes Now At Epidemic Levels. Learn How To Spot If You Already Have Wifi-caused-diabetes Or Learn How To Protect Yourself, So You Will Not Get It In The Future

Do You Have Wifi-caused-diabetes, Also Called Type 3 Diabetes. Diabetes Now At Epidemic Levels. Learn How To Spot If You Already Have Wifi-caused-diabetes Or Learn How To Protect Yourself, So You Will Not Get It In The Future

Recent reseach shows link between WiFi and diabetes. Science understand that diabetes is linked to our diet, weight, exercise and genetics. However, its also known that diabetes is being redefined as an immune illness. As WiFi effects the human immune system, recent research showing a link that makes sense. From 1995 to 2010, there was at least a 100% increase in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes cases in 18 states in the US. Forty-two states saw an increase of at least 50%. In a ground-breaking study, Dr. Magda Havas of Trent University, Canada reports that doctors have long suspected that there exists an environmental cause of diabetes, and her study now confirms they’ve been right. Magda Havas states: “There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes, which is also called Childhood Onset, accounts for 5% to 10% of all diabetics, and is largely genetic; Type 2 Diabetes, also known as Adult Onset, accounts for 90% to 95% of all diabetes and is attributed largely to lifestyle and obesity. She suggest there is another type of diabetes – Type 3 Diabetes, which is an environmental trigger that causes blood sugar to spike or fall.” Watch this 7 min video, by doctor Magda Haves The study mentioned here classifies the type of diabetes caused by electromagnetic pollution as type-3 diabetes. While those with type-1 or type-2 diabetes can also have type-3, the data seems to indicate that a person can also exclusively have type-3 without any overlay of the other two types. In other words, their diabetes may be solely due to electromagnetic pollution And since pre-diabetics can be pushed over the edge by EMF pollution, there is no telling how many people actually have type-3 rather than type-2 diabetes. Diabetes is now rampant in our society. 100 years ago less tha Continue reading >>

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