Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?
Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Worldwide, the prevalence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate. About 18 million people die every year from cardiovascular disease, for which diabetes and hypertension are major predisposing factors. Today, more than 1.7 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and 312... [Show full abstract] India with a pluralistic society has a mixed economy. The total expenditure on health is shared by the government and the non-governmental resources. The per capita public sector expenditure is rupees 53.6 , net National Product 663.5, and the per capita income rupees 3284 only. The proportion of Health & Family Welfare investment to the total plan investment allocation has remained barely 3.7... [Show full abstract] Throughout history human populations have undergone shifts in their relations with disease - shifts that are always linked to major changes in the way people interact with the environment. in the past two decades the emergence of illnesses such as Hepatitis C, cat scratch disease, Ebola Virus, Hanta Virus and others has created a third epidemiological transition, a disheartening act of changes... [Show full abstract] India with a pluralistic society has a mixed economy. The total expenditure on health is shared by the government and the non-governmental resources. The per capita public sector expenditure is rupees 53.6 , net National Product 663.5, and the per capita income rupees 3284 only. The proportion of Health & Family Welfare investment to the total plan investment allocation has remained barely 3.7... [Show full abstract] Continue reading >>
Diabetes: The Hidden Epidemic
With an infected toe, Rommel Barro went to see a doctor in one of the largest hospitals in Davao City. When the doctor told him that his foot had to be amputated, he was totally unprepared for what he heard. He went home and refused to see any other healthcare provides. As expected, the wound got worsened that even neighbors could already smell the foul odor. They complained to their barangay captain, who approached Dr. Isagani Braganza for help. Dr. Braganza is a physician who is involved in an innovative projected initiated by Handicap International which is implemented in collaboration with local health authorities and supported by the World Diabetes Foundation (whose story of Rommel was featured in its website). Rommel has no other choice but to see Dr. Braganza. When he came to the consulting room at the Jacinto Health Center, the doctor welcome him. After removing his tennis shoe and sock, the doctor saw as swollen ankle and a foot with a missing second toe. All over the world, diabetes is fast becoming a threat to public health. In the Philippines, diabetes is the eighth leading cause of mortality, according to a handout circulated by The Diabetes Store. About 500 Filipinos are added to the demographic daily. Unknowingly, diabetes has exceeded projected rates worldwide. In 2000, the International Diabetes Federation estimated about 320 million diabetics globally by 2025. But even before that forecasted year, there were already 415 million diabetics in 2015. Considered before as a “disease of affluence,” diabetes is now taking its place as one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century. “Diabetes is going to be the biggest epidemic in human history,” warns Dr. Paul Zimmet, director of the International Diabetes Institute in Victoria, Australia Continue reading >>
Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?
Each year, 7 million people develop Diabetes and the most dramatic increases in type 2 Diabetes have occurred in populations where there have been rapid and major changes in lifestyle, demonstrating the important role played by lifestyle factors and the potential for reversing the global epidemic. Pre-diabetes is present in about 23% of adults under the age of 34 years In adults over the age of 65, a total of 51% have pre-diabetes and 27% have diabetes Mark Priemer shares with us how to deal with diabetes and some insights into a new Infinitus Product soon to be released. Continue reading >>
Diabetes Becoming 'epidemic Of 21st Century'
Diabetes is expected to affect nearly 400 million people, about seven per cent of the world's adult population, by 2025, a conference heard Monday. "The biggest challenge of today is to communicate the magnitude of the epidemic throughout the world," Pierre Lefebvre, outgoing president of the International Diabetes Federation, told delegates on the first day of a four-day meeting in Cape Town on Monday. New data suggest the number of people living with diabetes will skyrocket to 380 million within 20 years if nothing is done, the federation said in its new diabetes atlas. Diabetes kills 3.8 million people a year— as many people as HIV/AIDS, according to the atlas. "Diabetes is fast becoming the epidemic of the 21st century," the report said. The condition occurs when the body cannot produce or use insulin properly to process sugar. It already affects 246 million people worldwide, up from 30 million two decades ago. More children and teens are being affected by Type 2 diabetes. "There is no doubt that this is linked to the epidemics of overweight and obesity, and there is no doubt that this increase in overweight and obesity is linked to the profound way in which the life of those children and adolescents has changed over the past10 to 20 years," Pierre Lefebvre, the group's outgoing president, told delegates. India and China have the highest number of diabetics at around 40 million each, the report said. Type 2 diabetes is spreading the fastest in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. "Wherever poverty and a lack of sanitation drive families to low cost-per-calorie foods and packaged drinks, Type 2 diabetes thrives," the federation said in a statement. Overweight and obesity are risk factors for Type 2 diabetes.Type 1 diabetes has no known cause and makes up a mi Continue reading >>
Incidence And Prevalence Rates Of Diabetes Mellitus In Saudi Arabia: An Overview
Highlights • • • Diabetes is higher among females, older children/adolescent. • Diabetes is higher in urban areas than rural areas. • Further studies of the incidence and prevalence rates diabetes are needed. Abstract This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990–2015). A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings. Studies originated from Saudi Arabia and applied a variety of research designs and tools to diagnosis diabetes. Of the 8 included studies; three reported type 1 diabetes and five on type 2 diabetes. Overall, findings indicated that the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes is rising particularly among females, older children/adolescent and in urban areas. Further development are required to assess the health intervention, polices, guidelines, self-management programs in Saudi Arabia. Fig. 1. Flowchart of study selection. Fig. 2. Incidence rate of T1DM between 1990 and 2009 in Saudi Arabia. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes and is currently a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. This is likely to worsen, given the rapidly increasing prevalence of this condition; therefore, an understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is of considerable importance. By definition, patients with type 2 diabetes have neither autoimmune β cell destruction, as is found in type 1 diabetes, nor one of the other specific causes of diab Continue reading >>
Diabetes: The Epidemic
On Barbara Young's office table is a graph. A bar chart, actually: four columns of green, purple, red and bright blue showing the progression, in England, of rates of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes over the past five years. The first two are flatlining or falling. Cancer, in red, is rising, but slowly. Trace a line between the blue bars from 2005 to 2010, and it soars off the chart. "Diabetes," says Young flatly, "is becoming a crisis. The crisis. It's big, it's scary, it's growing and it's very, very expensive. It's clearly an epidemic, and it could bring the health service to its knees. Something really does need to happen." Baroness Young is, admittedly, the chief executive of Diabetes UK, Britain's main diabetes charity and campaigning group. It's her job to say such things. But the figures are behind her all the way: diabetes is fast becoming the 21st century's major public-health concern. The condition is now nearly four times as common as all forms of cancer combined, and causes more deaths than breast and prostate cancer combined. Some 2.8m people in the UK have been diagnosed with it; an estimated 850,000 more probably have type 2 diabetes but don't yet know. Another 7m are classified as high-risk of developing type 2; between 40% and 50% of them will go on to develop it. By the year 2025, more than 5m people in this country will have diabetes. The implications for the NHS, obviously, don't bear thinking about. Diabetes already costs the service around £1m an hour, roughly 10% of its entire budget. That's not just because the condition generally has to be managed with medication or insulin, but because by the time they are diagnosed, around half the people with type 2 – by far the most common and fastest growing form – have developed a Continue reading >>
Correlation Between Hemoglobin A1c And Serum Lipid Profile In Afghani Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Hemoglobin A1c Prognosticates Dyslipidemia
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased prevalence of dyslipidemia, which contributes to their high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study is an attempt to determine the correlation between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum lipid profile and to evaluate the importance of HbA1c as an indicator of dyslipidemia in Afghani patients with T2DM. A total of 401 Afghani patients with T2DM (men, 175; women, 226; mean age, 51.29 years) were included in this study. The whole blood and sera were analyzed for fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines. Diabetes was defined as per American Diabetes Association criteria. The correlation of FBS, HbA1c with lipid ratios and individual lipid indexes were analyzed. The statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical package version 16.0. The mean age ± standard deviation of male and female patients were 51.71 ± 11.70 and 50.97 ± 10.23 years respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. The correlation between HbA1c and HDL-C was negative and was statistically nonsignificant. Furthermore, HbA1c was found to be a predictor of hypercholesterolemia, LDL-C and TG via a linear regression analysis. Patients with HbA1c value greater than 7.0% had significantly higher value of cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio compared with patients with an HbA1c value up to 7.0%. Apart from a reliable glycemic index, HbA1c can also be used as a predictor of dyslipidemia and thus early diagnosis of dyslip Continue reading >>
See The Light: Good Eye Health Is Extra Important For Diabetics
Diabetes, and its prevalence among adults and children, is quickly becoming one of the biggest epidemics of the 21st century. Its growing prevalence has become a topic of concern and health professionals are redoubling their efforts to educate the public to its harmful health complications, including heart attack, stroke — and eye conditions that can cause blindness. “Diabetes is an endocrine disorder that causes blood sugar levels to rise higher than normal. The most common form is type 2 diabetes, where the body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level,” says Dr. Phillip J. Calenda, an ophthalmologist at NewYork-Presbyterian Hudson Valley Hospital in Cortlandt Manor. “High blood sugar can lead to problems such as cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. In fact, diabetes is the primary cause of blindness in adults ages 20 to 74. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. “In most instances, cataracts are associated with age-related changes in the eye, though other factors, such as medication, surgery, sun exposure, and disease can also play a role in its development,” says Dr. Calenda. Diabetes can lead to cataracts in younger people as well, and the condition worsens at a faster rate than for non-diabetics. If left untreated, cataracts can cause blindness. In fact, the condition is the leading cause of blindness in the world, according to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. A minimally invasive surgical procedure eliminates cataracts from the eyes, but whether surgery is needed depends on the degree of vision loss and whether it affects quality Continue reading >>
Chronic Disease: The Epidemic Of The Twentieth Century Dora Anne Mills University Of New England, [email protected]
Maine Policy Review Volume 9 | Issue 1 Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Commons, Epidemiology Commons, Health Policy Commons, and the Public Health Education and Promotion Commons This Article is brought to you for free and open access by [email protected] Recommended Citation Mills, Dora Anne. "Chronic Disease: The Epidemic of the Twentieth Century." Maine Policy Review 9.1 (2000) : 50 -65, 50 Â· MAINE POLICY REVIEW Â· Winter 2000 CHRONIC DISEASE Chronic Disease: The Epidemic of the Twentieth Century by Dora Anne Mills One hundred years ago, the leading causes of death were infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, influenza and pneu- monia. Of equal concern were water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. Yet today, as a result of public health measures to clean up our drinking water and provide immunizations, and by improvements in medical care, such diseases have been eradicated. - As Dora Anne Mills points out, as we begin a new century, we have much to celebrate but still more to consider. Today, we face an epidemic unlike any found in 1900. One hundred years ago only one-in-six people died of a chronic condition; today, three-quarters of Maine people die from four chronic, and mostly preventable, diseases: cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes. Not only does Maine have the fourth highest death rate due to chronic disease, it also leads the nation in the three behavioral risk factors that cause or exacerbate chronic disease: tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity. - In this article, Mills first chronicles Maineï¿½s c hronic disease epidemic, and second, lays out a plan for strengthening the stateï¿½s disease prevention and health promotion effor Continue reading >>
Century Health Challenges: Can We All Become Healthy, Wealthy, And Wise?
21st Introduction The title of my talk – Can We All Become Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise? – comes of course from Ben Franklin’s adage: “Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.” If only it were that simple . . . I don’t want to lecture you about your sleeping patterns, but Ben Franklin’s aphorism correctly appreciates that there is a relationship between these three conditions and I’d like to explore some of these connections with you. Entering a new century, we have unprecedented opportunities to improve the health of all Americans, but doing so will require applying our wealth and our wisdom in ways that might not be self-evident. In my remarks today, I’d like to give you a public health perspective on where these opportunities lie. The public health perspective is broad and compelling and based on a record of extraordinary accomplishment. For example, if we look back at the beginning of the century we’ve just completed, we can see a dramatic change in one of the prominent markers of overall health status: life expectancy. A person born in 1900 could expect to live, on average, to the age of 45. Today, life expectancy is nearly 80 years. What may surprise you about this statistic is not that we’ve gained 35 years of longevity, but rather where these gains have come from. In fact, only 5 or so of these “extra” years can be attributed to advances in clinical medicine. Public health can take the credit for the other 30 years, thanks to improvements in sanitation, health education, the development of effective vaccines, and other advances. As the eminent British historian of the Wellcome Institute, Roy Porter, has observed, “the retreat of the great lethal diseases was due in the first instance, more to urban improvement Continue reading >>
In The Fifth Century Bc, Heraclitus Observed That
A Healthcare Model for the 21st Century C i t y C l u b o f C l e v e l a n d | a u g u s t 1 8 , 2 0 1 0 It is an honor to be invited here today. The City Club Forum has always been an outstanding platform for the discussion of important issues. nothing is permanent but change. Healthcare is changing. Iâ€™d like briefly to outline these changes, and discuss the effect on patients, diseases, treatments, delivery systems, caregivers and, finally, costs. Healthcare and the economy are in the midst of historic realignments. Cleveland Clinic needs to innovate and evolve if we are to continue to serve our patients and remain an economic engine for the region. Let me begin with a look at the changes in our own community. The city of Cleveland has shrunk dramatically over the past sixty years. The population has fallen â€“ from nine hundred thousand to less than four hun- dred thousand. Cuyahoga County has seen similar but less dramatic change. The population has dropped from 1.7 million to less than 1.3 million. We are treating a different mix of diseases today than in the past. Infant mortality has decreased by ninety-five percent. Devastating infectious diseases like tuberculosis and polio have been virtually eliminated. Life expectancy has gone up to seventy-eight years. Weâ€™re seeing more patients who are sixty-five and older. This number is set to explode to more than fifty million people over the next ten years. As life expectancy goes up, the causes of disease and death are changing. Chronic diseases of aging were only three of the six major causes of death in 1960. Today, they are six of the seven major causes of death. Alzheimerâ€™s disease is now more common than diabetes. There are five million cases today. That number will nearly triple by 205 Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Its Drivers: The Largest Epidemic In Human History?
Abstract The “Diabesity” epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore “the rise and rise” of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed. To prevent type 2 diabetes, a better understanding of the drivers of the epidemic is needed. While for years, there has been comprehensive attention to the “traditional” risk factors for type 2 diabetes i.e., genes, lifestyle and behavioral change, the spotlight is turning to the impact of the intra-uterine environment and epigenetics on future risk in adult life. It highlights the urgency for discovering novel approaches to prevention focusing on maternal and child health. Diabetes risk through epigenetic changes can be transmitted inter-generationally thus creating a vicious cycle that will continue to feed the diabetes epidemic. History provides important lessons and there are lessons to learn from major catastrophic events such as the Dutch Winter Hunger and Chinese famines. The Chinese famine may have been the trigger for what may be viewed as a diabetes “avalanche” many decades later. The drivers of the epidemic are indeed genes and environment but they are now joined by deleterious early life events. Looking to the future there is the potential scenario of future new “hot spots” for type 2 diabetes in regions e.g., the Horn of Africa, now experiencing droughts and f Continue reading >>
Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?
Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Worldwide, the prevalence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate. About 18 million people die every year from cardiovascular disease, for which diabetes and hypertension are major predisposing factors. Today, more than 1.7 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and 312 million of them are obese. In addition, at least 155 million children worldwide are overweight or obese. A diabetes epidemic is underway. According to an estimate of International Diabetes Federation comparative prevalence of Diabetes during 2007 is 8.0 % and likely to increase to 7.3% by 2025. Number of people with diabetes is 246 million (with 46% of all those affected in the 40–59 age group) and likely to increase to 380 m by 2025. The comparative prevalence of IGT is 7.5% in 2007 and likely to go up to 6.0 by 2025. The number of people with IGT is 308 million in 2007 and likely to be 418 m by 2025. (1) Almost 80% of the total adult diabetics are in developing countries. The regions with the highest rates are the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, where 9.2 % of the adult population is affected, and North America (8.4%). The highest numbers, however, are found in the Western Pacific, where some 67 million people have Diabetes, followed by Europe with 53 million. India leads the global top ten in terms of the highest number of people with diabetes with a current figure of 40.9 million, followed by China with 39.8 million. Behind them come USA; Russia; Germany; Japan; Pakistan; Brazil; Mexico and Egypt. Two major concerns are that much of this increase in Diabetes will occur in developing countries and that there is a growing incidence of Type 2 Diabetes at a younger age in Continue reading >>
Could This Simple Vitamin Deficiency Be The Cause Of Diabetes Epidemic?
Are you eating enough veggies, especially sweet potatoes, carrots and leafy greens? If not, you may need to start adding those up to your diet because a new research shows a clear link between vitamin A deficiency and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes on the rise It may seem like diabetes is becoming the biggest epidemic of the twenty-first century. The most common type of this disease is type 2 diabetes, marked by insulin resistance, which is also becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. This condition is defined by the inability of liver cells, muscles and fat to respond properly to insulin, which leads to overproduction of insulin and in the end, the inability of insulin-producing beta cells to function properly. A link between vitamin A and diabetes Researchers at the New York’s Weill Cornell Medical College wanted to find out whether there was a link between type 2 diabetes and vitamin A deficiency, so they conducted a study with two groups of adult mice. One group was genetically modified to be unable to store dietary vitamin A, while the other one was a healthy control group, able to store vitamin A normally from food. The results showed that the genetically modified mice experienced beta cell death, which means they were unable to produce insulin. Furthermore, when the researchers removed vitamin A from the healthy group, they discovered that this lead to a significant beta cell loss. The good news are that whenever they put vitamin A to the diet of mice, they starting with producing beta cells normally, so insulin production rose steadily too and returning blood glucose levels to normal. The Takeaway The results of the study are clear as day – vitamin A deficiency can indeed lead to insulin resistance, which in turn can lead to type 2 diabetes. This, however, can Continue reading >>