Health Risks Of Inhalation Insulin For Diabetics
Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce and/or properly use insulin—in other words, the body is insulin resistant.1 The treatment of type I and some cases of type II diabetes with subcutaneous insulin injections is sometimes associated with lack of compliance due to the pain of multiple daily injections.2 Hence, there is a big demand for insulin that can be administered without painful shots. Development of such an insulin delivery system could open the way to a multibillion-dollar market, while making diabetics more treatment-compliant. The search for a non-injectable form of insulin continues as the diabetic population all over the world continues to explode.3-5 An apparent advance arrived with the development of a preparation that could simply be inhaled.6 While the FDA had deemed this novel insulin preparation safe and effective, many questions regarding its long-term health effects remained unresolved.7-9 After an article was published on the potential cancer-causing effects of inhaled insulin using a medication called Exubera®, the Pfizer company withdrew the drug, taking a $2.5 billion loss.10-12 Pfizer later reported the development of lung cancer in six patients who had used inhaled insulin. Pfizer’s timely withdrawal potentially saved hundreds of diabetics using inhaled insulin from developing cancer.13 Unfortunately, on June 27, 2014, the FDA approved another inhaled insulin drug.7 It is obvious that the FDA did not thoroughly look at the ill effects of inhaled insulin. What Causes Diabetes? Insulin is a hormone secreted by endocrine cells (specifically beta cells located in the islets of Langerhans) of the pancreas and is essential for human life. It works by interacting with the insulin receptors on cell membranes to facilitate the ent Continue reading >>
Diabetes: The Hidden Epidemic
With an infected toe, Rommel Barro went to see a doctor in one of the largest hospitals in Davao City. When the doctor told him that his foot had to be amputated, he was totally unprepared for what he heard. He went home and refused to see any other healthcare provides. As expected, the wound got worsened that even neighbors could already smell the foul odor. They complained to their barangay captain, who approached Dr. Isagani Braganza for help. Dr. Braganza is a physician who is involved in an innovative projected initiated by Handicap International which is implemented in collaboration with local health authorities and supported by the World Diabetes Foundation (whose story of Rommel was featured in its website). Rommel has no other choice but to see Dr. Braganza. When he came to the consulting room at the Jacinto Health Center, the doctor welcome him. After removing his tennis shoe and sock, the doctor saw as swollen ankle and a foot with a missing second toe. All over the world, diabetes is fast becoming a threat to public health. In the Philippines, diabetes is the eighth leading cause of mortality, according to a handout circulated by The Diabetes Store. About 500 Filipinos are added to the demographic daily. Unknowingly, diabetes has exceeded projected rates worldwide. In 2000, the International Diabetes Federation estimated about 320 million diabetics globally by 2025. But even before that forecasted year, there were already 415 million diabetics in 2015. Considered before as a “disease of affluence,” diabetes is now taking its place as one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century. “Diabetes is going to be the biggest epidemic in human history,” warns Dr. Paul Zimmet, director of the International Diabetes Institute in Victoria, Australia Continue reading >>
Diabetes: The Cost And Effects
Throughout history, human kind has been afflicted by epidemics like cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza etc that have wiped off millions of lives across the globe. In modern times, we have seen HIV/Aids, Ebola and most recently Zika virus adding to the list of epidemics. The common factor in all these cases is that they are communicable diseases. But the biggest epidemic of the 21st century that is affecting the global population is a non-communicable disease – diabetes. According the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas 2015, some 415mn people or 8.8 per cent of adults aged 20-79, worldwide are estimated to have diabetes. About 75 per cent of them live in low- and middle- income countries. If these trends continue, by 2040 some 642mn people, or one adult in ten, will have diabetes. Oman has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world and in 2015 there were over 300,000 cases in the country according to IDF. Diabetes has far-reaching consequences that not only affects an individual's health, but his/her's family's well being, finances employment and a country's economy as whole. According to various reports, majority of the countries spend 5-20 per cent of their health expenditure for the disease and the losses in GDP worldwide from 2011 to 2030, including both the direct and indirect costs of diabetes, will total US$1.7tn. It comprises US$900bn for high-income countries and US$800bn for low- and middle-income countries. Dr Ali Saif al Mamari, senior consultant & head of Endocrinology at Sultan Qaboos University, says, “Around 13-17 per cent of Omanis have diabetes, which is a cause of great concern. The government provides free medical care to Omanis and a significant amount of its healthcare budget goes to the treatment of diabet Continue reading >>
Diabetes: The Epidemic
On Barbara Young's office table is a graph. A bar chart, actually: four columns of green, purple, red and bright blue showing the progression, in England, of rates of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes over the past five years. The first two are flatlining or falling. Cancer, in red, is rising, but slowly. Trace a line between the blue bars from 2005 to 2010, and it soars off the chart. "Diabetes," says Young flatly, "is becoming a crisis. The crisis. It's big, it's scary, it's growing and it's very, very expensive. It's clearly an epidemic, and it could bring the health service to its knees. Something really does need to happen." Baroness Young is, admittedly, the chief executive of Diabetes UK, Britain's main diabetes charity and campaigning group. It's her job to say such things. But the figures are behind her all the way: diabetes is fast becoming the 21st century's major public-health concern. The condition is now nearly four times as common as all forms of cancer combined, and causes more deaths than breast and prostate cancer combined. Some 2.8m people in the UK have been diagnosed with it; an estimated 850,000 more probably have type 2 diabetes but don't yet know. Another 7m are classified as high-risk of developing type 2; between 40% and 50% of them will go on to develop it. By the year 2025, more than 5m people in this country will have diabetes. The implications for the NHS, obviously, don't bear thinking about. Diabetes already costs the service around £1m an hour, roughly 10% of its entire budget. That's not just because the condition generally has to be managed with medication or insulin, but because by the time they are diagnosed, around half the people with type 2 – by far the most common and fastest growing form – have developed a Continue reading >>
Exploring Occupational Therapyâ€™s Role In Diabetes: An Experiential Internship Abbey Lacey Pacific University
Pacific University CommonKnowledge Entry-Level OTD Capstones School of Occupational Therapy Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Occupational Therapy Commons This Capstone (Entry-Level OTD) is brought to you for free and open access by the School of Occupational Therapy at CommonKnowledge. It has been accepted for inclusion in Entry-Level OTD Capstones by an authorized administrator of CommonKnowledge. For more information, please contact [email protected] Recommended Citation Lacey, Abbey, "Exploring Occupational Therapyâ€™s Role in Diabetes: An Experiential Internship" (2016). Entry-Level OTD Capstones. 16. Exploring Occupational Therapyâ€™s Role in Diabetes: An Experiential Internship Abstract One quarter of adults aged 65 years or older in the United States have diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2016). Associated complications, including neuropathy, vision loss, and foot damage can be difficult for individuals with diabetes to manage. Additionally, self-cares, particularly medication management, are more complex for an individual with diabetes. Research supports the use of self-management education and a multidisciplinary team approach to manage diabetes and its comorbidities. In this advocacy project, an occupational therapy doctoral student intern explored occupational therapyâ€™s role on the diabetes management team at a large medical center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Following a needs assessment, the student intern worked with members of the multidisciplinary team to develop necessary resources and advocate for occupational therapyâ€™s increased role in diabetes care within this facility. Feedback from involved parties indicates that occupational therapy has a unique and valued role in diabetes management. Degree Continue reading >>
In The Fifth Century Bc, Heraclitus Observed That
A Healthcare Model for the 21st Century C i t y C l u b o f C l e v e l a n d | a u g u s t 1 8 , 2 0 1 0 It is an honor to be invited here today. The City Club Forum has always been an outstanding platform for the discussion of important issues. nothing is permanent but change. Healthcare is changing. Iâ€™d like briefly to outline these changes, and discuss the effect on patients, diseases, treatments, delivery systems, caregivers and, finally, costs. Healthcare and the economy are in the midst of historic realignments. Cleveland Clinic needs to innovate and evolve if we are to continue to serve our patients and remain an economic engine for the region. Let me begin with a look at the changes in our own community. The city of Cleveland has shrunk dramatically over the past sixty years. The population has fallen â€“ from nine hundred thousand to less than four hun- dred thousand. Cuyahoga County has seen similar but less dramatic change. The population has dropped from 1.7 million to less than 1.3 million. We are treating a different mix of diseases today than in the past. Infant mortality has decreased by ninety-five percent. Devastating infectious diseases like tuberculosis and polio have been virtually eliminated. Life expectancy has gone up to seventy-eight years. Weâ€™re seeing more patients who are sixty-five and older. This number is set to explode to more than fifty million people over the next ten years. As life expectancy goes up, the causes of disease and death are changing. Chronic diseases of aging were only three of the six major causes of death in 1960. Today, they are six of the seven major causes of death. Alzheimerâ€™s disease is now more common than diabetes. There are five million cases today. That number will nearly triple by 205 Continue reading >>
The Growing Pandemic Of Type 2 Diabetes: A Crucial Need For Prevention And Improved Detection
Paul Z. ZIMMET,AO, MD, PhD, FRACP, FRCP, FTSE Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Caulfield, Melbourne Victoria, AUSTRALIA Changes in human behavior and lifestyle associated with globalization have resulted in a dramatic increase in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes globally. Until recently, there was a strong emphasis on genetic susceptibility, and on environmental and behavioral factors such as a sedentary lifestyle, overly rich nutrition, and obesity (particularly central adiposity). More recently, focus has shifted to the potential contribution of the maternal environment and the impact of in-utero influences, ie, the role of epigenetics. This may be an important factor in the very high prevalences of type 2 diabetes now being seen in nations such as India and China, two countries that numerically bear the main brunt of the epidemic. Type 2 diabetes is appearing increasingly in children and adolescents, and the frequency of diagnosis of pediatric type 2 diabetes is outstripping that of type 1 diabetes in some countries already. The prevention of diabetes and control of its micro- and macrovascular complications will require a major integrated approach directed at societal and individual behavioral change if we are to see significant reduction in the huge premature morbidity and mortality it causes. Diabetes is looming as one of the greatest threats to public health in the 21st century. This is an impelling rationale for strengthening efforts for its prevention and control. Medicographia. 2011;33:15-21 (see French abstract on page 21) If anyone had predicted 30 years ago that diabetes mellitus would be one of the biggest public health problems facing the human race in 2010, they would not have been taken seriously. Yet, in 1977, when we published th Continue reading >>
A Twenty-first Century Cancer Epidemic Caused By Obesity: The Involvement Of Insulin, Diabetes, And Insulin-like Growth Factors
Copyright © 2013 Rosalyne L. Westley and Felicity E. B. May. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world. The progression from obesity to diabetes mellitus type 2, via metabolic syndrome, is recognised, and the significant associated increase in the risk of major human cancers acknowledged. We review the molecular basis of the involvement of morbidly high concentrations of endogenous or therapeutic insulin and of insulin-like growth factors in the progression from obesity to diabetes and finally to cancer. Epidemiological and biochemical studies establish the role of insulin and hyperinsulinaemia in cancer risk and progression. Insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1 and IGF-2, secreted by visceral or mammary adipose tissue have significant paracrine and endocrine effects. These effects can be exacerbated by increased steroid hormone production. Structural studies elucidate how each of the three ligands, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2, interacts differently with isoforms A and B of the insulin receptor and with type I IGF receptor and explain how these protagonists contribute to diabetes-associated cancer. The above should inform appropriate treatment of cancers that arise in obese individuals and in those with diabetes mellitus type 2. Novel drugs that target the insulin and insulin-like growth factor signal transduction pathways are in clinical trial and should be effective if appropriate biomarker-informed patient stratification is implemented. Continue reading >>
Correlation Between Hemoglobin A1c And Serum Lipid Profile In Afghani Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Hemoglobin A1c Prognosticates Dyslipidemia
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased prevalence of dyslipidemia, which contributes to their high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study is an attempt to determine the correlation between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum lipid profile and to evaluate the importance of HbA1c as an indicator of dyslipidemia in Afghani patients with T2DM. A total of 401 Afghani patients with T2DM (men, 175; women, 226; mean age, 51.29 years) were included in this study. The whole blood and sera were analyzed for fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines. Diabetes was defined as per American Diabetes Association criteria. The correlation of FBS, HbA1c with lipid ratios and individual lipid indexes were analyzed. The statistical analysis was done by SPSS statistical package version 16.0. The mean age ± standard deviation of male and female patients were 51.71 ± 11.70 and 50.97 ± 10.23 years respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. The correlation between HbA1c and HDL-C was negative and was statistically nonsignificant. Furthermore, HbA1c was found to be a predictor of hypercholesterolemia, LDL-C and TG via a linear regression analysis. Patients with HbA1c value greater than 7.0% had significantly higher value of cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio compared with patients with an HbA1c value up to 7.0%. Apart from a reliable glycemic index, HbA1c can also be used as a predictor of dyslipidemia and thus early diagnosis of dyslip Continue reading >>
- Impact of menopause and diabetes on atherogenic lipid profile: is it worth to analyse lipoprotein subfractions to assess cardiovascular risk in women?
- Diabetes Dyslipidemia
- A Novel Intervention Including Individualized Nutritional Recommendations Reduces Hemoglobin A1c Level, Medication Use, and Weight in Type 2 Diabetes
Transplantation Of Human Skeletal Muscle-derived Progenitor Cells Ameliorates Knee Osteoarthritis In Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Mice
The epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that diabetes can be an independent risk factor for osteoarthritis. The osteoarthritis-like cartilage damage has been shown in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The therapeutic effects of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells (HSMPCs) on diabetic osteoarthritis still remain unclear. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of HSMPCs on diabetic knee osteoarthritis. The in vitro chondrogenic ability of HSMPCs was determined by pellet culture assay. Male mice were used to develop the model of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and its related osteoarthritis. HSMPCs were injected intra-articularly to rescue osteoarthritis. Protein expressions of advanced glycation end-products, cyclooxygenase-2, and type-2 collagen in tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry. The pellet culture assay showed that HSMPCs cultured in differentiation medium for chondrogenesis significantly produced larger pellets with an overproduction of extracellular matrix than in growth medium. In in vivo experiments, intra-articular injection of HSMPCs for 4 weeks significantly prevented the progression of degenerative changes in the cartilage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, including an obvious increase of total articular cartilage thickness and a decrease of fibrous cartilage thickness. HSMPCs transplantation also exerted the decline in advanced glycation end-products and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression, but increased the type-2 collagen protein expression in streptozotocin-induced osteoarthritic cartilages. Moreover, HSMPCs transplantation also inhibited the increased serum interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 levels in diabetic mice. These results demonstrated for the first time that HSMPCs trans Continue reading >>
Is Diabetes Becoming The Biggest Epidemic Of The Twenty-first Century?
Diabetes is a major public health problem that is approaching epidemic proportions globally. Worldwide, the prevalence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate. About 18 million people die every year from cardiovascular disease, for which diabetes and hypertension are major predisposing factors. Today, more than 1.7 billion adults worldwide are overweight, and 312... [Show full abstract] India with a pluralistic society has a mixed economy. The total expenditure on health is shared by the government and the non-governmental resources. The per capita public sector expenditure is rupees 53.6 , net National Product 663.5, and the per capita income rupees 3284 only. The proportion of Health & Family Welfare investment to the total plan investment allocation has remained barely 3.7... [Show full abstract] Throughout history human populations have undergone shifts in their relations with disease - shifts that are always linked to major changes in the way people interact with the environment. in the past two decades the emergence of illnesses such as Hepatitis C, cat scratch disease, Ebola Virus, Hanta Virus and others has created a third epidemiological transition, a disheartening act of changes... [Show full abstract] India with a pluralistic society has a mixed economy. The total expenditure on health is shared by the government and the non-governmental resources. The per capita public sector expenditure is rupees 53.6 , net National Product 663.5, and the per capita income rupees 3284 only. The proportion of Health & Family Welfare investment to the total plan investment allocation has remained barely 3.7... [Show full abstract] Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Its Drivers: The Largest Epidemic In Human History?
Abstract The “Diabesity” epidemic (obesity and type 2 diabetes) is likely to be the biggest epidemic in human history. Diabetes has been seriously underrated as a global public health issue and the world can no longer ignore “the rise and rise” of type 2 diabetes. Currently, most of the national and global diabetes estimates come from the IDF Atlas. These estimates have significant limitations from a public health perspective. It is apparent that the IDF have consistently underestimated the global burden. More reliable estimates of the future burden of diabetes are urgently needed. To prevent type 2 diabetes, a better understanding of the drivers of the epidemic is needed. While for years, there has been comprehensive attention to the “traditional” risk factors for type 2 diabetes i.e., genes, lifestyle and behavioral change, the spotlight is turning to the impact of the intra-uterine environment and epigenetics on future risk in adult life. It highlights the urgency for discovering novel approaches to prevention focusing on maternal and child health. Diabetes risk through epigenetic changes can be transmitted inter-generationally thus creating a vicious cycle that will continue to feed the diabetes epidemic. History provides important lessons and there are lessons to learn from major catastrophic events such as the Dutch Winter Hunger and Chinese famines. The Chinese famine may have been the trigger for what may be viewed as a diabetes “avalanche” many decades later. The drivers of the epidemic are indeed genes and environment but they are now joined by deleterious early life events. Looking to the future there is the potential scenario of future new “hot spots” for type 2 diabetes in regions e.g., the Horn of Africa, now experiencing droughts and f Continue reading >>
Healthy Policy Poster_new
Diabetes is the loss of the body's ability to respond to or produce the hormone insulin resulting in elevated glucose levels Continue reading >>
Chronic Disease: The Epidemic Of The Twentieth Century Dora Anne Mills University Of New England, [email protected]
Maine Policy Review Volume 9 | Issue 1 Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Commons, Epidemiology Commons, Health Policy Commons, and the Public Health Education and Promotion Commons This Article is brought to you for free and open access by [email protected] Recommended Citation Mills, Dora Anne. "Chronic Disease: The Epidemic of the Twentieth Century." Maine Policy Review 9.1 (2000) : 50 -65, 50 Â· MAINE POLICY REVIEW Â· Winter 2000 CHRONIC DISEASE Chronic Disease: The Epidemic of the Twentieth Century by Dora Anne Mills One hundred years ago, the leading causes of death were infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, influenza and pneu- monia. Of equal concern were water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. Yet today, as a result of public health measures to clean up our drinking water and provide immunizations, and by improvements in medical care, such diseases have been eradicated. - As Dora Anne Mills points out, as we begin a new century, we have much to celebrate but still more to consider. Today, we face an epidemic unlike any found in 1900. One hundred years ago only one-in-six people died of a chronic condition; today, three-quarters of Maine people die from four chronic, and mostly preventable, diseases: cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes. Not only does Maine have the fourth highest death rate due to chronic disease, it also leads the nation in the three behavioral risk factors that cause or exacerbate chronic disease: tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity. - In this article, Mills first chronicles Maineï¿½s c hronic disease epidemic, and second, lays out a plan for strengthening the stateï¿½s disease prevention and health promotion effor Continue reading >>
Could This Simple Vitamin Deficiency Be The Cause Of Diabetes Epidemic?
Are you eating enough veggies, especially sweet potatoes, carrots and leafy greens? If not, you may need to start adding those up to your diet because a new research shows a clear link between vitamin A deficiency and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes on the rise It may seem like diabetes is becoming the biggest epidemic of the twenty-first century. The most common type of this disease is type 2 diabetes, marked by insulin resistance, which is also becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. This condition is defined by the inability of liver cells, muscles and fat to respond properly to insulin, which leads to overproduction of insulin and in the end, the inability of insulin-producing beta cells to function properly. A link between vitamin A and diabetes Researchers at the New York’s Weill Cornell Medical College wanted to find out whether there was a link between type 2 diabetes and vitamin A deficiency, so they conducted a study with two groups of adult mice. One group was genetically modified to be unable to store dietary vitamin A, while the other one was a healthy control group, able to store vitamin A normally from food. The results showed that the genetically modified mice experienced beta cell death, which means they were unable to produce insulin. Furthermore, when the researchers removed vitamin A from the healthy group, they discovered that this lead to a significant beta cell loss. The good news are that whenever they put vitamin A to the diet of mice, they starting with producing beta cells normally, so insulin production rose steadily too and returning blood glucose levels to normal. The Takeaway The results of the study are clear as day – vitamin A deficiency can indeed lead to insulin resistance, which in turn can lead to type 2 diabetes. This, however, can Continue reading >>