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Is Diabetes An Infectious Disease?

Infections In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Review Of Pathogenesis

Infections In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Review Of Pathogenesis

Go to: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome associated with deficiency of insulin secretion or action. It is considered one of the largest emerging threats to health in the 21st century. It is estimated that there will be 380 million persons with DM in 2025.[1] Besides the classical complications of the disease, DM has been associated with reduced response of T cells, neutrophil function, and disorders of humoral immunity.[2–4] Consequently, DM increases the susceptibility to infections, both the most common ones as well as those that almost always affect only people with DM (e.g. rhinocerebral mucormycosis).[4] Such infections, in addition to the repercussions associated with its infectivity, may trigger DM complications such as hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. This article aims to critically review the current knowledge on the mechanisms associated with the greater susceptibility of DM for developing infectious diseases and to describe the main infectious diseases associated with this metabolic disorder. Continue reading >>

The Double Burden Of Infectious Diseases And Diabetes— A Bidirectional Relationship

The Double Burden Of Infectious Diseases And Diabetes— A Bidirectional Relationship

In 1971, Omran described the concept of epidemiologic transition to improve the understanding of patterns of disease in opposition of single disease epidemiology across the world and to provide better forecast and societal response to disease patterns.1 Although three main types of transition were described, including the classic transition experienced by most developed countries, the accelerated transition experienced by countries such as Japan and Mauritius, and the delayed transition that accommodates the so-called double burden of disease, it is now widely accepted that many countries face different stages of transition as a resultof inequalities. The pattern of disease thus varies across countries, but also across populations or settings within the same country, defining the polarized model of health transition. Emerging and re-emerging pandemics coexist with the burgeoning noncommunicable disease epidemic. The relation between infectious diseases and the most common noncommunicable disease is not yet fully understood. But there is growing evidence for an etiological interaction, as well as for interactions influencing clinical presentation, spread, and outcomes of these diseases. Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancers, are emerging as leading causes of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where anestimated 22 million people lived having diabetes in 2014.2 In the near future, SSA is expected to undergo the largest proportional increase in the burden of diabetes, with an estimated 41.5 million Africans expected to be living with the disease by 2035.3 Similarly, it is expected that in 2015, an estimated 1.2 million deaths will be attributable to CVD in this region.4 Moreover, this figure i Continue reading >>

How Do Infectious Diseases Affect Diabetes Patients?

How Do Infectious Diseases Affect Diabetes Patients?

How do infectious diseases affect diabetes patients? Panellists Professor Danny Altmann, Dr Susie Dunachie, Bin Zhou and Dr Tony Harries. The focus for the March Global Health Forum was on infections and diabetes. Yesterday was World Health Day and the focus this year was on combatting diabetes across the world. Diabetes is a very important issue because it affects 422 million people worldwide and can lead to a number of long-term complications, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. Diabetes also weakens the immune system, leading to a greater frequency of infections among patients. The Institute of Global Health Innovations ( IGHI ) Global Health Forum for March provided an opportunity to review the impact infectious diseases has on diabetes patients from a global context. The event was chaired by IGHIs Professor Majid Ezzati and heard from a number of speakers including Professor Danny Altmann , Head of the Human Disease Immunogenetics Group , Professor of Immunology/Deputy Head of Department in the Section of Infectious Diseases and Immunity and Director of Research Strategy within the Department of Medicine at Imperial. Together with joint head of the Human Disease Immunogentics Group, Dr Rosemary Boyton , their team are working towards putting together a toolbox where you can take an emerging infectious disease and work out exactly how to treat it taking into account co- morbidities including diabetes. Listen to Dannys full presentation below: Dr Susie Dunachie from the Medawar Institute at Oxford University and Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit at Mahidol University in Bangkok then went onto address diabetes as a Melioidosis Risk Factor. Melioidosis is a neglected tropical infectious di Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Of Infectious Origin?

Is Diabetes Of Infectious Origin?

Abstract Deaths from diabetes mellitus in Norway during 1898-1921 when distributed in various age groups, form two distinct intersecting curves, one representing early life and culminating at puberty, the other representing more advanced ages leading up to the sixty to seventy years' group, the total number of deaths recorded being 5,951. Mortality curves for men and women follow parallel lines in the younger and older age groups. Etiological factors influencing diabetes in the older age group are race, heredity, obesity, arteriosclerosis, nervousness and disturbances of internal organs; in the younger age group infections such as scarlatina, typhoid fever and epidemic parotitis, with subsequent parotitic pancreatitis, often lead to grave and rapidly fulminating diabetes. Parotitic epidemics in the young age group are followed by a rise in the death rate from grave diabetes in the young age group three to four years following each successive parotitic epidemic. Atrophy of testicles following parotitic orchitis is similar in nature to atrophy of pancreas following parotitic pancreatitis. "Acute diabetes" in youth, graver in type and more rapidly fatal than slower and milder development of diabetes in the older age group, is suggested by the author to be infectious in origin and probably caused by the virus producing epidemic parotitis. Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Of Infectious Origin?

Is Diabetes Of Infectious Origin?

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Research Suggests Type 2 Diabetes Could Be Transmitted Like Mad Cow Disease

Research Suggests Type 2 Diabetes Could Be Transmitted Like Mad Cow Disease

2 pictures It is estimated that about 6 percent of the world's population suffers from type 2 diabetes. Labelled a global health epidemic by the World Health Organization, rates of the disease increased dramatically from about 30 million cases in 1985 to around 390 million by 2015. A new study has now found a previously undiscovered mechanism that raises the possibility of type 2 diabetes being transmitted in a way similar to infectious diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (mad cow disease). Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 is known to develop with age and is generally thought to occur as a result of lack of exercise and obesity. The dramatic increase in the disease all across the world over the past 50 years is still not clearly understood by scientists. Whether it’s breakfast, lunch, or dinner, these six comfort food favorites from Eggland's Best ... A team of researchers at the University of Texas has been focusing on a number of abnormal protein deposits found in over 90 percent of patients with type 2 diabetes. It was identified that this large majority of patients suffering from the disease had aggregates of a misfolded form of the protein islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Small amounts of misfolded IAAP proteins were then injected into mice and the researchers found that this induced the formation of protein deposits in the animal's pancreas. Most striking was the observation that within weeks of receiving the misfolded IAAP aggregates the mice displayed several symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes, from elevated blood glucose levels to a loss of pancreatic beta cells. The research is yet to identify how these misfolded IAAP proteins could bring on a case of type 2 diabetes but the scientists hypothethize that once a large enough volume of these Continue reading >>

Could Diabetes Spread Like Mad Cow Disease?

Could Diabetes Spread Like Mad Cow Disease?

Prions are insidious proteins that spread like infectious agents and trigger fatal conditions such as mad cow disease. A protein implicated in diabetes, a new study suggests, shares some similarities with these villains. Researchers transmitted diabetes from one mouse to another just by injecting the animals with this protein. The results don’t indicate that diabetes is contagious like a cold, but blood transfusions, or even food, may spread the disease. The work is “very exciting” and “well-documented” for showing that the protein has some prionlike behavior, says prion biologist Witold Surewicz of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, who wasn’t connected to the research. However, he cautions against jumping to the conclusion that diabetes spreads from person to person. The study raises that possibility, he says, but “it remains to be determined.” Prions are misfolded proteins that can cause normally folded versions of the same protein to misfold themselves. When this conversion occurs in the brain, the distorted proteins bunch up inside cells and kill them. Although prion diseases are rare in people, they share some similarities with more common illnesses. In Alzheimer’s disease, for instance, globs of a misshapen protein known as β amyloid build up in the brain. Parkinson’s disease and Huntington disease, two other brain maladies, also feature aggregates, or lumps of misfolded proteins. Get more great content like this delivered right to you! By signing up, you agree to share your email address with the publication. Information provided here is subject to Science's privacy policy. At first glance, type 2 diabetes, in which people lose the ability to control their blood glucose levels, doesn’t seem to have any connection to prions Continue reading >>

Diabetic Foot Infections

Diabetic Foot Infections

Author: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP more... Compromise of the blood supply from microvascular disease, often in association with lack of sensation because of neuropathy, predisposes persons with diabetes mellitus to foot infections. These infections span the spectrum from simple, superficial cellulitis to chronic osteomyelitis. The radiograph below demonstrates a foot lesion in a patient with diabetes. Chronic diabetic ulceration with underlying osteomyelitis. Plain film radiograph exhibiting cortical disruption at the medial aspect of the first MTP joint. Diabetic foot infections typically take one of the following forms: Tender, erythematous, nonraised skin lesions are present, sometimes with lymphangitis Lymphangitis suggests group A streptococcal infection Bullae are typical of Staphylococcus aureus infection, but occasionally occur with group A streptococci The patient may be acutely ill, with painful induration of the soft tissues in the extremity In mixed infections that may involve anaerobes, crepitation may be noted over the afflicted area Extreme pain and tenderness may indicate compartment syndrome or clostridial infection (ie, gas gangrene) The tissues are not tense, and bullae may be present Unless peripheral neuropathy is present, the patient has pain at the site of the involved bone Usually, fever and regional adenopathy are absent The patient's temperature is usually less than 102F Pain may or may not be present, depending on the degree of peripheral neuropathy Deep, penetrating ulcers and deep sinus tracts (diagnostic of chronic osteomyelitis) are usually located between the toes or on the plantar surface of the foot The medial malleoli, shins, or heels are not usually sites of involvement See Clinical Presen Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes Infectious?

Is Type 2 Diabetes Infectious?

No, type 2 diabetes is not infectious. If it wаѕ аn infectious disease, passed frоm оnе person tо another, public health officials wоuld ѕау we’re in thе midst оf аn epidemic. Thiѕ difficult disease, оnсе called adult-onset diabetes, iѕ striking аn ever-growing number оf adults. Evеn mоrе alarming, it’s nоw beginning tо show uр in teenagers аnd children. Mоrе thаn 24 million Americans hаvе diabetes; оf those, аbоut 6 million don’t knоw thеу hаvе thе disease. In June of 2015, it was discovered that I had type 2 diabetes, By the end of the month, I was given a prescription for Metformin, I stated the ADA diet and followed it completely for several weeks but was unable to get my blood sugar below 140, With no results to how for my hard work, I panicked and called my doctor, His response? Deal with it. I began to feel that something wasn’t right and do my own research and found Control Your Blood Sugar Level. The good news is that sticking to the plan can help and feel healthy. Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Infectious? Condition May Spread Through Toxic Meat And Blood Transfusions Like Mad Cow Disease

Is Diabetes Infectious? Condition May Spread Through Toxic Meat And Blood Transfusions Like Mad Cow Disease

Diabetes may be contagious and spread through meat or blood transfusions, new research suggests. Ingesting protein 'seeds' may be responsible for the condition's onset, similar to the spread of mad cow disease from cattle to humans via infected beef, the study author claims. When these 'seeds' were given to mice, all of the animals developed type 2 diabetes symptoms within months, the study found. Similar outcomes occurred when the 'seeds' were added to healthy human pancreatic tissue in the lab, the research adds. Yet, while other experts state the findings are intriguing, they add that more research is needed before diabetes can be considered an infectious disease. 'If one disease has the potential to be transmitted in this manner, it is diabetes.' Researchers from the University of Texas injected two-month-old mice in the abdomen with these 'seeds', known as islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). IAPP are misshapen proteins that have been shown to accumulate in both human and animals with type 2 diabetes; sometimes before symptoms develop. The mice were genetically modified to produce the human form of IAPP. Results reveal that all of the mice developed symptoms of type 2 diabetes within three months. Similar outcomes occurred when IAPP was added to healthy human pancreatic tissue in the lab. Study author Dr Claudio Soto said: 'I don't want to scare anyone, but I can see this happening in diabetes more easily than it happens in brain diseases, because in brain diseases the spread is limited by the blood-brain barrier. 'If one disease has the potential to be transmitted in this manner, it is diabetes,' The Times reported. 'Treat with a great deal of caution' It is unclear if the same outcomes would occur in humans, however, the researchers believe their findings could have Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

As the incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, common focus areas for diabetes control are blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. Addressing and controlling these factors as well as other factors associated with diabetes are essential for a better quality of life; however, awareness of an increased risk of infections is also warranted in diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia. The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defense, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defense. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system has physical and chemical mechanisms of response. These include but are not limited to sneezing, coughing, sweating, maintenance of normal body temperature, and gram-positive normal flora on the skin. Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Complications of Chronic Hyperglycemia Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through diffe Continue reading >>

Infectious Diseases And Diabetes

Infectious Diseases And Diabetes

Infectious Diseases and Diabetes is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics: -- The first section of this topic is shown below -- Diabetes is commonly associated with an increased risk of certain infections; however, good data to support this contention is often slim. According to Boyko and Lipsky[1] (contains review of epidemiological data and risks), "probable" means data support the association, "possible" means presence or absence of the association cannot be confirmed from available information, and "doubtful" indicates that data does not support a link. Probable increased risk of infection: asymptomatic bacteruria, lower extremity infections, increased post-surgical infections after sternotomy or total hip replacement, Group B streptococcal infections and reactivation TB in American Indians. Possible increased risk of infection: genitourinary infections such as bacterial cystitis, pyelonephritis, candidal vaginitis; respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, influenza, chronic bronchitis, primary or reactivation TB, zygomycete infections (e.g., mucormycosis), malignant otitis media; Fournier’s gangrene. Doubtful increased risk of infection: S. aureus infections, chronic sinusitis. -- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please sign in or purchase a subscription -- Continue reading >>

Viruses And Bacteria

Viruses And Bacteria

William was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 2, following a virus. Viruses are thought to be one of the triggers of type 1 diabetes. Viruses and other infectious agents are associated with both an increased and a decreased risk of type 1 diabetes. One hypothesis argues that viruses can cause type 1 diabetes by damaging insulin producing beta cells. Another hypothesis (the hygiene hypothesis) argues that exposures in early childhood stimulate the immune system to control autoimmune reactions (Kondrashova and Hyöty, 2014). We'll look at both hypotheses below. A number of viruses have been associated with type 1 diabetes and/or type 1-associated autoantibodies in humans, including enterovirus, rubella, mumps, rotavirus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Many viruses have also been shown to affect the development of diabetes in laboratory animals (reviewed in van der Werf et al. 2007). Viruses have even been associated with type 1-related autoimmunity in wild animals (Warvsten et al. 2017). Most studies that have evaluated the association between viruses and type 1 have found that it is highly likely that some viruses do play a role in type 1 diabetes development (Principi et al. 2017). In addition to causing diabetes in animals, enteroviruses are associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in human studies (e.g., Abdel-Latif et al. 2017; Boussaid et al. 2017), and have been detected in the pancreases of people with type 1 diabetes (Busse et al. 2017; Kondrashova and Hyöty, 2014; Krogvold et al. 2014). A meta-analysis that combined data from 24 separate studies found a significant association between enterovirus infection and both type 1 and type 1 related autoantibodies (Yeung et al. 2011). Cytomegalovirus has also been found in the pancreas of someone with type 1 Continue reading >>

Could Type 2 Diabetes Be Transmissible?

Could Type 2 Diabetes Be Transmissible?

Although the findings are preliminary, new research suggests that type 2 diabetes may be transmissible in a way that is similar to prion disorders such as "mad cow disease." Although type 2 diabetes affects more than 420 million people worldwide, its causes remain largely unknown. However, a new study has uncovered a novel mechanism that may drive the disease. The discovery could change the way we approach type 2 diabetes, both from a research perspective and from a therapeutic point of view. More specifically, the study investigates the possibility that type 2 diabetes might be caused by a misfolding of islet amyloid polypeptide protein (IAPP). The research was led by Claudio Soto at the McGovern Medical School in Houston, TX, which is part of the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston. The findings, published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, show that type 2 diabetes shares similarities with a group of transmissible neurodegenerative diseases known as "prion diseases." Examples of such diseases include bovine spongiform encephalopathy - popularly known as "mad cow disease" - or its human equivalent, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. IAPP in type 2 diabetes Previous research has shown that up to 80 percent of all type 2 diabetes patients have an accumulation of IAPP in the pancreas' islets. These are small clusters of cells inside the pancreas, which contain, among other cells, insulin-producing beta cells. IAPP is a peptide hormone that is secreted together with insulin by the pancreatic beta cells. While the effect of this excessive IAPP in type 2 diabetes is not fully known, it is believed that it damages the beta cells, stopping them from producing the insulin that the body needs to lower blood sugar levels. The researchers hypothesized that a misfol Continue reading >>

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