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Is Diabetes A Hereditary Disease?

The Genetics Of Diabetes

The Genetics Of Diabetes

Why me? How did I deserve this? Am I to blame? These are questions that many people ask when diagnosed with a serious condition or disease. Unfortunately, there’s no clear-cut answer when it comes to diabetes. Unlike some traits, diabetes doesn’t seem to be inherited in a simple pattern, and there is a lot of misinformation out there about its causes. (Have you ever had to explain that diabetes doesn’t happen because someone ate too much sugar?) It’s apparent, though, that some people are born more likely to develop diabetes than others. We know that type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes, but genetics plays an important role in both types. People with diabetes inherit a predisposition to the disease, then something in their environment triggers it. Identical twins are proof that genes alone are not enough, however. Identical twins have identical genes; therefore, they should have the same genetic risk for a disease—right? Not necessarily. Research has found that if one identical twin has type 1 diabetes, the other twin will get the disease about 50 percent of the time. For type 2 diabetes, that risk rises to as much as 4 in 5. In both type 1 and type 2, identical twins have a much higher risk of both developing diabetes than non-identical (fraternal) twins, which further supports the fact that genetics is involved. So what are the causes of type 1 diabetes? Again, we know that genetics is involved. We also know that it’s not just one gene responsible, but many different genes, each of which contributes only a small part of the risk. Scientists have identified a few genes responsible for type 1, but the majority of the genetic risk is still unidentified. Because of the data about identical twins, we know that type 1 diabetes doesn’t arise solely Continue reading >>

New Analysis Concludes Cause Of Diabetes Not Genetic

New Analysis Concludes Cause Of Diabetes Not Genetic

Since sequencing the human genome, genetic researchers have searched intensively but unearthed little evidence to suggest that inherited genes cause common diseases…. For such diseases, which include heart disease, stroke, cancers, diabetes, and disorders such as autism, ADHD and dementia, as well as mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression, significant genetic causation can now be ruled out with a high degree of confidence. The case for a substantial role of genes in susceptibility to the major human diseases is now scientifically refuted argues a groundbreaking new analysis published by the public interest science organization, The Bioscience Resource Project. The analysis stems from the repeated failure of a new and comprehensive genome scanning method (called Genome-Wide Association studies, GWA studies) to find important human disease genes. It notes that more than 700 GWA studies by researchers from all over the world, covering over 80 different diseases and at a cost of many billions of dollars, have yielded essentially the same result. Of the approximately 1,000 genes identified that confer susceptibility to disease only a tiny handful are of even limited importance. The remainder are so weak in their effects as to be of negligible significance to human health1. “Geneticists are repeatedly finding only genes with trivial effects, but since they have a strong incentive not to declare this search over, they are left invoking unlikely hiding places for the important disease genes they have always predicted,” says Jonathan Latham, Executive Director of the Bioscience Resource Project2. The Great DNA Data Deficit: Are genes for disease a mirage? which will be published on December 9th, 2010, points out that the hiding places on which geneticists’ Continue reading >>

Want To Find Out If Diabetes Is Hereditary? Here's Your Answer

Want To Find Out If Diabetes Is Hereditary? Here's Your Answer

Diabetes is the sweet disease that can lead to many health problems including heart diseases, stroke and even gout. Diabetes is becoming a very common disease not only in the Western world, but also in developing countries. Researchers are searching for answers that lead to concrete causes of diabetes. Many times, it is seen that diabetes runs in families. It is a condition that develops when the body is not able to produce or use the stored glucose in the body. This causes the blood sugar or glucose levels in the body to rise. When sugar or starchy foods are eaten they are broken down into glucose. This glucose is then converted into energy by the body with the help of insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. If there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body, it will lead to improper absorption of glucose by the body. Thus, the level of glucose in the blood rises leading to increase in blood sugar level. There are two types of diabetes that can affect people. Type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile onset or insulin dependent diabetes and Type 2 diabetes, or adult onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes are the two types. Type 1 diabetes affects children and young adults, as their body does not produce any insulin. Thus, making them dependent on insulin injections for survival. Type 2 diabetes occurs in people over 40 and those who are obese, have a family history of diabetes and unhealthy lifestyle. Diabetes is a disease that is commonly seen in adults as well as children and young adults these days. Most of the time, if one or both or the parents have diabetes, their children seem to develop diabetes during some time of their life. This is very common and people often think diabetes runs in their families. Genes are passed on from parents to their ch Continue reading >>

Genetic Causes Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Genetic Causes Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Most cases of diabetes mellitus type 2 involved many genes contributing small amount to the overall condition.[1] As of 2011 more than 36 genes have been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes.[2] All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total genetic component of the disease.[2] There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of diabetes).[1] These include maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Donohue syndrome, and Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome, among others.[1] Maturity onset diabetes of the young constitute 1–5% of all cases of diabetes in young people.[3] Polygenic[edit] Genetic cause and mechanism of type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is one of many mechanisms that leads to increased risk for type 2 diabetes. To locate genes and loci that are responsible for the risk of type 2 diabetes, genome wide association studies (GWAS) was utilized to compare the genomes of diabetic patient group and the non-diabetic control group.[4] The diabetic patients’ genome sequences differ from the controls' genome in specific loci along and around numerous genes, and these differences in the nucleotide sequences alter phenotypic traits that exhibit increased susceptibility to the diabetes. GWAS has revealed 65 different loci (where single nucleotide sequences differ from the patient and control group's genomes), and genes associated with type 2 diabetes, including TCF7L2, PPARG, FTO, KCNJ11,NOTCH2, WFS1, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, JAZF1, HHEX, DGKB, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, KCNQ1, HNF1A, HNF1B MC4R, GIPR, HNF4A, MTNR1B, PARG6, ZBED3, SLC30A8, CDKAL1, GLIS3, GCKR, among others.[4][5][6][7]KCNJ11 (potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfa Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, the body stops using and making insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. When blood sugar levels are high (such as after a meal), the pancreas releases insulin to move the excess glucose into cells, which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood. Most people who develop type 2 diabetes first have insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells use insulin less efficiently than normal. As insulin resistance develops, more and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. To keep up with the increasing need, insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) make larger amounts of insulin. Over time, the beta cells become less able to respond to blood sugar changes, leading to an insulin shortage that prevents the body from reducing blood sugar levels effectively. Most people have some insulin resistance as they age, but inadequate exercise and excessive weight gain make it worse, greatly increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age or later. Signs and symptoms develop slowly over years. They include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy), sores that do not heal well, and weight loss. If blood sugar levels are not controlled through medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-lasting (chronic) health prob Continue reading >>

Hereditary Addison's Disease In Relation To Diabetes Mellitus

Hereditary Addison's Disease In Relation To Diabetes Mellitus

This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. THE recognized types of adrenocortical insufficiency may be classified into several clinical subgroups: congenital hypoplasia of the adrenal cortex without any other abnormality,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 with anencephaly12 or with hypoplasia of the pituitary gland13 14 15 16; primary hypoadrenocorticism and spastic paraplegia with gliosis and perivascular infiltration of the cerebral hemispheres (Addison—Scholz disease)17 18 19 or with spastic paraplegia of unestablished origin20 , 21; atrophy and fibrosis of the adrenal glands without recognizable cause and without other concomitants22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39; adrenal atrophy and fibrosis of unknown origin with hypoparathyroidism or moniliasis or both40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51; injury or destruction of the adrenal glands by tuberculosis or other identifiable causes or . . . *From the Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism (Department of Medicine) and the Addison H. Gibson Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, and the Medical Center and Shadyside hospitals. Aided by grants from the John A. Hartford Foundation, Incorporated, the Western Pennsylvania Arthritis and Rheumatism Foundation, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the American Medical Association (Diseases Documentation Center [KASC] publication No. 2). PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA ‡ Formerly, fellow in endocrinology and metabolism, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Continue reading >>

Diabetes In The Family: Is It Inherited?

Diabetes In The Family: Is It Inherited?

I’m asking this on behalf of a friend whose grandfather and father have diabetes. Is it more likely that my friend will get it too? Is diabetes fatal? Diabetes occurs in two forms; type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes), which occurs in young people and is the more severe form, requiring insulin injections type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes), which is milder and occurs in older people and is usually controlled with diet and tablets. The details of whether diabetes can be inherited, and how this occurs, are not clear. About 10 per cent of people getting the more severe Type 1 diabetes have a close relative with this type of diabetes. That is not the same as saying that 10 per cent of people with affected relatives will get diabetes, but there is an unpredictable association. Type 2 diabetes also has a tendency to occur in families, but this is also not very strong and not predictable. In your friend’s case, if grandfather and father are affected, they probably have the milder Type 2 form of diabetes, so your friend has little risk of developing diabetes at a young age. It may be there is an increased risk of him developing diabetes in later life, but it would be the milder Type 2 form. I am a little confused that you say, ‘he takes pills and does a blood sugar test’. If you are referring to your friend then this probably means he has the mild form of diabetes already, and is probably an older person. You ask if you can get very ill with diabetes and die. Diabetes is a serious condition, but these days if patients follow their diet and take their pills or insulin treatment regularly, and keep their blood sugar within certain limits, they rarely get seriously ill and can live a long and active life. That is not to say there are no dangers with di Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Hereditary?

Is Diabetes Hereditary?

Diabetes loves families! It's true that genetics play a role in your diabetes risk. If you have a parent or sibling with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, your odds are significantly higher. For example, if one twin has type 2 diabetes, the other has a 3 in 4 chance of developing it, too. However, the American Diabetes Association notes that heredity isn't destiny. While you may be genetically predisposed to diabetes, healthy habits, such as watching your weight and exercising, can delay or even prevent diabetes. There is a genetic component in both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes that may make an individual more susceptible to developing the disease. In Type 2 Diabetes, this explains why some obese individuals develop Diabetes and some remain healthy. Many different genes have been identified which may contribute to Diabetes when coupled with certain environmental triggers throughout the lifespan. In Type 2 Diabetes, most of the genes which have been identified are associated with dysfunction of the Beta cells, and to a lesser extent genes associated with insulin sensitivity and obesity. The Beta cells are responsible for insulin production in the pancreas. Many susceptibility genes have also been identified for Type 1 Diabetes, but the most studied is the IDDM1 gene on the HLA region on chromosome 6p21. Individuals with certain variants of this gene are more likely to develop Type 1 Diabetes. Environmental exposures, such as viral and bacterial infections, Vitamin D deficiency or early introduction to cow's milk, have been indicated in triggering these genes leading to the development of Type 1 Diabetes. There is also a higher risk of developing Type 1 Diabetes if a parent or sibling has the disease. Unlike some traits, diabetes does not seem to be inherited in a simpl Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes Hereditary?

Is Type 2 Diabetes Hereditary?

Genetics appears to play a role in how type 2 diabetes develops. Like type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also appears to run in families, and it is most likely due to the inheritance of certain genes. The link to genetics seems even stronger in type 2 diabetes than in type 1 diabetes. If a person with type 1 diabetes has an identical twin, there is a 25 to 50 percent chance that the twin will develop diabetes. But if a person with type 2 diabetes has an identical twin, there is a 60 to 75 percent chance that the person will develop diabetes. More evidence for the role of genes in type 2 diabetes comes from studying certain ethnic groups. Compared with Caucasians, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans (except Cuban Americans), and Native Americans all get type 2 diabetes more often. Native Americans have the highest rate of type 2 diabetes in the world. Hispanic groups, such as Mexican Americans, that share genes with Native American groups (where there has been cultural mixing) have a higher rate of type 2 diabetes than Hispanic groups, such as Cuban Americans, where less intercultural contact has occurred. “Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have a hereditary component,” says Peter Butler, MD, chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, and director of the Larry L. Hillblom Islet Research Center at UCLA. "Previously, many people with type 2 diabetes felt guilty about their disease because they believed they caused it by the way they lived their lives. But while many of us eat too much or don’t exercise enough, it is only those with a genetic predisposition who may develop the disease. In these individuals, diabetes develops because the cells that make insulin in the islets are gradually lost." And while most people who have a ge Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes A Hereditary Disease?

Is Diabetes A Hereditary Disease?

The entire approach and foundation of Orthodox Medicine is based on Luis Pasteur's Germ Theory, a flawed concept. A disease condition is viewed by the orthodoxy as an isolated event, confined to the area in which it manifests itself (E.g. an ear infection, eye infection, gum infection, lung cancer, skin cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. ). Under this theory, for unknown reasons, microbes or tumors indiscriminately grow in the patient and must be cut (surgery), burned (radiation), or poisoned (drugs) out of the body. In the orthodox model, the solution is sought through mechanical and chemical means. Seeking to understand WHY the infection or disease condition appeared in the first place, is not explored. The quick fix with a prescription for drugs to smother the symptoms is the typical orthodox 'answer'. A contemporary of Pasteur, Antoine Bechamp, had a different opinion as to why disease conditions 'took hold'. Bechamp felt that the ENVIRONMENT, or the ECOLOGY of the blood played the critical role in deciding whether disease conditions would manifest or not. It is important to discover the stressors (environmental, biological, chemical, psychological, and emotional) in a patient's life that cause a weakening of a particular bodily system; which in turn allows the manifestation of a disease condition in a weakened area. In order to maintain a state of health, all systems within the body need to exist in a state of balance or equilibrium. Imbalance leads to conditions of discomfort (dis-ease) which eventually spirals into ill health if not corrected. The Chinese and Indians (Ayurvedic medicine) had worked all of this out thousands of years ago. Doctors at the International Council for Truth in Medicine are revealing the truth about diabetes that has been suppressed f Continue reading >>

The Genetic Trail To Diabetes: Is Your Future Inevitable?

The Genetic Trail To Diabetes: Is Your Future Inevitable?

There are two things for certain with Diabetes (both Type I and Type II): Pre-disposition + Environment/lifestyle = Increased risk. Whether or not you choose to follow that path, or defend your body against it, is up to you. Sounds too easy, doesn't it? But according to research and science, the reality of where you live (environment), what you eat (nutrition) and your activity level (fitness) can either work for or against you in the defense against both types of Diabetes. So what can you do if your genetics are pointing your future toward this disease before being diagnosed with it? Can you "prevent" it from happening? Is your current lifestyle making you a likely candidate? Is surgery the answer? Before we go any further, let's understand the truth about "Diabetic surgery": *Surgery may be a "quick start" to help you but lifestyle changes (diet/nutrition and exercise) MUST be part of the entire process As for Type I and Type II diabetes, the following facts may just help you find the answer before you encounter either type of this disease in your life: Type I Diabetes has been linked to the following: *Cold environment *Genetic predisposition often inherited from both parents *Viruses *Not being breastfed as a baby *A predisposition to certain "autoantibodies" in the blood. **Antibodies are proteins that destroy bacteria or viruses. Autoantibodies are antibodies gone bad, attacking the body's own tissues Other factors that increase the risk are provided below by the following website, Diabetes.org ("In general, if you are a man with type 1 diabetes, the odds of your child getting diabetes are 1 in 17. If you are a woman with type 1 diabetes and your child was born before you were 25, your child's risk is 1 in 25; if your child was born after you turned 25, your child Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Genetics

Diabetes And Genetics

Tweet Genetics play a strong role in the chances of developing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Other factors include environment and lifestyle. Diabetes is an increasingly common chronic condition affecting millions of people in the UK alone. Diabetes and genetic risk The risk of developing diabetes is affected by whether your parents or siblings have diabetes. The likelihood of developing type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes differ, as you can see below. Type 1 diabetes and genetics - average risks Mother with diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 2% Father with diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 8% Both parents with diabetes increases risk by 30% Brother or sister with diabetes increases risk by 10% Non-identical twin with diabetes increases risk by 15% Identical twin with diabetes increases risk by 40% Type 2 diabetes and genetics - average risks If either mother of father has diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 15% If both mother and father have diabetes increases risk by 75% If non-identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 10% If identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 90% Some other forms of diabetes may be directly inherited, including maturity onset diabetes in the young (MODY) and diabetes due to mitochondrial DNA mutation. However, neither type 1 or type 2 diabetes may be entirely genetically determined. Experts believe that environmental factors act as either ‘initators’ or ‘accelerators.’ Several genes are known as susceptibility genes, meaning that if an individual is carrying this gene they face greater risk of developing diabetes. Similarly, other genes provide greater immune tolerance for non-diabetics. My family have type 2 diabetes, will I get it? Type 2 diabetes is, in part, inherited. First degree relatives of individuals wit Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Family History: How Much Risk Is Genetic?

Diabetes And Family History: How Much Risk Is Genetic?

Whether you have Type I or Type II diabetes, there are several factors that could have contributed to the disease. Among these are your family’s lifestyle and your genetic history. By gaining a better understanding of these two issues, you may be able to control your diabetes with more ease, or possibly (in the case of Type II) avoid it altogether. At the very least, understanding the risks created by your genetic and family history will allow you to detect diabetes earlier and avoid the damage it can do if left untreated. How Family Affects Diabetes Risk Your family affects your diabetes risk in two different ways. First, of course, your parents contributed to your genetic heritage. But there’s also the way your parents, your siblings, and your extended family may have influenced the way you eat, exercise, and care for yourself, because these are habits you learn from the people around you as you grow up. Your genetic makeup can play a big role in both Type I and Type II diabetes, while the way a family cares for itself and the habits you’re taught in regard to diet and exercise are generally more related to Type II risk. To help prevent Type II diabetes if you don’t have the disease yet or if you’re prediabetic, there are four questions the NIDDK suggests you ask your family. These are: Does anyone in your family have Type II diabetes and if so, who are they? Has anyone in your family been told they may develop diabetes or are at risk for it? Has anyone in your family been told they need to get more exercise or lose weight in order to prevent diabetes? Did your mother have diabetes when she was pregnant, either with me or with a sibling? Type II diabetes can be greatly affected by the lifestyle a family lives. As you grow up and get older you learn a lot of Continue reading >>

Genetics & Diabetes : What's Your Risk?

Genetics & Diabetes : What's Your Risk?

A school nurse anxiously wants to know if there is a reason why several children from her small grade school have been diagnosed with type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes. Is it an epidemic? Will there be more cases? Is a recent chicken pox outbreak to blame? A man in his 50s develops type 2 diabetes. His mother developed diabetes in her 60s. Should this man's brother and sister be concerned, too? What about his children's chances of developing diabetes? A married couple wants to have children, but they are concerned because the husband has type 1 diabetes. They wonder what the risk is that their child would have diabetes. A couple has three young children. One of the children develops type 1 diabetes. There's no history of diabetes anywhere in either parent's families. Is this just a fluke? What are the chances the other children will develop diabetes? Chances are if you or a loved one have diabetes, you may wonder if you inherited it from a family member or you may be concerned that you will pass the disease on to your children. Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center report that, while much has been learned about what genetic factors make one more susceptible to developing diabetes than another, many questions remain to be answered. While some people are more likely to get diabetes than others, and in some ways type 2 (adult onset diabetes) is simpler to track than type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes, the pattern is not always clear. For more than 20 years researchers in the Epidemiology and Genetics Section at Joslin in Boston (Section Head Andrzej S. Krolewski, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator James H. Warram, M.D., Sc.D., and colleagues) have been studying diabetes incidence and hereditary factors. They are continuing a scientific journey begun by Elliott P. Joslin, M.D., Continue reading >>

11111 Fact Sheet 48|diabetes Types 1 And 2 And Inherited Predisposition

11111 Fact Sheet 48|diabetes Types 1 And 2 And Inherited Predisposition

 WHAT IS DIABETES? Diabetes mellitus (commonly known as diabetes) refers to a group of conditions which cause high levels of glucose (a form of sugar) in the blood. Glucose provides the energy that cells need to function. The level of glucose in an individual’s blood is carefully regulated by the hormone insulin. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and its role is to keep the levels of glucose balanced - not too high and not too low - as both extremes are dangerous and can disrupt the body’s chemical processes. There are two major forms of diabetes:  Type 1 (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: IDDM)  Type 2 (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: NIDDM). There is also another rarer type of diabetes called mature onset diabetes of the young (MODY). All of these forms of diabetes have different symptoms and a different genetic basis. Type 1 diabetes (IDDM) Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease, where the immune system destroys the insulin- producing cells of the pancreas. About 10% to 15% of people with diabetes in Australia have type 1 diabetes. The general population risk for developing type 1 diabetes is around 1 in 1000. The condition is usually first seen in childhood or adolescence and so is sometimes called juvenile diabetes. The risk of type 1 diabetes in 0-14 year olds around 1 in 750. It can, however, occur at any age and onset after the age of 20 years occurs in 50% of cases. Symptoms include:  thirst  frequent urination  weight loss  fatigue  blurred vision  sugar in the urine Insulin medication (usually by injection) is necessary to provide the body with insulin, and thus type 1 diabetes is described as insulin- dependent diabetes (IDDM). In about 90% of cases, individua Continue reading >>

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