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Is Diabetes A Disease Or Disorder

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms And Treatments

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Main Document Diabetes is referred to by the medical world as, 'Diabetes Mellitus,' and is a set of diseases where the person's body is unable to regulate the amount of sugar in their blood. The particular form of sugar that the person with diabetes is unable to regulate is called, 'glucose,' and is used in the body to give the person energy in order to do things in daily life such as walking, running, riding a bike, exercising, or other tasks. From food that people eat, the liver produces glucose and puts it into their blood. In persons without diabetes, glucose levels are regulated by a number of hormones including one known as, 'Insulin.' An organ called the, 'Pancreas,' produces insulin, and also secretes additional enzymes which aid in the digestion of food. Insulin helps the movement of glucose through a person's blood into different cells, including muscle, fat, and liver cells so it can be used to fuel activity. Several forms of diabetes involve the inability to both produce or use insulin properly. Persons with diabetes are unable to move glucose from their blood into their cells. The result is that the glucos Continue reading >>

Endocrine Disorders

Endocrine Disorders

The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce and release hormones that help control many important body functions, especially the body's ability to change calories into energy that powers cells and organs. The endocrine system influences how your heart beats, how your bones and tissues grow, even your ability to make a baby. It plays a vital role in whether or not you develop diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, sexual dysfunction and a host of other hormone-related disorders. Glands of the endocrine system Each gland of the endocrine system releases specific hormones into your bloodstream. These hormones travel through your blood to other cells and help control or coordinate many body processes. Endocrine glands include: Adrenal glands. Two glands that sit on top of the kidneys that release the hormone cortisol. Hypothalamus. A part of the lower middle brain that tells the pituitary gland when to release hormones. Ovaries. The female reproductive organs that release eggs and produce sex hormones. Islet cells in the pancreas. Cells in the pancreas control the release of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Parathyroid. Four tiny glands in the neck that play a role in bone development. Pineal gland. A gland found near the centre of the brain that may be linked to sleep patterns. Pituitary gland. A gland found at the base of brain behind the sinuses. It is often called the "master gland" because it influences many other glands, especially the thyroid. Problems with the pituitary gland can affect bone growth, a woman's menstrual cycles and the release of breast milk. Testes. The male reproductive glands that produce sperm and sex hormones. Thymus. A gland in the upper chest that helps develop the body's immune system early in life. Thyroid. A butterfly-sh Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes can strike anyone, from any walk of life. And it does – in numbers that are dramatically increasing. In the last decade, the cases of people living with diabetes jumped almost 50 percent – to more than 30 million Americans. Worldwide, it afflicts more than 422 million people. And the World Health Organization estimates that by 2030, that number of people living with diabetes will more than double. Today, diabetes takes more lives than AIDS and breast cancer combined -- claiming the life of 1 American every 3 minutes. It is a leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, amputations, heart failure and stroke. Living with diabetes places an enormous emotional, physical and financial burden on the entire family. Annually, diabetes costs the American public more than $245 billion. Just what is diabetes? To answer that, you first need to understand the role of insulin in your body. When you eat, your body turns food into sugars, or glucose. At that point, your pancreas is supposed to release insulin. Insulin serves as a “key” to open your cells, to allow the glucose to enter -- and allow you to use the glucose for energy. But with diabetes, this system does not work. Several major things can go wrong – causing the onset of diabetes. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most common forms of the disease, but there are also other kinds, such as gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy, as well as other forms. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 2 diabetes? Do you want to learn more about a cure for diabetes? We're developing a DRI BioHub mini organ to restore natural insulin production in those living with diabetes. Watch the BioHub video>> Keep up with the latest updates on the DRI BioHub. Be a DRInsider today. It's free and easy to sign up. Join no Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs - Overview

This handout provides general information about diabetes mellitus in dogs. For information about its treatment, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment" and "Diabetes Mellitus - Insulin Treatment". What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas, a small but vital organ located near the stomach. The pancreas has two significant types of cells. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone insulin. Insulin regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are related to elevated concentrations of blood glucose and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. What are the clinical signs of diabetes and why do they occur? The four main symptoms of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, and increased appetite. Glucose is a vital substance that provides much of the energy needed by cells, but it must first be absorbed by the cells. Insulin attaches to receptors on the surface of cells and opens "pores" in the cell wall that allow glucose molecules to leave the bloodstream and enter the cell's interior. Without an adequate amount of insulin to "open the door," glucose is unable to get into the cells, so it accumulates in the blood, setting in motion a series of events that result in diabetes mellitus. "When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the body become starved for their promary source of energy - glucose." When there isn't enough insulin, the cells of the bod Continue reading >>

Diseases And Disorders Of The Endocrine System

Diseases And Disorders Of The Endocrine System

Pancreatic Islet Disorders: Diabetes and Hyperinsulinism Hyperinsulinism refers to an above-normal level of insulin in the blood of a person or animal. Learning Objectives Distinguish between the two types of hyperinsulinism: hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia Key Takeaways Hyperinsulinism can be associated with several types of medical problems, which can be roughly divided into two broad categories: hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia or Hyperglycæmia, or high blood sugar, is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a glucose level higher than (200 mg/dl). Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar is an abnormally-diminished content of glucose in the blood. The principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose to the brain, resulting in impairment of function (neuroglycopenia). hyperinsulinism: Hyperinsulinism refers to an above normal level of insulin in the blood of a person or animal. diabetes: A group of metabolic diseases whereby a person (or other animal) has high blood sugar due to an inability to produce, metabolize, or respond to the hormone insulin. hypoglycemia: A too low level of blood glucose. Hyperinsulinemia This refers to an above-normal level of insulin in the blood of a person or animal. Normal insulin secretion and blood levels are closely related to the level of glucose in the blood, so that a given level of insulin can be normal for one blood glucose level but low or high for another. Hyperinsulinism can be associated with several types of medical problems, which can be roughly divided into two broad and largely non-overlapping categories: those tending toward reduced sensitivity to insulin and high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), and those tending toward excessive insuli Continue reading >>

9.00 Endocrine Disorders - Adult

9.00 Endocrine Disorders - Adult

Section 9.00 Endocrine Disorders A. What is an endocrine disorder? An endocrine disorder is a medical condition that causes a hormonal imbalance. When an endocrine gland functions abnormally, producing either too much of a specific hormone (hyperfunction) or too little (hypofunction), the hormonal imbalance can cause various complications in the body. The major glands of the endocrine system are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pancreas. B. How do we evaluate the effects of endocrine disorders? We evaluate impairments that result from endocrine disorders under the listings for other body systems. For example: 1. Pituitary gland disorders can disrupt hormone production and normal functioning in other endocrine glands and in many body systems. The effects of pituitary gland disorders vary depending on which hormones are involved. For example, when pituitary hypofunction affects water and electrolyte balance in the kidney and leads to diabetes insipidus, we evaluate the effects of recurrent dehydration under 6.00. 2. Thyroid gland disorders affect the sympathetic nervous system and normal metabolism. We evaluate thyroid-related changes in blood pressure and heart rate that cause arrhythmias or other cardiac dysfunction under 4.00; thyroid-related weight loss under 5.00; hypertensive cerebrovascular accidents (strokes) under 11.00; and cognitive limitations, mood disorders, and anxiety under 12.00. 3. Parathyroid gland disorders affect calcium levels in bone, blood, nerves, muscle, and other body tissues. We evaluate parathyroid-related osteoporosis and fractures under 1.00; abnormally elevated calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcemia) that lead to cataracts under 2.00; kidney failure under 6.00; and recurrent abnormally low blood calcium levels (hypocalc Continue reading >>

List Of Endocrine Disorders

List Of Endocrine Disorders

List of all possible Endocrine disorders and diseases affecting the Endocrine System. The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce and release hormones that help control many important body functions, especially the body's ability to change calories into energy that powers cells and organs. The endocrine system influences how your heart beats, how your bones and tissues grow, even your ability to make a baby. It plays a vital role in whether or not you develop diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, sexual dysfunction, and a host of other hormone-related disorders. See also: Thyroid Diseases List Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many ...more Symptoms: Polyphagia, Acanthosis nigricans, Hyperglycemia, Weight gain, Fatigue, + more Treatments: Smoking cessation, Insulin lispro, Anti-diabetic medication, Physical examination, Chromium(III) picolinate, + more Risk Factors: Tobacco smoking, Personal History of Gestational Diabetes, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Asian American, Hispanic, + more Parent Disease: Endocrine diseases, Nutrition disorder 12 Ancient Health Practices that Killed People Quicker Than Just Doing Nothing The Worst Drugs for You Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. This is in contrast to diabetes mellitus type 1, in which there is an absolute lack of insulin due to breakdown of islet cells in the pancreas. ...more Symptoms: Polyphagia, Acanthosis nigricans, Fatigue, P Continue reading >>

Diabetes Information

Diabetes Information

Almost 30 million people in the United States have diabetes. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, which is the most common form of the disease, usually occurs in people who are 45 years of age or older. However, the rate of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is increasing. Common Diabetes Terms (American Diabetes Association) Diabetes Can Be Silent | Definition of Diabetes | Warning Signs of Diabetes | Type 1 Diabetes | Type 2 Diabetes | Gestational Diabetes | Complications of Diabetes Diabetes can go silently undetected for a long time without symptoms. Many people first become aware that they have diabetes when they develop one of its potentially life-threatening complications, such as heart disease, blindness or nerve disease. Fortunately, diabetes can be managed with proper care. Diabetes is a chronic (life-long) condition that can have serious consequences. However, with careful attention to your blood sugar control, lifestyle modifications and medications, you can manage your diabetes and may avoid many of the problems associated with the disease. The Palo Alto Medical Foundation (PAMF) can help you make the transition of managing your disease easier. Back to top Definition of Diabetes Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. The cause of diabetes is a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercise appear to play roles. There are three types of diabetes: Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Diabetes Back to top Warning Signs of Diabetes Frequent urination Unusual thirst Extreme hunger Continue reading >>

Diseases And Disorders Associated With Excess Body Weight

Diseases And Disorders Associated With Excess Body Weight

Introduction Excess body weight is a very serious global epidemic. Due to the rapid increase in the number of overweight (body mass index, [BMI] 25.0–29.9) and obese (BMI > 30) individuals over the past several decades, it is often referred to as a “pandemic”. Indeed, 1.1 billion worldwide adults and 10% of children are overweight or obese [1]. However, since the current BMI cut-off for overweight Asians is 23.0 kg/m2, the number is significantly higher (1.7 billion adults) [2]. A recent study of 63 countries estimated that 40% of men and 30% of women were overweight and 24% of men and 27% of women were obese [3]. In 2000, an estimated 131 million Americans were overweight or obese [4]. However, since the obesity prevalence increased 24% from 2000 to 2005 [5], the current number is significantly greater. Indeed, in 2010, an estimated 72.5 million American adults were obese [6]. Moreover, the prevalence of morbid obesity (BMI > 40) increased by 50% and for a BMI > 50, it increased 75%. Flegal et al recently estimated that the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 33.8% overall; 32.2% of men and 35.5% of women [7]. When overweight and obesity were combined, the prevalence estimates were 68%, 72% and 64%, respectively. If the current trend continues, Wang et al estimated that 86.3% of American adults will be overweight or obese by 2030 and essentially all Americans will be overweight or obese by the year 2048 [8]. Excess body weight is not limited to adults. To examine changes in state-specific overweight and obesity, Singh and associates carried out a cross-sectional analysis of 46,707 and 44,101 children aged 10 to 17 years in 2003 and 2007, respectively [9]. In 2007, 16.4% of U.S. children were obese and 31.6% were overweight. Overweight prevalence varied from a Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease characterised by high levels of glucose in the blood. Blood sugar levels are controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin, or the body becomes resistant to insulin, or both. There are three main forms of the disease: Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease where the body's immune system attacks the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes cannot produce insulin and require lifelong insulin injections for survival. The disease can occur at any age, although it mostly occurs in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes is sometimes referred to as juvenile onset diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with hereditary factors and lifestyle risk factors including poor diet, insufficient physical activity and overweight or obesity. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their condition through lifestyle changes; however, diabetes medications or insulin injections may also be required to control blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years old, however, the disease is also becoming increasingly prevalent in younger age groups. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy. The condition usually disappears once the baby is born, however, a history of gestational diabetes increases a woman's risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. The condition may be managed throu Continue reading >>

8 Signs Of Disease That Are Written All Over Your Face

8 Signs Of Disease That Are Written All Over Your Face

Dry, flaky skin or lips iStock/PeopleImages This is a common warning sign of dehydration (here are 7 other signs of dehydration). It may also indicate a more serious problem that affects sweat gland function, such as hypothyroidism (marked by insufficient levels of thyroid hormone) or diabetes, says Roshini Raj, MD, assistant professor of medicine at the NYU School of Medicine and author of What the Yuck?! Other signs of hypothyroidism include feeling cold, weight gain, and fatigue. Diabetes symptoms include extreme thirst, frequent urination, and blurry vision (here are 8 red-flag symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children). Excess facial hair iStock/skynesher Unwanted hair, particularly along the jawline, chin, and upper lip, could be a symptom of polycystic ovary syndrome, a hormone imbalance in which male hormone levels are elevated. (The condition may affect five million U.S. women of childbearing age.) Here are some other medical reasons you may be hairier than you want to be. Soft, yellow spots on eyelids iStock/JazzIRT Patients with these cholesterol-filled lesions, called xanthelasmata, may have a higher risk of heart disease (here are some heart disease prevention tips). A 2011 Danish study of nearly 13,000 patients found that about 4 percent had the spots and that those patients were nearly 70 percent more likely to develop hardening of the arteries and almost 50 percent more likely to have a heart attack over the next few decades than patients without them. Eye bags and puffiness iStock/chubbs1 Tired-looking eyes could be a red flag for chronic allergies, which dilate blood vessels and cause them to leak. In the sensitive skin under your eyes, this creates puffiness and a dark purple-blue hue, says Dr. Raj, who is also co-founder of the skin care company TULA. Continue reading >>

Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders

Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders

Endocrine Disorders Endocrine disorders involve an abnormality of one of the body’s endocrine glands. Among the endocrine disorders, thyroid problems are the most common. Thyroid underactivity/overactivity: Of the endocrine disorders, thyroid diseases are the most common. Effective treatment of thyroid over-activity (hyperthyroidism) and under-activity (hypothyroidism) is important in both the short term and long term. Although treating underactive thyroid is a bit more complex, either condition can be treated effectively. Thyroid growths: Most thyroid growths do not have serious consequences. A technique called “fine-needle aspiration” can be used to identify the minority of thyroid growths that are cancerous. The technique involves insertion of a small needle into the thyroid growth and withdrawing a small amount of fluid — much like drawing a blood sample from a vein. Cells in that fluid are then examined under a microscope. Other endocrine disorders: Disorders of the other endocrine glands are less common. The expertise of an endocrinologist often is needed to select the most efficient diagnostic approach, assess the need for treatment, select the best treatment approach, and assure a favorable outcome. Metabolic Disorders Diabetes mellitus: Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine/metabolic disorder. It affects 6.5% of the U.S. population. It is more common as we age and is more prevalent in African Americans, Latinos and Native Americans. Although the disease is potentially devastating, it is now well established that comprehensive treatment makes a difference in the health of diabetics in the short-term and the long term. It prevents or delays complications that can lead to blindness, kidney failure or amputations, as well as the nonspecific complic Continue reading >>

Addiction Now Defined As Brain Disorder, Not Behavior Problem

Addiction Now Defined As Brain Disorder, Not Behavior Problem

Addiction is a chronic brain disorder and not simply a behavior problem involving alcohol, drugs, gambling or sex, experts contend in a new definition of addiction, one that is not solely related to problematic substance abuse. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) just released this new definition of addiction after a four-year process involving more than 80 experts. "At its core, addiction isn't just a social problem or a moral problem or a criminal problem. It's a brain problem whose behaviors manifest in all these other areas," said Dr. Michael Miller, past president of ASAM who oversaw the development of the new definition. "Many behaviors driven by addiction are real problems and sometimes criminal acts. But the disease is about brains, not drugs. It's about underlying neurology, not outward actions." The new definition also describes addiction as a primary disease, meaning that it's not the result of other causes, such as emotional or psychiatric problems. And like cardiovascular disease and diabetes, addiction is recognized as a chronic disease; so it must be treated, managed and monitored over a person's lifetime, the researchers say. Two decades of advancements in neuroscience convinced ASAM officials that addiction should be redefined by what's going on in the brain. For instance, research has shown that addiction affects the brain's reward circuitry, such that memories of previous experiences with food, sex, alcohol and other drugs trigger cravings and more addictive behaviors. Brain circuitry that governs impulse control and judgment is also altered in the brains of addicts, resulting in the nonsensical pursuit of "rewards," such as alcohol and other drugs. A long-standing debate has roiled over whether addicts have a choice over their behaviors Continue reading >>

Heart Disease: The Diabetes Connection

Heart Disease: The Diabetes Connection

Most people living with diabetes are aware that they have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. But the statistics can be truly staggering: Nearly two-thirds of people with diabetes have high blood pressure, and, according to the American Diabetes Association, people with diabetes are two to four times more likely to die of heart disease or have a stroke than people who don't have the condition. The good news: Learning more about the link between heart disease and diabetes can help you take steps to help protect your heart and manage your diabetes. How Diabetes and Heart Disease Are Related The connection between diabetes and heart disease starts with high blood sugar levels. Over time, the high glucose in the bloodstream can damage the arteries, causing them to become stiff and hard. Fatty material that builds up on the inside of these blood vessels, a condition known as atherosclerosis. This can eventually block blood flow to the heart or brain, leading to heart attack or stroke. Your risk of heart disease with diabetes is further elevated if you also have a family history of cardiovascular disease or stroke. Other heart facts to consider: People with diabetes develop cardiovascular disease at a much earlier age than others. Heart disease that leads to heart attack or stroke is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. A person who has diabetes has the same risk of heart attack as someone who is not diabetic, but already had a heart attack. Protecting Your Heart When You Have Diabetes If you believe you are at a higher risk for heart disease, don’t despair. There are several small lifestyle changes you can make to not only help prevent heart disease, but also manage your diabetes more effectively. Be active. The American Heart Association recomme Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

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