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Is Anemia Related To Diabetes?

Iron: How This Supplement Could Impact Your A1c

Iron: How This Supplement Could Impact Your A1c

We need iron. Without enough iron, we’ll get sick. But too much iron can kill us. As with so many things relating to our health, it’s a balancing act. Most people who eat meat get sufficient iron. Some foods these days are also supplemented with iron. The chocolate syrup Bosco was designed to get children to consume more iron. Cooking in iron pots, especially cooking acid foods, adds iron to our diet. Multivitamins designed for younger people contain iron (especially those for pregnant women, as the fetus consumes a lot of iron). Hence nonpregnant Western people who aren’t vegetarians usually get enough iron from their diet. People in Third World countries who don’t get much meat, however, are often iron deficient. Heme iron, or the iron that is in hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells, is absorbed even more efficiently than the nonheme iron that you get when you eat vegetables or take an iron-containing multivitamin pill. So eating meat, especially red meat and liver, should ensure that you get enough iron. Vitamin C will increase the absorption of iron, and large amounts of calcium or whole grains will decrease it. Those of us over 60 probably remember all those ads for “tired blood” in the 1950s and 1960s that implied that older people were tired because they didn’t have enough iron and needed to supplement with Geritol. So should we all try to get as much iron as possible? Nope. There is some evidence that high iron levels contribute to heart disease, and most “senior vitamins,” designed for people who are at an age at which heart disease is more likely, don’t have any added iron. Some people think that losing blood every month helps to protect younger women from heart disease. This protection is lost after menopause. Iron l Continue reading >>

The Diabetes And Anemia Connection

The Diabetes And Anemia Connection

The Diabetes and Iron Deficiency Anemia Connection Its common to see elevation of ferritin, the storage form of iron, in cases of insulin resistance and diabetes. This is because ferritin is also considered an acute phase reactant, which means it spikes in the presence of inflammation. Ferritin is primarily stored in the liver, and its common for it to elevate in cases of fatty liver disease, which is strongly connected to insulin resistance. However, serum iron levels tend to fall in diabetic patientstheres an inverse correlation between iron levels and HbA1c(a measurement of where the glucose has been over the last 3 months). There are several possible reasons for this. Kidney complications. Elevated blood sugar will, over time, damage the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys in the same way that it can damage the vessels anywhere else (leading to cardiovascular disease). Smaller vessels show damage first, which is why kidney damage is one of the side effects of diabetes to watch out for. The significance here: the kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin, which tells bone marrow to make more red blood cells. Underperforming kidneys will also decrease production of erythropoietin, leading to anemia. This studyshows that diabetics with reduced renal function are more likely to end up with iron deficiency anemia than those with without reduced renal function. Neuropathy. Prolonged elevation of blood sugar can also damage nerves, probably because nerves also require a blood supply, which they receive from tiny arteries. There are several types of neuropathy that can result, one of which is autonomic neuropathy. Unlike the typical symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (tingling and numbness of fingers and toes), this can present with dizziness, fainting, digestive disturbance Continue reading >>

Anemia And Diabetes: What's The Connection And How Do I Manage It?

Anemia And Diabetes: What's The Connection And How Do I Manage It?

Of course, these are also symptoms of a variety of other conditions, ranging from heart attack to hangover! So how can you tell if your symptoms are being caused by anemia? Firstly, let me explain what anemia is, and how diabetes, or more strictly speaking kidney disease, can cause it. When diabetes affects your kidneys (known as diabetic nephropathy), they may not be able to produce enough erythropoietin, a hormone that controls the production of red blood cells. With anemia there are fewer red blood cells than normal. Red blood cells carry oxygen to your bodys cells so if there are fewer healthy red blood cells, there is less oxygen being transported. The lack of oxygen may be causing the symptoms listed above. Normally when you develop anemia your body tries to correct the situation by producing more erythropoietin, but with diabetic nephropathy as part of the equation this might not be possible, as your kidneys might not be able to do this efficiently. Anemia can also be caused by certain medications used to treat diabetes and related conditions. Thiazolidinediones as well as metformin (Glucophage) can increase the risk of developing anemia. In particular, metformin may interfere with vitamin B12 absorption, and some doctors advise diabetics taking this medication to take a multivitamin as well. So why do you need to worry about developing anemia? Well studies show that diabetics with anemia are more likely to develop eye disease and suffer a heart attack or stroke. It sounds grim, but luckily its very simple to find out if you have anemia and to treat it. Its time to visit the vampire your doctor will be able to arrange blood tests to check if you are anemic, and how low your red blood cell count is. Your healthcare provider should arrange a complete blood count l Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Anemia

Diabetes And Anemia

If you have diabetes, you’ll need to have your blood checked regularly for anemia. It’s common for people with diabetes to also end up with this blood condition. It happens when your body’s red blood cells can’t deliver as much oxygen as your body needs. If you spot anemia early on, you can better manage the issues causing it. Usually, it happens because you don’t have enough red blood cells. That can make you more likely to get certain diabetes complications, like eye and nerve damage. And it can worsen kidney, heart, and artery disease, which are more common in people with diabetes. Diabetes often leads to kidney damage, and failing kidneys can cause anemia. Healthy kidneys know when your body needs new red blood cells. They release a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO), which signals your bone marrow to make more. Damaged kidneys don’t send out enough EPO to keep up with your needs. Often, people don’t realize they have kidney disease until it’s very far along. But if you test positive for anemia, it can be an early sign of a problem with your kidneys. People with diabetes are more likely to have inflamed blood vessels. This can keep bone marrow from getting the signal they need to make more red blood cells. And some medications used to treat diabetes can drop your levels of the protein hemoglobin, which you need to carry oxygen through your blood. These drugs include ACE inhibitors, fibrates, metformin, and thiazolidinediones. If you take one of these, talk to your doctor about your risk for anemia. If you have kidney dialysis, you may have blood loss, and that can also cause anemia. When your brain and other organs don’t get enough oxygen, you feel tired and weak. Other signs you may have anemia include: Shortness of breath Dizziness Headache Pale Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Anemia: Are They Related?

Diabetes And Anemia: Are They Related?

Someone’s anemic if they have an abnormally low amount of red blood cells – and when there are too few red blood cells, body organs don’t get the oxygen they need. This not only strains and damages organs, but it also decreases a person’s quality of life by causing fatigue, weakness, and headaches. Red blood cells can transport oxygen because they’re full of a complex molecule called hemoglobin, which can grab, hold, and release oxygen as needed in different part of the body. A doctor may an anemic person as having “too little hemoglobin” or “a low hematocrit”. The first statement refers to the amount of concentration of hemoglobin molecules in your blood, and the second refers to the concentration of red blood cells in your blood. If that sounds redundant, you’re right! They’re both describing the same thing. That’s why it’s best to pay attention to one or the other (not both) to avoid confusion. Types of anemia There are quite a few different types of anemia (over 400 to be exact!). The most common ones are summarized below. It is very important to know the type of anemia and the cause. Without knowing the cause, you cannot treat the disease! Iron Deficiency. This is the most common type. It is caused by lack of absorption, intake, or by blood loss. Aplastic. This occurs when the body stops making new red blood cells. It is rare, but very serious. Hemolytic. This type happens when red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be produced. Vitamin Deficiency. Poor nutrition, or impaired vitamin absorption causes this type. Pernicious. With this, the B-12 intake is okay, but the body cannot process it correctly. Fragile Red Cell. Some people inherit abnormal red blood cells that die earlier than normal, like in sickle cell or thalassemia. Continue reading >>

Anemia

Anemia

When “Tired Blood” is Slowing You Down Most people have heard of anemia and know that it has something to do with the blood. Most people also associate anemia with feeling tired. But probably not too many people could explain exactly what anemia is. Stated simply, anemia is a condition in which there is a lower than normal number of healthy red blood cells in the body and/or a lower than normal amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. The specific part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen is called hemoglobin. Red blood cells also carry waste products from the cells to the urinary and respiratory systems to be excreted. When either the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin is low, the body’s cells receive less oxygen than normal. A low oxygen level can cause fatigue and other symptoms such as weakness, difficulty exercising, and light-headedness. Anemia can develop for many reasons. In fact, there are more than 400 types of anemia. But they can all be categorized into these three general groups: Anemia caused by the loss of blood Anemia caused by a decrease in red blood cell production in the bone marrow or impaired production of red blood cells Anemia caused by red blood cell destruction Anemia is a fairly common condition, but it often goes unrecognized and therefore not treated. Its symptoms are vague and easily mistaken for symptoms of other serious or chronic diseases. But even mild anemia can significantly lower one’s quality of life, and untreated anemia can have serious long-term health effects. Diabetes and anemia Diabetes does not directly cause anemia, but certain complications and conditions associated with diabetes can contribute to it. For example, both Continue reading >>

Anemia & Glucose

Anemia & Glucose

Anemia refers to a range of problems with your red blood cells. You may have heard it called "tired" blood because one of the major symptoms of anemia is fatigue. Your glucose, or blood sugar, can indirectly contribute to anemia in a few ways. One of the most common pathways is through your kidneys. Excessive glucose can clamp down on the production of a kidney hormone that triggers the production of red blood cells. If you're worried that you are anemic, talk with your health care provider about ways to treat and prevent the recurrence of the problem. Video of the Day Although there are about 400 different types of anemia, the condition generally means you have a lower than normal number of healthy red blood cells, or you have a lower than normal amount of hemoglobin inside your red blood cells. Hemoglobin is a protein that helps deliver oxygen to the tissues within your body. About two-thirds of all the iron in your body is found in hemoglobin, making iron deficiency one of the major causes of anemia, according to the Cleveland Clinic. About one-third of the global population suffers from iron-deficiency anemia. Glucose is more commonly known as blood sugar. It is a major source of energy and fuel for your cells. Your body creates blood sugar after breaking down nutrients from some of your digested food. In blood tests, it's normal to get a reading up to 100 mg/dL of glucose, says MedlinePlus. Serious illnesses, including prediabetes and diabetes, are diagnosed when you have too much glucose in your blood. Too much glucose in your blood means not enough energy is being supplied to your cells. Complications of excessive glucose can impair the functioning of your heart and kidneys, nerves and eyes. Problems with glucose do not cause anemia, but diabetics tend to have a Continue reading >>

Anemia And Diabetes - Fulltext - American Journal Of Nephrology 2004, Vol. 24, No. 5 - Karger Publishers

Anemia And Diabetes - Fulltext - American Journal Of Nephrology 2004, Vol. 24, No. 5 - Karger Publishers

World Health Organization statistics identify 150 million people with diabetes mellitus worldwide and suggest that this figure may double by 2025. In countries with a western lifestyle, the number of patients admitted for renal replacement therapy with diabetes as a co-morbid condition has increased significantly up to three to four times in a period of 10 years. Diabetes and renal failure are thus tightly linked diseases, and so is anemia. However, whether anemia may be worsened and/or directly, at least in part, caused by diabetes is not clearly elucidated yet. In this article, we review the prevalence, pathophysiology and consequences of anemia in diabetic patients. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetes mellitus patients has been called a medical catastrophe of worldwide dimension [ 1 ]. World Health Organization statistics identify 150 million people with diabetes mellitus worldwide and suggest that this figure may double by 2025. In countries with a western lifestyle, the number of patients admitted for renal replacement therapy with diabetes as a co-morbid condition has increased significantly up to three to four times in a period of 10 years [ 2 ]. Consequently, diabetes is the single most common cause of end-stage renal disease and therefore the most common cause of renal anemia. In this article, we review the prevalence, pathophysiology and consequences of anemia in diabetic patients. Prevalence of Anemia in Diabetic Patients Patients with diabetes suffer the consequences of impaired renal function earlier in the course of their disease than do their non diabetic counterparts [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. In diabetic nephropathy (DN), anemia tends to be more severe than in non-diabetic renal disease and occurs at an earlier stage of the disease. However, because Continue reading >>

Anemia In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Anemia In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), Ijuí, RS, Brazil 2Program in Respiratory Sciences, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil 3Department of Life Sciences, the Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), Rua do Comércio No. 3000, Bairro Universitário, 98700 000 Ijuí, RS, Brazil 4Program in Integral Attention to Health (PPGAIS-UNIJUI/UNICRUZ), Ijuí, RS, Brazil 5Program in Pharmacology of the Health Sciences Center, The Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), RS, Brazil 6Cenecista Institute for Higher Education, Rua Dr. João Augusto Rodrigues 471, 98801 015 Santo Ângelo, RS, Brazil Academic Editor: Eitan Fibach Copyright © 2015 Jéssica Barbieri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in DM2 patients and its correlation with demographic and lifestyle and laboratory variables. This is a descriptive and analytical study of the type of case studies in the urban area of the Ijuí city, registered in programs of the Family Health Strategy, with a total sample of 146 patients with DM2. A semistructured questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical variables and performed biochemical test was applied. Of the DM2 patients studied, 50 patients had anemia, and it was found that the body mass items and hypertension and hematological variables are significantly associated with anemia of chronic disease. So, the prevalence of anemia is high in patients with DM2. The set of observed changes characterizes the anemia of chronic dis Continue reading >>

Anemia, Diabetes, And Chronic Kidney Disease

Anemia, Diabetes, And Chronic Kidney Disease

Anemia, Diabetes, and Chronic Kidney Disease From the Department of Nephrology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Corresponding author: Robert D. Toto, [email protected] . Received 2008 Apr 23; Accepted 2009 Apr 14. Copyright 2009 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ( 1 , 2 ). Anemia is common among those with diabetes and CKD and greatly contributes to patient outcomes ( 3 , 4 ). Observational studies indicate that low Hb levels in such patients may increase risk for progression of kidney disease and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ( 5 ). Controlled clinical trials of anemia treatment with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) demonstrated improved quality of life (QOL) but have not demonstrated improved outcomes ( 6 10 ). In some trials, ESA treatment for high Hb levels is associated with worse outcomes such as increased thrombosis risk ( 6 , 11 ). Consequently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) have modified their recommendations regarding anemia treatment for CKD patients ( 12 ). The objectives of this review are to 1) update clinicians on the prevalence, causes, and clinical consequences of anemia; 2) discuss the benefits and risks of treatment; and 3) provide insight into anemia management based on clinical trial evidence in patients with diabetes and kidney disease who are not on dialysis. DEFINITION AND PREVALENCE OF A Continue reading >>

Implications Of Iron Deficiency/anemia On The Classification Of Diabetes Using Hba1c

Implications Of Iron Deficiency/anemia On The Classification Of Diabetes Using Hba1c

Nonglycemic factors like iron deficiency (ID) or anemia may interfere with classification of diabetes and prediabetes using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). However, few population-based studies of diabetes in areas with endemic ID/anemia have been conducted. We aimed to determine how mutually exclusive categories of ID alone, anemia alone and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) were each associated with prediabetes and diabetes prevalence using fasting blood glucose (FBG) versus HbA1c in a population-based study of adults with endemic ID/anemia. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a longitudinal, population-based study across 228 communities within nine provinces of China. This analysis included 7308 adults seen in the 2009 survey aged 18–75 years. We used descriptive and covariate-adjusted models to examine relative risk of prediabetes and diabetes using FBG alone, HbA1c alone, HbA1c and FBG, or neither (normoglycemia) by anemia alone, ID alone, IDA or normal iron/hemoglobin. Approximately 65% of individuals with diabetes in our sample were concordantly classified with diabetes using both FBG and HbA1c, while 35% had a discordant diabetes classification: they were classified using either FBG or HbA1c, but not both. Fewer participants with ID alone versus normal iron/hemoglobin were classified with diabetes using HbA1c only. From covariate-adjusted, multinomial regression analyses, the adjusted prevalence of prediabetes using HbA1c only was 22% for men with anemia alone, but 13% for men with normal iron/hemoglobin. In contrast, the predicted prevalence of prediabetes using HbA1c only was 8% for women with ID alone, compared with 13% for women with normal iron/hemoglobin. These findings suggest potential misclassification of diabetes using HbA1c in areas of endem Continue reading >>

Anemia As A Factor Related To The Progression Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy After Photocoagulation

Anemia As A Factor Related To The Progression Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy After Photocoagulation

Volume 26, Issue 5 , SeptemberOctober 2012, Pages 454-457 Anemia as a factor related to the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy after photocoagulation Author links open overlay panel Francisco J.Seplvedaa This study aimed to investigate factors that could be related to the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients treated with photocoagulation. In this case-control study, a total of 106 patients with diabetic retinopathy participated who were treated with photocoagulation. We analyzed glycaemia, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin, platelet levels, blood pressure measurement, diabetes duration, diabetes and hypertension treatment, sex, and age. The statistical analysis was done with t test, 2 test, odds ratio (OR), and simple linear regression. We found statistical significance in blood glucose level(P=.038), cholesterol level (P<.001), and hemoglobin level (P<.001). The simple linear regression was significant with blood glucose level (P<.05) and hemoglobin level (P=.001). Hemoglobin had a significant result: OR=2.432, 95% CI 1.9023.115; Pearson 2=16.812; P<.001. Anemia is an important finding in diabetic patients. Anemia is a relevant factor related to the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, which can be treated with photocoagulation. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis Distorted Through Hba1c Due To Anemia

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis Distorted Through Hba1c Due To Anemia

New research shows that anemia could lead to a false diagnosis of type 2 diabetes if HbA1c is used as the diagnostic method. In the UK, HbA1c is advocated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for diagnosing type 2 diabetes at a value of 6.5 per cent (48 mmol/mol). Anemia is a common condition in which a lack of iron in the body leads to decreased red blood cell count or hemoglobin in patients. An estimate from 2011 found that 29 per cent of non-pregnant women had anemia, while the latest WHO figures suggest this figure is 13 per cent in men. Researchers at the University of Nottingham investigated studies between 1990 and 2014 in which HbA1c and glucose were measured, as well as an index of anemia involving non-pregnant women not diagnosed with diabetes. 12 studies found that iron deficiency with or without anemia resulted in increased HbA1c values, while no corresponding blood glucose rise occurred. Subsequently, a diagnosis of diabetes would require further testing. The researchers recommend that when glucose and HbA1c levels differ in diabetic patients, anemia or iron deficiency should be considered. If these abnormalities are identified, correction of high hemoglobin levels should be corrected before HbA1c is again used for diagnosis or monitoring. "HbA1c is likely to be affected by iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia with a spurious increase in HbA1c values. This may lead to confusion when diagnosing diabetes using HbA1c," the authors say. "This review clearly identifies the need for more evidence, especially in identifying the types and degrees of anaemia likely to have significant impact on the reliability of HbA1c." Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being in Continue reading >>

Low Hemoglobin Concentration Is Associated With Several Diabetic Profiles

Low Hemoglobin Concentration Is Associated With Several Diabetic Profiles

Anemia is relatively common in patients with diabetes mellitus, and low hemoglobin concentration contributes to many clinical aspects of diabetes mellitus or its progression. Low hemoglobin concentration in patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with a more rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate than that of other kidney diseases [1]. Diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy result in increased susceptibility to low hemoglobin level [2]. A previous observational study demonstrated that low hemoglobin level is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes mellitus [3]. Some studies suggest that β-cell dysfunction occurs due to hypoxic damage to the pancreatic islet cells [4,5], which leads to a progression to diabetes. The present study aimed to demonstrate an association between low hemoglobin concentration and several metabolic factors, β-cell dysfunction, and microangiopathies in Korean patients with diabetes. The results showed that patients with lower hemoglobin concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of current smoking, longer duration of diabetes, lower body mass index, and lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Such patients showed a lower concentration of postprandial c-peptide and lower postprandial β-cell responsiveness. These patients also had a higher prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy. Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease that leads to CKD and cardiovascular mortality [6,7]; thus, it is as important to prevent vascular complications as it is to control the disease itself. Therefore many parameters have been developed to predict such a progression. Hemoglobin concentration is closely assoc Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Anemia:

Diabetes And Anemia:

There are lots of articles about diabetes, as well as all kinds of information about anemia. But what if you have both? About 25 percent of people with diabetes have some level of anemia. This article explains how the two conditions interact. What Is Anemia, and Why Is It Linked to Diabetes? In anemia, there are fewer red blood cells than normal, resulting in less oxygen being carried to the body’s cells. People with anemia often feel tired or weak and may have difficulty getting through activities of daily living. Other symptoms include paleness, poor appetite, dizziness, lightheadedness, rapid heartbeat, and shortness of breath. Because these symptoms can also be associated with diabetes, they are sometimes not recognized as evidence of anemia. Anemia may occur with diabetes because the hormone that regulates red blood cell production, erythropoietin (EPO), is produced by the kidneys. Kidney damage at several levels is a complication of diabetes, and one problem often leads to the other. Changes in the kidneys that occur with diabetes range from diabetic nephropathy all the way to chronic kidney disease. Early detection and treatment is essential to prevent or delay disease progression. Information in greater detail can be found at www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Other causes of anemia are low levels of iron or other vitamins, as well as prolonged illness. Diagnosing Anemia A simple blood test done during a doctor visit, called a complete blood count or CBC, is used to check for anemia. The two elements of the test that reveal anemia are hemoglobin and hematocrit. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells. Hematocrit indicates the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. How Does Anemia Affect Your Diabetes Care? If you have anemia, you Continue reading >>

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