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Is An A1c Of 5.9 Good?

Low-carb Lab Testing – Part 2 – Fasting Insulin Test

Low-carb Lab Testing – Part 2 – Fasting Insulin Test

This is the second installment in a series of articles exploring pertinent lab tests for people following low-carb diets, and how a slightly different perspective is needed when interpreting the results compared to results from people following high-carb diets. In the previous post in this series, we looked at three measurements related to blood glucose: fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and fructosamine. We left off saying that while these are important to monitor regularly, they offer a limited view of a much larger metabolic control system. Blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and fructosamine indicate only what’s happening with blood glucose. They reveal nothing about insulin, which we will explore in this post. Knowing your numbers is an important step for anyone who wants to transform their health. Heads Up Health was designed to empower you to manage all of your health data, including your lab test results, in one secure location. You can learn more on our homepage or by clicking below to create your account and start building your own centralized health portfolio. The Fasting Insulin Test We said it last time, and it’s worth repeating: A fasting insulin test is the most important test your doctor probably isn’t ordering. The reason it’s so important to track insulin is that in many cases, fasting glucose and A1c remain normal due to chronically elevated insulin—that is, sky-high insulin is keeping the glucose “in check.” Fasting glucose and HbA1c are often the last things to rise, and they become elevated only after one of two things has happened: The pancreas can no longer pump out the inordinate amounts of insulin required to keep blood glucose within a safe range (sometimes called “beta cell burnout”). This is relatively rare, except in typ Continue reading >>

Normal Fasting Glucose With High Hba1c

Normal Fasting Glucose With High Hba1c

Jonathan's fasting glucose: 85 mg/dl Jonathan's high HbA1c reflects blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding 60-90 days and can be used to calculate an estimated average glucose (eAG) with the following equation: (For glucose in mmol/L, the equation is eAG = 1.59 × A1C - 2.59) Jonathan's HbA1c therefore equates to an eAG of 145.59 mg/dl--yet his fasting glucose value is 85 mg/dl. This is a common situation: Normal fasting glucose, high HbA1c. It comes from high postprandial glucose values, high values after meals. It suggests that, despite having normal glucose while fasting, Jonathan experiences high postprandial glucose values after many or most of his meals. After a breakfast of oatmeal, for instance, he likely has a blood glucose of 150 mg/dl or greater. After breakfast cereal, blood glucose likely exceeds 180 mg/dl. With two slices of whole wheat bread, glucose likewise likely runs 150-180 mg/dl. The best measure of all is a postprandial glucose one hour after the completion of a meal, a measure you can easily obtain yourself with a home glucose meter. Second best: fasting glucose with HbA1c. Gain control over this phenomenon and you 1) reduce fasting blood sugar, 2) reduce expression of small LDL particles, and 3) lose weight. Continue reading >>

Screening For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Screening For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Key Messages In the absence of evidence for interventions to prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, screening for type 1 diabetes is not recommended. Screening for type 2 diabetes using a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and/or glycated hemoglobin (A1C) should be performed every 3 years in individuals ≥40 years of age or in individuals at high risk using a risk calculator. Diabetes will be diagnosed if A1C is ≥6.5% (see Definition, Classification and Diagnosis chapter, p. S8). Testing with a 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) in a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) should be undertaken in individuals with an FPG of 6.1–6.9 mmol/L and/or an A1C of 6.0%–6.4% in order to identify individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes. Testing with a 2hPG in a 75 g OGTT may be undertaken in individuals with an FPG 5.6–6.0 mmol/L and/or A1C 5.5%–5.9% and ≥1 risk factor in order to identify individuals with IGT or diabetes. Highlights of Revisions Screening recommendations have been revised and strengthened to include glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels to better identify individuals with prediabetes or diabetes. Table 1 Risk factors for type 2 diabetes A1C, glycated hemoglobin; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus-1; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea. ∗ Associated with insulin resistance. † The incidence of type 2 diabetes is at least 3 times higher in people with schizophrenia than in the general population (25,26). Using data collected in 1991, the prevalence of diabetes was assessed in >20,000 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. The rate of diagnosed diabetes was 9% to 14%, exceeding rates for the general population prior to Continue reading >>

How To Calculate Your A1c

How To Calculate Your A1c

The Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or simply A1c for short) test is a blood test used to measure the average blood glucose concentration in your body in the past 1-3 months. For diabetics, this is the standard way of determining how well the diabetes is controlled. An A1c of less than 7% is considered good. Getting the test every 3 months (usually during a doctor visit) is usually enough. But sometimes you may want to just estimate your A1c level based on the data from your regular self-tests. The formula below could help in this case. Accuracy, of course, could vary depending on how often and when you check your blood sugar. I found it pretty accurate last time I used it. My calculation was off only by 0.1%. This is the same formula GlucoseTracker uses in the app's dashboard. Glucose in mg/dL: A1c = (46.7 + average_blood_glucose) / 28.7 Glucose in mmol/L: A1c = (2.59 + average_blood_glucose) / 1.59 So, for example, if your average blood glucose level in the past 3 months is 130 mg/dL (7.2 mmol/L) , your estimated A1c is 6.15%. There are also cheaper devices you can buy that will allow you to do the actual A1c tests yourself, like this one. If you need to do these tests more often, say every month, then it could save you money in the long run as lab tests could get expensive. It may not be as accurate as the lab tests, but my guess is it's probably good enough. Continue reading >>

The A1c Test And Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

The A1c Test And Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for medical advice or diagnosis from a physician. In the United States, about 1 in 10 people have diabetes, a disease that affects the way the body produces or uses insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate glucose (sugar) in the blood. When blood sugar levels get too high, health problems can develop, including kidney problems. In fact, about half of all people diagnosed with diabetes will develop kidney disease. Persistently high sugar levels can damage the small blood vessels in the body. In the kidneys, diabetes can also cause damage to the tiny filters called glomeruli that filter the blood. The result is that your kidneys may begin to leak protein into the urine, and can become unable to properly eliminate the water, salt and waste products from your body. Another complication of diabetes is nerve damage, often causing burning and numbness in the feet. However, it can sometimes also lead to trouble emptying the bladder. Pressure from a full bladder that doesn’t empty properly can further damage the kidneys. What is the A1C test? The A1C, or hemoglobin A1C test, is used to measure long-term blood glucose levels. It is typically given every three to six months to people with diabetes. This laboratory test shows the person’s average blood glucose control for the previous two to three months. It differs from the finger stick blood test that is used daily to monitor current blood sugar levels. For someone with diabetes, the goal is to have an A1C reading of less than 7.0 percent. For someone who is not diabetic, a normal A1C level is 4.0 percent to 5.9 percent. Research has shown that when A1C levels are close to normal, the risk for complications of diabetes Continue reading >>

Mango Health Blog

Mango Health Blog

When Denise Boyd won her Mango Health Makeover , she was thrilled to tackle issues that she had been facing for the last fifteen years. Read on for the finale of our makeover program with Diabetes Daily. Id be fine and then my diabetes would go totally out of control, she confessed. Id spend nights not able to sleep, stressed, and worrying What on Earth am I going to do to get this under control? Two months later, Denise has been surprised by how seemingly small changes have added up to a big impact on transforming her life: Its been much easier than I thought it would be. Feeling better and seeing lower numbers when testing are great motivators! During her doctors appointment last week, Denise was stunned by her A1c, a measure of average blood sugars over the last three months. It had dropped from over 7% to 5.9%. That means her average blood sugars dropped from 173 mg/dL to 123 mg/dL (9.6 mmol to 6.8 mmol)! The whole makeover has changed my life. Im not exaggerating, Denise said, beaming over the phone. She added that the Mango Health app has also been an essential part of her transformation. For a lot of us, fun will get us to do something we wouldnt normally do. Good health should be enough of an incentive to take your meds, but for some people, it isnt. To have the Mango Health app, which makes something unpleasant a little more fun, is an amazing thing. I would highly recommend the app to others, Denise remarks. In fact, I already have! Read on to learn Denises makeover secrets for yourself: Test to know what works and what doesnt.Denise says one of the big lessons shes learned is not to be afraid of changing up your food routine. If more people would be open to ideas that wouldnt be exactly what they want or think their body need, they would find a much larger v Continue reading >>

Could Slightly High Blood Sugar Cause Neuropathy?

Could Slightly High Blood Sugar Cause Neuropathy?

My glucose levels usually run between 120 and 135 with a nonfasting blood test, though do not have a diagnosis of diabetes. I suffer greatly with my feet and been told by a podiatrist that it is neuropathy. Is it possible that my high glucose levels are causing the neuropathy? Dear Terry, Thanks for your question. I like to think of blood glucose values as a spectrum of numbers with no clear cutoff between nondiabetic and diabetic. In similar manner there is a gray area of blood glucose that defines pre-diabetes. Many people use blood sugar and blood glucose interchangeably. The definition of diabetes has changed over time. The numbers you quote might very well be considered diagnostic of diabetes today whereas they were not 20 years ago. In 1997, the American Diabetes Association definition of normal blood glucose decreased from 120 to 110 mg/dL (6.1 mmol/L). In 2002, the American Diabetes Association defined a normal fasting blood glucose as less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L). Today we consider fasting blood sugars of 100 mg/dl to 125mg/dl to be in the realm of glucose intolerance which is sometimes called pre-diabetes. These patients are at increased risk for developing frank diabetes. Several fasting glucose levels over 125 or a single random glucose over 200 mg are considered diagnostic of diabetes. There are other tests used to make the diagnosis of pre-diabetes or diabetes. Pre-diabetes is defined as a blood sugar of 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L) two-hour after drinking 75 grams of an oral glucose solution. The diagnosis of diabetes is confirmed with a blood sugar of 200 mg/dL or greater, two hours after ingestion of the glucose solution. Hemoglobin A1C is a blood test that gives an estimate of blood sugar levels over the previous three months. Persons with Continue reading >>

Surprising Symptoms Of Prediabetes

Surprising Symptoms Of Prediabetes

One of the best ways to prevent diabetes is to spot blood sugar (glucose) problems before the full-blown disease develops. But most people don’t realize that diabetes — and its precursor, prediabetes — can cause no symptoms at all or a wide range of symptoms that often are misinterpreted. Common mistake: Because diabetes is strongly linked to excess body weight, many people who are a normal weight assume that they won’t develop the disease. But that’s not always true. About 15% of people who are diagnosed with diabetes are not overweight. And paradoxically, even weight loss can be a symptom of this complex disorder in people (normal weight or overweight) who have uncontrolled high glucose levels. Shocking new finding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now estimates that 40% of Americans ages 40 to 74 have prediabetes, and nearly two out of three Americans over age 65 have prediabetes or diabetes — most likely due to the increasing numbers of people who are overweight and inactive, both of which boost diabetes risk. However, most primary care doctors aren’t diagnosing and treating prediabetes early enough in their patients — often because they fail to order the necessary screening tests. And because the symptoms of prediabetes can be subtle, especially in its early stages, most people are not reporting potential red flags to their doctors. Fortunately, prediabetes can virtually always be prevented from progressing to diabetes if the condition is identified and treated in its early stages (by following a healthful diet, exercising regularly and taking nutritional supplements and medications, if necessary). Being overweight (defined as having a body mass index, or BMI, of 25 or higher) is perhaps the best-known risk factor for diabetes.* The mo Continue reading >>

Your Most Important Blood Test

Your Most Important Blood Test

This week, the British Journal of Cancer published an incredibly important report that found a strong relationship between a simple blood test and the risk for various forms of cancer. The study found that the common blood test used by diabetics to measure their average blood sugar, A1c, was strongly predictive in terms of cancer development. For those of you who are not diabetic, you may not be familiar with this simple test that has profound health implications well beyond diabetes. Basically, the A1c test measures the amount of glycation that the protein hemoglobin has undergone. Glycation simply means that sugar has become bonded to a protein, in this case hemoglobin, and this is a relatively slow process. Hence, it’s a way to get a sense as to how high the blood sugar has been, in this case over a 3-4 month period of time, and this is why it’s so helpful for diabetics. But with this new report, we now understand that having elevated A1c translates to risk for cancer, and as I’ve explained in Grain Brain, it is also a powerful indicator of risk for developing dementia. If you look at the chart on page 117 of the book, reproduced below, you’ll note that A1c is also directly related to the rate at which the brain shrinks on an annual basis. Think of it, this one simple blood test can give you incredibly important information about cancer risk, risk for dementia, and even risk for shrinkage of your brain! Most commonly people are told that having an A1c of 5.6 – 5.8 should be considered normal, but when you look at the graph above, these levels already put you in the second highest category for brain shrinkage! I believe that, based on this information, we should strive to keep our A1c at 5.2 or even lower. The way to accomplish this is simply by reducing you Continue reading >>

Is Your Brain Shrinking?: What You Need To Know

Is Your Brain Shrinking?: What You Need To Know

Many of you reading this short article already know that hemoglobin A1C is extremely useful revealing what the "average" blood sugar has been over the previous ninety days. This is the same standard laboratory measurement used to measure blood sugar control in diabetics. What many people may not be aware of is the fact that hemoglobin A1C has important implications for your brain health. In a landmark study published in the journal Neurology, the researchers documented that elevated hemoglobin A1C is associated with changes in brain size. The study showed researchers looking at MRIs to determine which lab test correlated best with brain atrophy and found that the hemoglobin A1C demonstrated the most powerful relationship. They commented, “when comparing the degree of brain tissue loss in those individuals with the lowest hemoglobin A1C (4.4 to 5.2) to those having the highest hemoglobin A1C (5.9 to 9.0), the brain loss in those individuals with the highest hemoglobin A1C was almost doubled during a six-year period. This profound study strongly indicates that hemoglobin A1C is far more than just a marker of blood sugar balance. The good news is in most cases you have absolute control over your A1C. An ideal hemoglobin A1C would be in the 4.8 to 5.4 range. Keep in mind that reducing carbohydrate ingestion, weight loss, and physical exercise will ultimately improve insulin sensitivity and lead to a reduction of hemoglobin A1C. Reference: C. Enzinger, et al., "Risk Factors for Progression of Brain Atrophy in Aging: Six-year Follow-up of Normal Subjects," Neurology 64, no. 10 (May 24, 2005): 1704-11. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is int Continue reading >>

A1c Test Identifies Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes In Pregnant Women

A1c Test Identifies Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes In Pregnant Women

For many moms-to-be with type 2 diabetes, failure to get a proper diagnosis on time results in unhealthy pregnancies and unhealthy babies. The good news is that a study published by the American Diabetes Association (Diabetes Care, 2014) demonstrates that a simple blood test known as the hemoglobin A1c (sugar-bound hemoglobin, or HbA1c) can uncover hidden type 2 diabetes in expecting mothers. The study found that the A1c test can accurately detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in pregnant women. “The problem is that we did not know reliable ways to screen for pre-existing diabetes early in pregnancy,” says Florence Brown, M.D., Co-director of the Joslin-Beth Israel Deaconess Diabetes in Pregnancy Program. “The hemoglobin A1c done early in pregnancy may be a convenient and effective way to identify women with pre-existing type 2 diabetes or who are at greater risk of worse pregnancy outcomes.” In this study, researchers examined the use of an A1c measurement done during the first trimester as a screening tool for pre-existing diabetes. The test was performed on more than 16,000 pregnant women and compared with the results of a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), which is performed after an overnight fast, and is the gold standard diagnostic test for type 2 diabetes. The A1c test measures the average blood sugar levels over a longer period of time, showing whether your blood sugar is staying under control for up to three months. Considered the standard diagnostic method, the American Diabetes Association uses the A1c target of 6.5 percent for diagnosing type 2 diabetes in those who are not pregnant. An A1c between 5.7 and 6.4 is considered pre-diabetic. The study found that the hemoglobin A1c test was able to identify all the women with pre-existing type 2 di Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Chart

Blood Sugar Level Chart

A blood sugar level chart can help you understand the levels of healthy blood sugar. Some of the tests listed below must be prescribed and administered by a doctor or medical clinic, but you can also use these charts along with a glucometer (a tool to test blood sugar at home) to decide which foods cause blood sugar spikes, and which to avoid to maintain low levels of blood sugar and hence, good health. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com Fasting Blood Sugar Test Fasting blood sugar is a measurement of your blood sugar after not eating for 8-12 hours. This test is normally included with a CBC (complete blood chemistry) blood test. A CBC is a test often ordered by doctors when doing a complete health evaluation. Fasting blood sugars are evaluated as follows: Fasting blood sugars after 8-12 without food: Normal blood sugar range: between 60- 100 mg/dL Pre -Diabetic range: between 101- 126 mg /dL Diabetic range: more than 126 mg/dL on two different blood test occasions Oral Glucose Tolerance Test An oral glucose tolerance test is used to test the body’s ability to metabolize a specific amount of glucose, clear it from the blood stream and return blood sugar levels to normal. The patient is asked to eat normally for several days before the test. No food should be taken for 8-10 hours before the test, and there is no eating during the test. To begin the test, a fasting blood sugar is taken. Then the patient drinks a sweet liquid which contains approximately 75 grams of sugar in the form of glucose. The drink must be finished in 5 minutes. After sitting quietly for one to two hours, the patient’s blood sugar is re-tested and evaluated as follows on this blood s Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Print The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that blood glucose screening for adults begin at age 45, or sooner if you are overweight and have additional risk factors for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. There are several blood tests for prediabetes. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test This test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. In general: An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal An A1C level between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates type 2 diabetes Certain conditions can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you are pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant). Fasting blood sugar test A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. In general: A fasting blood sugar level below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 5.6 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — is considered normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. This result is sometimes called impaired fasting glucose. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test This test is usually used to diagnose diabetes only during pregnancy. A blood sample is taken after you fast for at least eight hours or overnight. Then you'll drink a sugary solution, and your blood sugar level will be measured again after two hours. In general: A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmo Continue reading >>

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

i was recently tested for Hemoglobin A1c because i presented to an endocrinologist with extremely low blood glucose on lab test and some scary symptoms, not the ordinary hypoglycemia symptoms. My A1c was 4.7 which registered as low (L) on the lab print out–it was only slightly low. Does a low score on this suggest a possibility of short-lived RBCs? Does it have any relationship with extremely low blood glucose? my result at the lab, fasting, was 32mg/dL. Not long after that i got a home glucometer and i get the same kind of results on that as the lab got, in the 20s and 30s first thing in the morning, every day. did not know i had hypoglycemia until i had that lab test, though i had had one episode where i woke up with ataxia, i fell while walking to the bathroom first thing in the morning, i got up and immediately fell again. I soon found that i had very impaired coordination. i did not know why and i was very worried. Eventually i wanted to have breakfast but had great difficulty holding the measuring cup under the faucet, to get some water to heat, to make instant oatmeal, i lacked the coordination to get the water into the cup. I persisted and did make the instant oatmeal (pour hot water onto flakes and it’s done), and i got my lap top and was eating the oatmeal and i suddenly was aware that the symptoms were going away. Previously i had been unable to type. While eating the small amount of oatmeal, i realized i could type. That was about a month before the lab test. Since it only happened that once, i put it out of my mind. About 5 days after the lab test, i had the second episode, worse than the first, i woke falling out of bed to the floor, couldn’t use my arm to break the fall, i didn’t have the coordination. i sat on the floor, i could not get up and wa Continue reading >>

One-third Of Slim American Adults Have Pre-diabetes

One-third Of Slim American Adults Have Pre-diabetes

Among normal-weight individuals, those who were inactive were more likely to have an A1C level of 5.7 or higher, which is considered to be pre-diabetic Among all the normal-weight inactive participants (aged 20 and over), about one-quarter were either pre-diabetic or diabetic When only those inactive people aged 40 and over were analyzed, the percentage rose to 40 percent Inactivity increases your risk of pre-diabetes even if you’re not overweight or obese By Dr. Mercola It's often assumed that in order to develop type 2 diabetes, you have to be overweight. While it's true that excess weight is clearly associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, it's the insulin resistance — not necessarily the weight gain — that drives the disease. As such, many people with a healthy weight are not metabolically healthy, putting them at risk of diseases like type 2 diabetes — even without being overweight or obese. One of the greatest risk factors, according to University of Florida researchers, is actually inactivity, which drives up your risk of pre-diabetes regardless of your weight. Inactivity Is Associated With Pre-Diabetes, Even if You're a Healthy Weight If you were looking for motivation to get moving, this study, published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, is as good as it gets.1 In a survey of more than 1,100 healthy-weight individuals, those who were inactive (physically active for less than 30 minutes per week) were more likely to have an A1C level of 5.7 or higher, which is considered to be pre-diabetic. Among all the inactive participants (aged 20 and over), about one-quarter were either pre-diabetic or diabetic. When only those inactive people aged 40 and over were analyzed, the percentage rose to 40 percent. The researchers suggested that peop Continue reading >>

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