What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?
Anyone with diabetes will be familiar with finger-prick testing for monitoring blood glucose to see how well they are managing their disease. This kind of regular testing is essential for most people with diabetes, but what role does an occasional hemoglobin A1C blood test play in controlling blood sugars, and how does it work? Contents of this article: What is the A1C test? The abbreviation A1C is used in the US (sometimes with a lower-case 'c' - A1c) and is short for glycated hemoglobin (sometimes called 'glycosylated' hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin). The other abbreviations in use are: HbA1c (widely used internationally) HbA1c Hb1c HgbA1C. The A1C test is a blood test used to measure the average level of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This test is used to check how well blood sugar levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes and can also be used in the diagnosis of diabetes.1 Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells which is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body. When blood glucose levels are elevated, some of the glucose binds to hemoglobin and, as red blood cells typically have a lifespan of 120 days, A1C (glycated hemoglobin) is a useful test because it offers an indication of longer term blood glucose levels.2 The particular type of hemoglobin that glucose attaches to is hemoglobin A, and the combined result is call glycated hemoglobin. As blood glucose levels rise, more glycated hemoglobin forms, and it persists for the lifespan of red blood cells, about four months.2 Therefore, the A1C level directly correlates to the average blood glucose level over the previous 8-12 weeks; A1C is a reliable test that has been refined and standardized using clinical trial data.3 There are two key things to know about the appl Continue reading >>
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Ultimate Guide To The A1c Test: Everything You Need To Know
The A1C is a blood test that gives us an estimated average of what your blood sugar has been over the past 2-3 months. The A1c goes by several different names, such aswa Hemoglobin A1C, HbA1C, Hb1C, A1C, glycated hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin and estimated glucose average. What is Hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is a protein in your blood cells that carries oxygen. When sugar is in the blood, and it hangs around for a while, it starts to attach to the red blood cells. The A1C test is a measurement of how many red blood cells have sugar attached. So, if your A1C result is 7%, that means that 7% of your red blood cells have sugar attached to them. What are the Symptoms of a High A1C Test Level? Sometimes there are NO symptoms! That is probably one of the scariest things about diabetes, your sugar can be high for a while and you may not even know it. When your blood sugar goes high and stays high for longer periods of time you may notice the following: tired, low energy, particularly after meals feel very thirsty you may be peeing more than normal, waking a lot in the middle of the night to go dry, itchy skin unexplained weight loss crave sugar, hungrier than normal blurred vision, may feel like you need new glasses tingling in feet or hands cuts or sores take a long time to heal or don’t heal well at all frequent infections (urinary tract, yeast infections, etc.) When your blood sugar is high, this means the energy that you are giving your body isn’t getting into the cells. Think about a car that has a gas leak. You put gas in, but if the gas can’t get to the engine, the car will not go. When you eat, some of the food is broken down into sugar and goes into your bloodstream. If your body can’t get the sugar to the cells, then your body can’t “go.” Some of the sugar tha Continue reading >>
What Is Highest A1c Test Can Someone Get?
What is highest A1C test can someone get? Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,join our community todayto contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. What is highest A1C test can someone get? I got some bad news about my A1C test and my A1C is 11 which I know is bad but wondering how high can someone go on a A1C test? I think the highest I've ever read about was around 25%. Those kind of readings are taken at the ER. My A1c, in the ER, was 15.3% and it wasn't like I didn't feel it coming. Problem was...I had no idea I had diabetes nor what the symptoms were. I just thought that was what you felt like when you got old. Oh, and your 11? Um, we're not gonna tolerate that kind of a number here...you're gonna have to bring that number down. :T When DX'd mine was 13.8 and have seen some say they had 14.5. What have your meals been like...what do you normally eat? How often do you test yourself? What medication do you use to help control your BG's? I turned 50 and feel like my diabetes is much worse now. Now I can eat anything and feel my BS go up or down which in past I felt nothing. I wonder if my pancreas is starting to fail? I'm on insulin. I drink alot of water and did drink diet pop but have quit it. Hey Bountyman - we're twins! Mine was 15.3 too. Had a lovely hospital stay and emerged with a T1 diagnosis. Rob - perhaps you're in need of some insulin. Please check with your doctor. If you're taking your meds and getting different results, you need to change something. Using insulin is not a sign of failure on your part. It's just a hormone that your body may not be producing in sufficient quantities. It might make you feel much better. Don't wait to see how high your A1C can get, as a bout with DKA Continue reading >>
A1c Level And Future Risk Of Diabetes: A Systematic Review
Go to: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data sources We developed a systematic review protocol using the Cochrane Collaboration's methods (9). We formulated search strategies using an iterative process that involved medical subject headings and key search terms including hemoglobin A, glycated, predictive value of tests, prospective studies, and related terms (available from the authors on request). We searched the following databases between database establishment and August 2009: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science (WOS), and The Cochrane Library. Systematic searches were performed for relevant reviews of A1C as a predictor of incident diabetes. Reference lists of all the included studies and relevant reviews were examined for additional citations. We attempted to contact authors of original studies if their data were unclear or missing. Study selection and data abstraction We searched for published, English language, prospective cohort studies that used A1C to predict the progression to diabetes among those aged ≥18 years. We included studies with any design that measured A1C—whether using a cutoff point or categories—and incident diabetes. Titles and abstracts were screened for studies that potentially met inclusion criteria, and relevant full text articles were retrieved. X.Z. and W.T. reviewed each article for inclusion and abstracted, reviewed, and verified the data using a standardized abstraction template. If A1C measurement was standardized by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) and both standardized and unstandardized A1C values were reported, standardized values were used in the analyses. A sensitivity analysis, however, was conducted using both standardized and unsta Continue reading >>
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What Is A Good Score On The A1c Diabetes Test?
Normal A1C level can range from 4.5 to 6 percent. Someone who's had uncontrolled diabetes for a long time can have an A1C level above 9 percent. A1C test is used to diagnose diabetes, an A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate dates indicates diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which is high risk of developing diabetes. For most people who have previously diagnosed diabetes, an A1C level of 7 percent or less is a common treatment target. Higher targets may be chosen in some individuals. If your A1C level is above your target, your doctor may recommend a change in your diabetes treatment plan. Remember, the higher your A1C level, the higher your risk of diabetes complications. A good score on the A1C test depends on whether you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes. For those who do not have diabetes, a score of less than 5.7% is considered normal, while 5.7% to 6.4% indicates prediabetes and 6.5% or higher means you have diabetes. If you already have diabetes, a score of 7% or lower is desired. You and your doctor can decide what score is best for you. The A1C diabetes test is a way to get an average of how well your blood sugar has been controlled for the past three months. The standard A1C goal for most people with diabetes is less than 7%. However, the goal may be individualized or may be different for some people, especially older adults, people with heart disease or those who are prone to frequent low blood glucose. It's a good idea to find out what your A1C goal should be from your healthcare provider and then use that as a benchmark for your A1C results. No one quite agrees on where your A1C score should be, but we all agree on where it shouldn’t be. The scale does not look anything like the BGL numbers you are used Continue reading >>
Diabetes Simplified: A1c Testing
By Wil Dubois “Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who’s the best-controlled of all?” —what the Wicked Queen would have asked if she’d had diabetes instead of vanity issues If you’ve had diabetes for any time at all, you’ve probably heard of the A1C test. Sometimes, it’s also called the HbA1c test, the Hemoglobin A1c test, or the glycated hemoglobin test. They’re all the same thing. This is a lab test that allows your doctor, by consulting with a magic mirror, to determine how well your diabetes has been controlled, night and day, for the last three months. If that’s not black magic, I don’t know what is. Of course, as sci-fi writer Arthur C. Clarke famously said, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” The A1C has become the widely accepted benchmark for diabetes control. It’s used to classify who is in control and who is not, and to quantify the risk levels of those not in-target. The higher the A1C, the greater the risk of complications. The A1C is now also used diagnostically, with A1C scores actually used to diagnose new-onset diabetes. The A1C Test: How Does It Work? Well, like I said, it’s magic: in this case, the magic of biochemistry. The test measures the average blood sugar level for the past three months. It can do this because glucose sticks to red blood cells, just like powdered sugar sticks to freshly-fried doughnut holes. The result of the test is expressed as a percentage: 6.2 percent…7.8 percent…8.3 percent…9.6 percent…12.4 percent…and so on. Most A1C scores are only expressed in tenths of a percent, but some labs report twentieths, as well, so you might see an A1C of 6.79 percent or 8.32 percent. Wait a sec. A percentage of what, exactly? The percentage of hemoglobin in the sample of red Continue reading >>
Why Shouldnt A Patient With An A1c > 9 Take Pramlintide (symlin)? - Quora
Why shouldnt a patient with an A1C > 9 take pramlintide (Symlin)? Answered May 11, 2017 Author has 464 answers and 683.2k answer views This seems to me because it is not expected to cause enough of a reduction in blood glucose levels, by itself. The question is implying there is a negative side effect to be expected. It is not so. In fact, the mechanism of action will be ok whether or not the glucose is high or low. The incretin effect caused by amlyn release, as well as synthetic analogues, is a combination of physiologic actions to suppress blood glucose. When meals are eaten, insulin is released in an augmented amount. Likewise glucagon production is inhibited so body stores of glucose are saved. The effect is not any different with high blood sugars. But, when starting over 9%, there are other medications, besides Symlin alone, that one should expect to use to reach an A1c <7, a typical goal for type 2 diabetics. The most to expect from Symlin is 1.5-2% reduction in A1c, and that is overly optimistic. Generally, metformin is the initial drug in type 2 diabetes, with insulin injections, of course, in type 1. Later other drugs can be added, including Symlin and newer GLP-1 receptor agonists. Similarly, DPP4 inhibitors can be started. These types of drugs come in once/week formulations in the US, and other markets. Obviously, pramlinitide was the first. You never see it prescribed here since Byetta/Bydureon, Victoza and me-too drugs showed up. I've heard it may be useful for weight loss as an appetite suppressant. 300 Views View Upvoters Not for Reproduction Continue reading >>
In Search Of: The Highest Diabetes A1c In History
My most recent A1C was nothing to be proud of, but I consoled myself with the thought that it was hardly the worst in history. That got me wondering: What was the all-time worst A1C? Who holds this dubious record, and how high is it possible to go? I decided to pound the pavement and try to find out. So where to start when looking for a diabetes record? Well, with the Guinness Book of World Records, of course. But oddly, the Guinness people don’t seem to have any listings related to A1Cs. They do, however, report that Michael Patrick Buonocore survived a blood sugar of 2,656 mg/dL upon admittance to the ER in East Stroudsburg, PA, on March 23, 2008. Michael was a T1 kiddo at the time, and that record-high sugar level was part of his diagnosis experience. So does Michael also hold the record for top A1C? No. Because while he’s living (thankfully) proof that stratospheric blood sugar levels are possible, a sky-scraping A1C requires both altitude and time. Remember that A1Cs provide a three-month average of our blood sugars. Individual high BG readings, even crazy-high ones, don’t alter the test as much as you’d think if they last only a short time. Because type 1 in kids Michael's age hit so quickly, I figured his A1C would have been rather middle of the road. It takes a slow burn to make an A1C boil. But just to be sure, I reached out to his parents, who tell me his A1C was 11.9 at diagnosis. Higher than I expected, but not too high given the four-digit BG reading. (If his 2,656 had been his average blood sugar for three months, his A1C would have been roughly 95! Yes, that’s 95.0, not 9.5). The highest A1C turns out to be a tricky piece of data to ferret out. If you try Google, you find a gazillion people talking about their own personal highest A1Cs, and comp Continue reading >>
What Is A1c?
Q: The doctor told my mother she has diabetes and her blood glucose is out of control. He said her A1C was 9. What does that mean? A: Glycosylated hemoglobin, often referred to as HbA1c or simply A1C, is the measure of a person's average blood glucose level (all the ups and downs) over the last two to three months. The purpose of the A1C test is to give you a sense of your blood glucose control. It is reported as a percent. The American Diabetes Association recommends that most people get their A1C down to 7 percent or less. Other diabetes organizations, such as the International Diabetes Federation, suggest 6.5 percent. If your mother's A1C level is 9 percent, this means her blood glucose level, on average, is about 210 mg/dl. This result is high and unhealthy. She should take some action to improve her blood glucose control, such as eating more healthfully, being more active, and changing or adding to her blood-glucose-lowering medications. To find out which course of action is right for her, encourage her to discuss this with her diabetes care providers. Thanks for asking. Knowledge is power! Jeannette Jordan, M.S., R.D., CDE, is the American Dietetic Association's national spokesperson for African-American nutrition issues and oversees nutrition education at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. Continue reading >>
Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c)
Hemoglobin A1c, often abbreviated HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin (a blood pigment that carries oxygen) that is bound to glucose. The blood test for HbA1c level is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood HbA1c levels are reflective of how well diabetes is controlled. The normal range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than 6%. HbA1c also is known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin. HbA1c levels are reflective of blood glucose levels over the past six to eight weeks and do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. High HbA1c levels indicate poorer control of diabetes than levels in the normal range. HbA1c is typically measured to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan (including medications, exercise, or dietary changes) is working. How Is Hemoglobin A1c Measured? The test for hemoglobin A1c depends on the chemical (electrical) charge on the molecule of HbA1c, which differs from the charges on the other components of hemoglobin. The molecule of HbA1c also differs in size from the other components. HbA1c may be separated by charge and size from the other hemoglobin A components in blood by a procedure called high pressure (or performance) liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC separates mixtures (for example, blood) into its various components by adding the mixtures to special liquids and passing them under pressure through columns filled with a material that separates the mixture into its different component molecules. HbA1c testing is done on a blood sample. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations, for example, due to meals, blood can be drawn for HbA1c testing without regard to when food was eaten. Fasting for the blood test is not necessary. What Are Continue reading >>
5 Ways To Lower Your A1c
For some, home blood sugar testing can be an important and useful tool for managing your blood sugar on a day-to-day basis. Still, it only provides a snapshot of what’s happening in the moment, not long-term information, says Gregory Dodell, MD, assistant clinical professor of medicine, endocrinology, diabetes, and bone disease at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. For this reason, your doctor may occasionally administer a blood test that measures your average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. Called the A1C test, or the hemoglobin A1C test, this provides a more accurate picture of how well your type 2 diabetes management plan is working. Taking the A1C Test If your diabetes is well controlled and your blood sugar levels have remained stable, the American Diabetes Association recommends that you have the A1C test two times each year. This simple blood draw can be done in your doctor's office. Some doctors can use a point-of-care A1C test, where a finger stick can be done in the office, with results available in about 10 minutes. The A1C test results provide insight into how your treatment plan is working, and how it might be modified to better control the condition. Your doctor may want to run the test as often as every three months if your A1C is not within your target range. What the A1C Results Mean The A1C test measures the glucose (blood sugar) in your blood by assessing the amount of what’s called glycated hemoglobin. “Hemoglobin is a protein within red blood cells. As glucose enters the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, or glycates. The more glucose that enters the bloodstream, the higher the amount of glycated hemoglobin,” Dr. Dodell says. An A1C level below 5.7 percent is considered normal. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 perce Continue reading >>
A1c Of 5.9: What Exactly Does This Mean For Diabetes?
Change your body composition if youre already thin. SAD stands for the standard American diet. Its bad for the body, and many people think theyre eating healthy when, in fact, nothing could be further from the truth. Its simple: Avoid processed foods, limit beef products and focus on fresh fruits, vegetables and whole complex carbs like quinoa, barley, brown rice and boiled potatoes, plus wild caught fish. If you must eat meat, get it fresh from the butcher and buy only grass-fed or organic. Does that sound too strict? Well, its a godsend compared to having to stab your finger multiple times a day as a diabetic to make sure your blood sugar isnt dangerously high or low, and having to worry about complications from diabetes like amputations, kidney damage and blindness. Cant lose weight despite trying everything? Look at the list below. Which tactics have you tried? Weightlifting program focusing on big compound moves like squats, the deadlift, leg press, seated row, bench press, standing overhead press and farmers walk. These multi-joint exercises burn more fat than ones that isolate muscles like biceps curls and machine triceps extensions. Lifting intensely and heavy enough to get hot, sweaty and winded. This will burn up the fat. High intensity interval training or its less strenuous counterpart, interval training. An example is pedaling as fast and hard as you can for 30 seconds to the point of breathlessness, alternating with a few minutes of easy pedaling. More fat-burning. Holding onto the treadmill. This saboteur will prevent weight loss. Skipping workouts because you think housework replaces them. Another saboteur. Building lean muscle will shrink your size and increase the number of insulin receptor sites on your muscle cells, thereby improving insulin sensiti Continue reading >>
What Does Your A1c Number Really Mean?
We dFolk are bombarded with numbers, goals, and targets. We’re frequently told where we should be, but not how high our risk is when we can’t reach our targets. Here, we break down A1C numbers into a simple green-light, yellow-light, red-light format, to give you perspective on when (and how much) to worry, when to relax, when to call your doc, and when to call 911. Green-light A1C score For most people, the target for A1C, the green light, is between 6.0% and 6.9%. These numbers are commonly expressed simply as 6.0 and 6.9, without the % sign. If your A1C falls into this zone, you’re considered to be in control. For perspective, these numbers can be converted into “meter” numbers called estimated average glucose—eAG for short. The green light eAG range is 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/l) to 151 mg/dL (8.39 mmol/l). But what if your numbers are higher than target? Or lower than target? When are you actually in danger? Yellow-light A1C score If the light turns yellow as you approach the intersection, you need to either speed up or stop. Whichever is safe under the circumstances, right? If your A1C is between 7.0 and 8.9, you’ll be classified as “out of control.” But how much danger are you in? Frankly, it depends upon how close you are to either end of the spectrum. Yellow-light A1Cs are higher than is strictly healthy, but pose no immediate harm. However, the higher you are in this range, the closer you are to a red light. We’ll talk about just how serious that can be in a minute. I should point out that there are some special cases. If you’re a very young type 1, a yellow-light A1C score may be considered in-target for you until you get older. Similarly, if you’re an elderly type 2, or have a history of severe hypoglycemia, you doctor may choose to “green Continue reading >>
Print Overview The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c. The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications. Why it's done An international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation, recommend that the A1C test be the primary test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. After a diabetes diagnosis, the A1C test is used to monitor your diabetes treatment plan. Since the A1C test measures your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months instead of your blood sugar level at a specific point in time, it is a better reflection of how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. Your doctor will likely use the A1C test when you're first diagnosed with diabetes. This also helps establish a baseline A1C level. The test may then need to be repeated while you're learning to control your blood sugar. Later, how often you need the A1C test depends on the type of diabetes you have, your treatment plan and how well you're managing your blood sugar. For example, the A1C test may be recommended: Once every year if you have prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes Twice a year if Continue reading >>
Average blood glucose and the A1C test Your A1C test result (also known as HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin) can be a good general gauge of your diabetes control, because it provides an average blood glucose level over the past few months. Unlike daily blood glucose test results, which are reported as mg/dL, A1C is reported as a percentage. This can make it difficult to understand the relationship between the two. For example, if you check blood glucose 100 times in a month, and your average result is 190 mg/dL this would lead to an A1C of approximately 8.2%, which is above the target of 7% or lower recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for many adults who are not pregnant. For some people, a tighter goal of 6.5% may be appropriate, and for others, a less stringent goal such as 8% may be better.1 Talk to your doctor about the right goal for you. GET YOURS FREE The calculation below is provided to illustrate the relationship between A1C and average blood glucose levels. This calculation is not meant to replace an actual lab A1C result, but to help you better understand the relationship between your test results and your A1C. Use this information to become more familiar with the relationship between average blood glucose levels and A1C—never as a basis for changing your disease management. See how average daily blood sugar may correlate to A1C levels.2 Enter your average blood sugar reading and click Calculate. *Please discuss this additional information with your healthcare provider to gain a better understanding of your overall diabetes management plan. The calculation should not be used to make therapy decisions or changes. What is A1C? Performed by your doctor during your regular visits, your A1C test measures your average blood sugar levels by taking a Continue reading >>