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Insulin Target Tissue

The Increasing Protein Level Of Pten In Insulin Target Tissue Of Kkay Diabetic Mice And The Changes After Treatment Of Rosiglitazone And Metformin

The Increasing Protein Level Of Pten In Insulin Target Tissue Of Kkay Diabetic Mice And The Changes After Treatment Of Rosiglitazone And Metformin

The Increasing Protein Level of PTEN in Insulin Target Tissue of KKAy Diabetic Mice and the Changes after Treatment of Rosiglitazone and Metformin PTEN , is a potent negative re PTEN , is a potent negative regulator of the PI3K-Akt pathway. Until now there was little report of the expression of PTEN in insulin target tissue when insulin resistance increased. The purpose of this study is to detect protein level of PTEN and insulin-stimulated phosphoserine 473-Akt in live, muscle and adipose tissue of KKAy diabetic mice and the changes of these proteins after treatment of rosiglitazone and metformin,in order to investigate the roles of PTEN and PI3K-Akt pathway in the mechanism of insulin resistance. Study group was divided into basic diet C57BL/6J mice group , high fat diet C57BL/6J mice group, KKAy diabetic mcie group, KKAy diabetic mice randomly assigned to rosiglitazone treating group and metformin-treating group. Untreating KKAy diabetic mice were killed afte diabetes were diagnoised. Two treating KKAy diabetic mice were be given rosiglitazone and metformin for 4 week. After the mice were killed, take live, muscle and fat tissue to detect the PTEN and phosphoserine 473-AKT protein expression in live, muscle and adipose tissue by Western bolts. The results show insulin-induced phosphoserine 473-Akt were significantly decreased in liver, muscle and adipose tissue of KKAy diabetic mice. High fat diet dont impact the insulin-induced phosphoserine 473-Akt in C57BL/6J mice. Insulin-induced phosphoserine 473-AKT in live, muscle and fat tissue of rosiglitazone and metformin treated KKAy mice were not changed compared with those in KKAy diabetic mice. PTEN protein level was significantly elevated in live, muscle and fat tissue of KKAy diabetic mice and in muscle tissue of C5 Continue reading >>

Human Physiology/the Endocrine System

Human Physiology/the Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a control system of ductless glands that secrete hormones within specific organs. Hormones act as "messengers," and are carried by the bloodstream to different cells in the body, which interpret these messages and act on them. It seems like a far fetched idea that a small chemical can enter the bloodstream and cause an action at a distant location in the body. Yet this occurs in our bodies everyday of our lives. The ability to maintain homeostasis and respond to stimuli is largely due to hormones secreted within the body. Without hormones, you could not grow, maintain a constant temperature, produce offspring, or perform the basic actions and functions that are essential for life. The endocrine system provides an electrochemical connection from the hypothalamus of the brain to all the organs that control the body metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction. There are two types of hormones secreted in the endocrine system: Steroidal (or lipid based) and non-steroidal, (or protein based) hormones. The endocrine system regulates its hormones through negative feedback, except in very specific cases like childbirth. Increases in hormone activity decrease the production of that hormone. The immune system and other factors contribute as control factors also, altogether maintaining constant levels of hormones. Exocrine Glands are those which release their cellular secretions through a duct which empties to the outside or into the lumen (empty internal space) of an organ. These include certain sweat glands, salivary and pancreatic glands, and mammary glands. They are not considered a part of the endocrine system. Endocrine Glands are those glands which have no duct and release their secretions directly into the intercellular fluid or into the blo Continue reading >>

Insulin

Insulin

Insulin is a hormone, that means it is a chemical secreted into the blood by an endocrine organ and carried around the body to a target organ. Insulin helps to control the amount of glucose dissolved in the blood. Insulin prevents the blood sugar level from rising too high. It is also necessary to have insulin in your blood for respiration to take place. Without insulin cells can only get energy from fat and this causes serious problems. The control of blood sugar level is a homeostatic mechanism. How Insulin Works: Insulin is secreted by the Islets of Langerhans which are special groups of cells in the pancreas. The Islets (little islands) are endocrine organs. If you have a large carbohydrate meal, the level of glucose in the blood will start to rise as your digestive system turns all the starch and sugars in your food into glucose. If you have not had a meal for several hours your blood sugar level will fall because your cells use up the glucose in aerobic respiration. When your blood sugar level rises, the Islets of Langerhans secrete MORE insulin. When your blood sugar level falls, the Islets of Langerhans secrete LESS insulin. The main target organ for insulin is the liver. It is the liver which removes glucose from the blood by turning it into glycogen. All other tissues in your body need insulin to help then respire glucose, so in a way they are also target organs. If you eat, and eat, and eat, and eat, never mind how little exercise; there will come a time when there is no more room for glycogen in your liver. High levels of insulin will make you start to turn the excess glucose into FAT. Please balance your diet!!!!! When you fast for more than two days, your liver will run out of glycogen, so you will have to use fat and protein to get energy. When your blood Continue reading >>

Physiologic Effects Of Insulin

Physiologic Effects Of Insulin

Stand on a streetcorner and ask people if they know what insulin is, and many will reply, "Doesn't it have something to do with blood sugar?" Indeed, that is correct, but such a response is a bit like saying "Mozart? Wasn't he some kind of a musician?" Insulin is a key player in the control of intermediary metabolism, and the big picture is that it organizes the use of fuels for either storage or oxidation. Through these activities, insulin has profound effects on both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and significant influences on protein and mineral metabolism. Consequently, derangements in insulin signalling have widespread and devastating effects on many organs and tissues. The Insulin Receptor and Mechanism of Action Like the receptors for other protein hormones, the receptor for insulin is embedded in the plasma membrane. The insulin receptor is composed of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits linked by disulfide bonds. The alpha chains are entirely extracellular and house insulin binding domains, while the linked beta chains penetrate through the plasma membrane. The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase. In other words, it functions as an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to tyrosine residues on intracellular target proteins. Binding of insulin to the alpha subunits causes the beta subunits to phosphorylate themselves (autophosphorylation), thus activating the catalytic activity of the receptor. The activated receptor then phosphorylates a number of intracellular proteins, which in turn alters their activity, thereby generating a biological response. Several intracellular proteins have been identified as phosphorylation substrates for the insulin receptor, the best-studied of which is insulin receptor substrate 1 or IRS-1. When IRS-1 is activa Continue reading >>

Sulfonylurea Effects On Target Tissues For Insulin.

Sulfonylurea Effects On Target Tissues For Insulin.

Diabetes Care. 1984 May-Jun;7 Suppl 1:42-6. Sulfonylurea effects on target tissues for insulin. McCaleb ML , Maloff BL , Nowak SM , Lockwood DH . We have examined the nonpancreatic actions of sulfonylureas on multiple aspects of insulin responsiveness in two target tissues for insulin, liver and fat. In vivo administration of tolazamide and glipizide reduced significantly the postabsorptive serum glucose levels in rats without altering the levels of insulin. This was consistent with extrapancreatic sites of drug action. The number and affinity of hepatic insulin receptors was not different from those of control rats. Using a tissue culture system for rat adipose tissue, a 20-h treatment with sulfonylureas markedly potentiated insulin action in fat cells. The primary augmentation was at the level of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Again, there was no alteration of the insulin receptors located on the adipose tissue. Furthermore, consistent with the lack of an influence on insulin-induced receptor loss after in vitro treatment with sulfonylureas, the in vivo administration of these agents did not alter the transglutaminase activity in rat hepatic tissue. The data demonstrate that sulfonylureas potentiate the responsiveness of the target tissues for insulin. Thus, these hypoglycemic agents probably act by correcting some of the cellular lesions associated with the insulin resistance in type II diabetes mellitus. Continue reading >>

Tissue Specificity On Insulin Action And Resistance: Past To Recent Mechanisms.

Tissue Specificity On Insulin Action And Resistance: Past To Recent Mechanisms.

Tissue specificity on insulin action and resistance: past to recent mechanisms. Departamento de Bioqumica y Biologa Molecular II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. [email protected] Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Mar;201(3):297-312. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02201.x. Insulin resistance is the most important pathophysiological feature in many pre-diabetic states. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion by pancreatic -cells. The creation of monogenic or polygenic genetically manipulated mice models in a tissue-specific manner was of great help to elucidate the tissue specificity of insulin action and its contribution to the overall insulin resistance. However, a complete understanding of the molecular bases of insulin action and resistance requires the identification of intracellular pathways that regulate insulin-stimulated proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. Accordingly, cell lines derived from insulin target tissues such as brown adipose tissue, liver and beta islets lacking insulin resistance or sensitive candidate genes such as IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, IR and PTP1B have been developed. Indeed, these cell lines have also been very useful to understand the tissue specificity of insulin action and inaction. Obesity is a risk factor for several components of the metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia and systolic hypertension, because white and brown adipose tissues as endocrine organs express and secrete a variety of adipocytokines that can act at both local and systemic levels, modulating the insulin sensitivity. Recent studies revealed that the subjects with the highest transcription rates of genes e Continue reading >>

Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Plays Diverse Cell-specific Roles In The Regulation Of Glucose Transport*

Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Plays Diverse Cell-specific Roles In The Regulation Of Glucose Transport*

The insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) protein is one of the major insulin-signaling substrates. In the present study, we investigated the role of IRS-2 in skin epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Although skin is not a classical insulin target tissue, we have previously demonstrated that insulin, via the insulin receptor, is essential for normal skin cell physiology. To identify the role of IRS-2 in skin cells, we studied cells isolated from IRS-2 knock-out (KO) mice. Whereas proliferation and differentiation were not affected in the IRS-2 KO cells, a striking effect was observed on glucose transport. In IRS-2 KO keratinocytes, the lack of IRS-2 resulted in a dramatic increase in basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport. The increase in glucose transport was associated with an increase in total phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt activation. In contrast, fibroblasts lacking IRS-2 exhibited a significant decrease in basal and insulin-induced glucose transport. We identified the point of divergence, leading to these differences between keratinocytes and fibroblasts, at the IRS-PI 3-kinase association step. In epidermal keratinocytes, PI 3-kinase is associated with and activated by only the IRS-1 protein. On the other hand, in dermal fibroblasts, PI 3-kinase is exclusively associated with and activated by the IRS-2 protein. These observations suggest that IRS-2 functions as a negative or positive regulator of glucose transport in a cell-specific manner. Our results also show that IRS-2 function depends on its cell-specific association with PI 3-kinase. The insulin-signaling pathway exists in many cells, and is mediated through the insulin receptor (IR). 1 However, the effects it has on various tissues are diverse. It is well known that liver, m Continue reading >>

Microrna-125a Is Over-expressed In Insulin Target Tissues In A Spontaneous Rat Model Of Type 2 Diabetes

Microrna-125a Is Over-expressed In Insulin Target Tissues In A Spontaneous Rat Model Of Type 2 Diabetes

MicroRNA-125a is over-expressed in insulin target tissues in a spontaneous rat model of Type 2 Diabetes Herrera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2009 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional control of gene expression of a wide number of genes, including those involved in glucose homeostasis. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by hyperglycaemia and defects in insulin secretion and action at target tissues. We sought to establish differences in global miRNA expression in two insulin-target tissues from inbred rats of spontaneously diabetic and normoglycaemic strains. We used a miRNA microarray platform to measure global miRNA expression in two insulin-target tissues: liver and adipose tissue from inbred rats of spontaneously diabetic (Goto-Kakizaki [GK]) and normoglycaemic (Brown-Norway [BN]) strains which are extensively used in genetic studies of T2D. MiRNA data were integrated with gene expression data from the same rats to investigate how differentially expressed miRNAs affect the expression of predicted target gene transcripts. The expression of 170 miRNAs was measured in liver and adipose tissue of GK and BN rats. Based on a p-value for differential expression between GK and BN, the most significant change in expression was observed for miR-125a in liver (FC = 5.61, P = 0.001, P adjusted = 0.10); this overexpression was validated using quantitative RT-PCR (FC = 13.15, P = 0.0005). MiR-125a also showed over-expression in the GK vs. BN analysis within adipose tissue (FC = 1.97, P = 0.078, P adjusted = 0.99), as did the previously reported miR-29a (FC = 1.51, P = 0.05, P adjusted = 0.99). In-silico tools assessing the biological role of predicted miR-125a target genes suggest an over-representation of genes involved in th Continue reading >>

Human Physiology/the Endocrine System

Human Physiology/the Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a control system of ductless glands that secrete hormones within specific organs. Hormones act as "messengers," and are carried by the bloodstream to different cells in the body, which interpret these messages and act on them. It seems like a far fetched idea that a small chemical can enter the bloodstream and cause an action at a distant location in the body. Yet this occurs in our bodies everyday of our lives. The ability to maintain homeostasis and respond to stimuli is largely due to hormones secreted within the body. Without hormones, you could not grow, maintain a constant temperature, produce offspring, or perform the basic actions and functions that are essential for life. The endocrine system provides an electrochemical connection from the hypothalamus of the brain to all the organs that control the body metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction. There are two types of hormones secreted in the endocrine system: Steroidal (or lipid based) and non-steroidal, (or protein based) hormones. The endocrine system regulates its hormones through negative feedback, except in very specific cases like childbirth. Increases in hormone activity decrease the production of that hormone. The immune system and other factors contribute as control factors also, altogether maintaining constant levels of hormones. Exocrine Glands are those which release their cellular secretions through a duct which empties to the outside or into the lumen (empty internal space) of an organ. These include certain sweat glands, salivary and pancreatic glands, and mammary glands. They are not considered a part of the endocrine system. Endocrine Glands are those glands which have no duct and release their secretions directly into the intercellular fluid or into the blo Continue reading >>

Adiponectin Signaling And Function In Insulin Target Tissues.

Adiponectin Signaling And Function In Insulin Target Tissues.

Adiponectin signaling and function in insulin target tissues. Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA [email protected] [email protected] Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA [email protected] [email protected] J Mol Cell Biol. 2016 Apr;8(2):101-9. doi: 10.1093/jmcb/mjw014. Epub 2016 Mar 18. Obesity-linked type 2 diabetes is one of the paramount causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, posing a major threat on human health, productivity, and quality of life. Despite great progress made towards a better understanding of the molecular basis of diabetes, the available clinical counter-measures against insulin resistance, a defect that is central to obesity-linked type 2 diabetes, remain inadequate. Adiponectin, an abundant adipocyte-secreted factor with a wide-range of biological activities, improves insulin sensitivity in major insulin target tissues, modulates inflammatory responses, and plays a crucial role in the regulation of energy metabolism. However, adiponectin as a promising therapeutic approach has not been thoroughly explored in the context of pharmacological intervention, and extensive efforts are being devoted to gain mechanistic understanding of adiponectin signaling and its regulation, and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we discuss tissue- and cell-specific functions of adiponectin, with an emphasis on the regulation of adiponectin signaling pathways, and the potential crosstalk between the adiponectin and other signaling pathways involved in metabolic regulation. Understanding better just why and how adiponectin and its downstream effector m Continue reading >>

Effects Of Vanadium On Insulin Target Tissues

Effects Of Vanadium On Insulin Target Tissues

DESCRIPTION: (Principal Investigator's Abstract): Vanadium is increasingly a source of possible toxic effects through the use of fossil fuels and its incorporation into metal alloys. Vanadium in the form of vanadate has been shown to have a number of insulin-mimetic properties when given acutely in vitro. However, the effects of chronic administration on insulin sensitive tissues in vivo is much less well studied. Therefore, the overall purpose of this proposal is to examine the effects of vanadium on insulin-sensitive activities at its target cell sites. The specific objectives are: 1) to determine if vanadate or vanadyl is preferentially accumulated and retained in tissues with insulin-sensitive glucose transport systems; 2) to determine if vanadium alters insulin receptor numbers, binding, or function; 3) to determine if vanadium has effects on insulin-stimulated activities in target tissues; and 4) to determine if vanadium affects insulin metabolism. Rats will be given vanadium, as sodium orthvanadate or vanadyl sulfate, in a liquid diet and a number of insulin-sensitive activities of target tissues measured and compared to control animals. Specifically, various organs will be harvested and the vanadium content determined by neutron activation analysis. Hepatocytes and adipocytes will be isolated from animals and insulin binding analyzed by Scatchard plots. Receptor function will be assessed by assaying its tyrosine kinase activity. Isolated hepatocytes will be assayed for the insulin-sensitive activities of: amino acid transport, inhibition of protein degradation, and glucose incorporation in glycogen. Isolated adipocytes will be assayed for the insulin-sensitive activities of: glucose uptake, glucose incorporation into lipids, glucose oxidation, and anti-lipolysi Continue reading >>

The Blood Vessel Wall As An Insulin Target Tissue.

The Blood Vessel Wall As An Insulin Target Tissue.

The blood vessel wall as an insulin target tissue. Find all citations in this journal (default).Or filter your current search Diabete & Metabolisme [01 Jul 1987, 13(3 Pt 2):294-300] Type: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review, Journal Article Study of the effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors on blood vessel walls has been expedited by the ability to isolate and grow components of large and small blood vessels in pure culture. This paper summarizes current knowledge about the effects of insulin and related molecules on blood vessel derived cells, with an emphasis on: (1) peptide receptors, their regulation, and transport and processing of molecules through the endothelium; (2) metabolic and (3) mitogenic effects of insulin and related peptides on the blood vessel wall, with a discussion of major differences between large and small vessel endothelia; and (4) interactions of insulin with barrier endothelia, for example cerebral microvascular endothelium, site of the blood-brain barrier. Continue reading >>

Major Hormones: Origin, Target, Function

Major Hormones: Origin, Target, Function

Your online site for school work help and homework help. Science, English, History, Civics, Art, Business, Law, Geography, all free! Triggers secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal gland Stimulates female egg maturation and male sperm production Stimulates female ovulation and male secretion of testosterone Stimulates milk production in the breasts after childbirth Regulates water retention and blood pressure Triggers contraction of the uterus during labor Stimulates milk letdown for breast-feeding after childbirth Regulates circadian rhythm (awake/sleep patterns) and prevent jet lag Controls the level of calcium in the blood by depositing it in the bones Increases the bodys metabolic rate; promotes normal growth and development Promotes the growth and development of white blood cells, helping the body fight infection Regulates sodium and potassium levels in the blood to control blood pressure Plays key role in stress response; increases blood glucose levels and mobilizes fat stores; reduces inflammatation Increases blood pressure, heart and metabolic rate, and blood sugar levels; dilates blood vessels. Also released during exercise Continue reading >>

Bbc Bitesize - Gcse Biology (single Science) - Coordination And Control - The Human Endocrine System - Aqa - Revision 1

Bbc Bitesize - Gcse Biology (single Science) - Coordination And Control - The Human Endocrine System - Aqa - Revision 1

is a chemical substance, produced by a gland and carried in the bloodstream, which alters the activity of specific target organs . An example of this is the release of the hormone adrenaline, which is released by the adrenal gland. One of its target organs is the heart, where it increases the heart rate. Once a hormone has been used, it is destroyed by the liver. Hormones can control the body, and the effects are much slower than the nervous system, but they last for longer. Contraceptive pills contain hormones to reduce the chances of becoming pregnant There are important differences between nervous and hormonal control. in the brain is known as a 'master gland'. It secretes several hormones into the blood in response to the body's condition, such as blood water levels. These hormones can also act on other glands to stimulate the release of different types of hormones and bring about effects. The body produces a range of different chemical hormones that travel in the bloodstream and affect a number of different organs or cells in the body. The diagram below shows this in detail. Important hormones released into the bloodstream include ADH (anti-diuretic hormone), adrenaline and insulin. Continue reading >>

Insulin Target Tissues And Cells

Insulin Target Tissues And Cells

Rodent adipose tissue and cells represent the targets exhibiting the most prominent insulin sensitivity (i.e., lowest EC/IC50) and responsiveness (i.e., highest fold stimulation/inhibition above basal) of the relevant insulin signaling cascades (e.g., insulin receptor activation) and metabolic end effector systems (e.g., lipolysis) in comparison to liver (e.g., gluconeogenesis) and muscle cells (e.g., glucose transport). This might be based in part on technical advantages of the adipose tissue/adipocyte preparation in comparison to that of muscle/myocytes. But more likely, it reflects the exquisite physiological role of the adipose tissue in the regulation and coordination of glucose and lipid metabolism, i.e., insulin stimulation of lipid synthesis (lipogenesis) and insulin inhibition of lipolysis. On the basis of their relatively easy technical preparation, functional adipose tissue fragments (epididymal fat pads) and primary adipocytes (isolated epididymal adipocytes) from rats as well as adipocyte cell lines derived from mice (3T3-L1, F442A) are the first choice for the development of robust and reliable cell-/tissue-based assay systems for insulin-like activity. Do you want to read the rest of this chapter? Continue reading >>

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