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Insulin Resistance Symptoms Cats

Insulin Resistant Cat

Insulin Resistant Cat

Hi - My cat was diagnosed with Diabetes over 3 months ago. $1500 and 3 months later we are still at square one. We have tried 4 types of insulin (ProZinc, Vetsulin, Novolin N and Lantus). Each starting with a small dose and increasing slowly. Some Insulin brands we stopped after 2-3 weeks, as her numbers remained above 600 despite increasing from 2 to 3 to 4 units. She is 8 lbs. The vet called today and said they don't have any more options for her, as she seems to be Insulin Resistant. Her glucose levels have remained above 400 despite the different doses and kinds of insulin? The vet also moved her to a prescription W/D food (mostly canned and about 1/2 a cup of W/D dry food each day). She is confined to the basement :sad: as she is having 3-10 accidents a day (occasionally uses the litter box, but usually goes right next to it on the flooor). Not sure what to do now. Frustrated! Stressed! Disappointed and sad! Any ideas? How high of a dose did yo reach and for how long? What does a curve show? A curve is BG taken every two hours after shot in addition to BG before shot. See the following since it may be the reason and there are tests for it ; Acromegaly and Other High Dose Conditions: What We Know My Murfee is on 18 units of Levemir twice daily. When he was on 6 he was about 500 before shot and went to Hi (above 600) mid between shots and down to about 500 before next shot. So I will just second a couple of them. Home testing is your best tool to fight this disease as well as giving you a much better picture of what the insulin is or isn't doing for her. Second stop all dry and as BJM suggested switch her over to a good affordable pate style commercial canned diet (I have two in remission and one trying hard to follow) all eat the same diet as the rest of my cats wh Continue reading >>

It’s Difficult To Regulate Diabetics

It’s Difficult To Regulate Diabetics

I recently euthanized a sweetheart of a diabetic cat. I’ll call him “Hans.” Hans had been diagnosed about three years ago, very early in the course of his disease, and his owner and primary care veterinarian were able to put him into remission with dietary changes and a short course of insulin injections. Unfortunately, he recently relapsed and this time around his caregivers were unable to manage the disease, primarily because Hans fought his insulin injections with every ounce of his being. His owner decided, rightfully so in my opinion, that Hans’s quality of life was so degraded by having to put up with twice daily injections that euthanasia was in his best interest. This case got me thinking about the reasons (other than behavior) why diabetic cats can become difficult to regulate. These patients end up on unusually high doses of insulin (greater than one unit per pound) but still suffer from the typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus, including: increased thirst and urination weight loss despite a good appetite weakness The first step in figuring out what is going on with a difficult to regulate diabetic is to examine the care the animal receives at home. Is the cat eating an appropriate amount of a low carbohydrate diet? Canned foods are best. Is the owner using good injection technique? Oftentimes it is best to avoid injecting around the nape of the neck and use the flank areas instead. Are appropriate insulin and insulin syringes being used? A mismatch can lead to under or overdosing. Is the insulin handled appropriately (refrigerated, replaced every three months or so)? Are any other medications being given? Some (e.g., corticosteroids) interfere with glucose regulation. Once home care has been validated, it’s time to look at the cat itself. Concurren Continue reading >>

Discovering The Reasons Underlying Difficult-to-control Diabetes In Cats

Discovering The Reasons Underlying Difficult-to-control Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in feline practice. Cats with diabetes can be challenging to monitor and treat because of the complex pathophysiology of the disease and cats' propensity for stress-related hyperglycemia. In addition, the small size of feline patients makes insulin dosing more difficult. This article will review reasons for poor diabetic regulation and outline a logical approach to the difficult-to-treat diabetic cat. In general, problems with diabetic control can be categorized as insulin-related, client-related, or patient-related. Although patient-related problems are more common, it is wise to carefully exclude insulin- and client-related issues first, since these are often easily identified and addressed. When insulin- and client-related issues have been ruled out, we then start to look for patient-related problems. Insulin-related problems Sudden loss of regulation in a previously well-controlled diabetic may be due to problems with the insulin itself. Even if you have no specific reason to suspect a loss of biologic activity with the insulin, it is always wise to just discard the present bottle and start a new one. Insulin is a peptide and, therefore, can be damaged by exposure to heat or extreme cold. With some insulin types, agitation during shipping can also damage the molecule and alter its biologic effects. Another consideration is bacterial contamination; this can occur quickly and result in degradation of the insulin molecules and loss of potency. And lastly, dilution of the insulin can cause problems as the product may behave differently or become unstable. Before conducting an exhaustive and expensive search to identify patient-related problems leading to insulin resistance, it may be worthwhile to replace an older insulin via Continue reading >>

What You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes - Care Of Your Diabetic Cat -

What You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes - Care Of Your Diabetic Cat -

Some Information About Your Cats Pancreas Your cats pancreas is a small, pinkish organ that is nestled in the folds of its small intestine. You can see it if you enlarge the fanciful image I put at the top of this page. Although it is quite small, the pancreas has two very important functions. One is to produce enzymes that allow your cat to digest food. The other is to produce a hormone (insulin) that regulates how your cats body utilizes sugar (glucose). Glucose is the main fuel of all animal cells. Most of it is manufactured in the pets liver or released from recent carbohydrate meals. The process by which the pancreas regulates your cats blood sugar level is actually much more complicated than my explanation and not yet fully understood. But my explanation should do for this article. Should you wish to know more, go here . Many types of cells form the pancreas. The ones that are important in understanding diabetes occur in small islands scattered throughout the pancreas ( islets of Langerhans ). These particular insulin-secreting cells are called (beta) cells. There are several forms of diabetes. But the one affecting your cat is almost certainly the one known as diabetes mellitus, also called Type 2 (Type II, DM) diabetes. In this form of diabetes, your cats cells have lost some of their ability to respond to the insulin your cats pancreas is still producing. In some cases, less insulin is also being produced than should be. When this occurs, blood sugar can not move out of the cats blood and into all of its body cells that rely on the sugar for energy. When this occurs, a number of things happen. The cats blood sugar level skyrockets up (hyperglycemia) , some of the excess sugar spills out the kidneys and into the urine (glycosuria) and the cats body shifts to al Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats Elwood Vet

Diabetes In Cats Elwood Vet

The main goals when treating diabetes are: reduce or resolve your cat's clinical signs using a treatment regimen that fits into your daily life avoid low blood sugar events (hypoglycaemia) prevent complications (eg diabetic ketoacidosis) To achieve the first goal, we need to reduce the elevated blood sugar levels, typically through dietary modification and insulin therapy. Oral medications used by people with diabetes have been used in cats, but they don't tend to work well and come with lots of side effects. The first goal of dietary therapy is to halt the weight loss associated with diabetes. This entails feeding your cat ad lib or multiple times a day, preferably with some tasty wet food. Ongoing, we want a food that's low in carbs (<3 g/100kcal). By reducing the carbohydrate content of the food, we reduce the need for insulin. This is good for insulin resistance because the way to make the tissues sensitive again is to let the insulin receptors have a break from all that insulin. It's also good when there is pancreatic dysfunction and the pancreas is struggling to make enough insulin. There are some commercial diets made for diabetic cats, but it's hard to find one that's truly low enough in carbs. Wet foods tend to work better than dry. There's not a lot of evidence around regarding when to feed, but for cats on a low carb diet, it appears that timing of meals doesn't have to match injections, and it may be okay for grazing cats to continue to graze. Unlike dogs and people, cats don't get much of a spike in blood sugar after eating. If your cat has insulin resistance without much in the way of pancreatic dysfunction, it's possible that diet alone may work to control or even reverse diabetes. The problem is that it's hard to pick up 'early diabetes' in cats and we Continue reading >>

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes is a very serious issue – and not just in people either. That’s right, this chronic and potentially debilitating condition also affects cats (and dogs). And while it’s difficult to know the exact incidence of diabetes in cats, best estimates put it somewhere in the range of 1 cat in every 100-200 cats will become diabetic. What’s even sadder is that this incidence seems to be on the increase. Fortunately, armed with some good information, important tips, and a good working relationship with your veterinarian, you can give your cats the best chance at avoiding this frustrating condition. And if they’ve already developed it, know that these same tools can help you best manage your cat’s diabetic state; avoiding the potential complications and perhaps even getting them into diabetic remission. What is diabetes? In the most basic sense, diabetes mellitus is a disorder where blood sugar, or glucose, cannot be effectively utilized and regulated within the body. There are several hormones within the body that play important roles in glucose metabolism. Insulin is one of the most important, if not the most important, and it’s the hormone most central to the development and control of the diabetic state. Glucose fuels the body and insulin is the hormone that helps to get it into most cells within the body. Diabetes is often easily diagnosed and controllable. However, when undiagnosed or poorly managed, diabetes can be devastating. Diabetes can absolutely be managed and your cat can still lead a long and happy life. Routine veterinary care and evaluation are important, as is achieving and maintaining an appropriate weight in your cat and feeding him an appropriate diet. There are two types of diabetes – Type I and Type II. In Type I diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes In Cats

This article is about diabetes mellitus in cats. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in cats, whereby either insufficient insulin response or insulin resistance lead to persistently high blood glucose concentrations. Diabetes could affect up to 1 in 230 cats,[1] and may be becoming increasingly common. Diabetes mellitus is less common in cats than in dogs. 80-95% of diabetic cats experience something similar to type-2 diabetes, but are generally severely insulin-dependent by the time symptoms are diagnosed. The condition is treatable, and treated properly, the cat can experience a normal life expectancy. In type-2 cats, prompt effective treatment may lead to diabetic remission, in which the cat no longer needs injected insulin. Untreated, the condition leads to increasingly weak legs in cats, and eventually malnutrition, ketoacidosis and/or dehydration, and death. Symptoms[edit] Cats will generally show a gradual onset of the disease over a few weeks or months, and it may escape notice for even longer.[citation needed] The first outward symptoms are a sudden weight loss (or occasionally gain), accompanied by excessive drinking and urination; for example, cats can appear to develop an obsession with water and lurk around faucets or water bowls. Appetite is suddenly either ravenous (up to three-times normal) or absent. These symptoms arise from the body being unable to use glucose as an energy source. A fasting glucose blood test will normally be suggestive of diabetes at this point. The same home blood test monitors used in humans are used on cats, usually by obtaining blood from the ear edges or paw pads. As the disease progresses, ketone bodies will be present in the urine, which can be detected with the same urine stri Continue reading >>

Consider This Case: An Uncontrolled Diabetic Cat

Consider This Case: An Uncontrolled Diabetic Cat

Consider This Case: An Uncontrolled Diabetic Cat Sugar, a 12-year-old spayed female Maine Coon cat, presented for poorly controlled diabetes and diabetic neuropathy. Sugar was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus 2 years prior to presentation. Initially, her diabetes was moderately controlled on 5 to 6 units of recombinant human protamine zinc insulin (PZI) (40 U/mL; ProZinc, bi-vetmedica.com), but over the year prior to presentation the insulin dose had been progressively increased with no improvement in glycemic control. Upon presentation, Sugar was receiving 14 units of recombinant human PZI. The owner was performing blood glucose curves at home, but struggling to maintain Sugars blood glucose below 300 mg/dL. In addition to diabetes mellitus, Sugar had concurrent hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and chronic rhinitis, and persistent polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weakness. Diabetes is a disease of insulin deficiency. Diabetes in cats is most commonly classified as type 2-like diabetesa disease process in which insufficient insulin production from beta cells takes place in the setting of insulin resistance. Insulin requirements can be altered by obesity, inflammation, or concurrent endocrine disease, such as hypersomatotropism (acromegaly) or hyperadrenocorticism. Some refer to a subclass of diabetic cats with secondary diabetespatients in which diabetes occurs subsequent to (1) another endocrine disease (eg, acromegaly, hyperadrenocorticism) or (2) administration of diabetogenic drugs (eg, glucocorticoids).1 Physical examination revealed a symmetrically muscled cat, weighing 7.7 kg, with a body condition score of 6/9. Sugar had an unkempt hair coat, mild prognathia inferior, and a broad head (Figure 1), and walked with a plantigrade stance (Figure 2). No organomegaly Continue reading >>

About Glucose Curves

About Glucose Curves

Go to site For Pet Owners The glucose curve is a great tool to differentiate between an insufficient insulin dose and the Somogyi effect. It helps to determine insulin effectiveness and the maximum and minimum levels of glycemia, which ideally should be between 120–300 mg/dL (5.6–16.7mmol/L) for cats for most of the day.8 Try our online glucose curve generator. Veterinarians commonly adjust the insulin dose based on a blood glucose curve. When creating a glucose curve, remember that stress can affect the reliability of results, and the glucose curve is only one tool among others that can help diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus. Take clinical signs (or lack thereof) into account when contemplating any change in the insulin therapy. The ultimate goal in regulating the diabetic cat is to control the clinical signs adequately so that the patient enjoys a good quality of life. How to complete a glucose curve The procedure is as follows: shortly after the animal has been given its first meal (preferably at home), the first blood sample is taken just prior to the insulin injection in the morning. Thereafter, blood samples are collected every 2 hours throughout the day for 12 hours, if possible. These data are then plotted on a graph to generate a curve. Veterinarians can determine based on the nadir whether the dose needs to be increased or decreased (or remain as is). How to interpret a glucose curve The aim of treatment is to alleviate clinical signs of diabetes. To achieve this goal, keep blood glucose concentrations below the renal threshold and avoid hypoglycemia. Thus, the goal is to maintain blood glucose concentrations roughly between 120 to 300 mg/dL in cats for the majority of the day.8 The duration of insulin action is measured from the time of Vetsulin® (p Continue reading >>

Investigating Insulin Resistance In Cats

Investigating Insulin Resistance In Cats

Heather Troyer, DVM, Diplomate ABVP (Canine & Feline Practice) To access full articles on www.cliniciansbrief.com, please sign in below. Want free access to the #1 publication for diagnostic and treatment information? Create a free account to read full articles and access web-exclusive content on cliniciansbrief.com. MK|Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of GS|South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Choose the category that describes your business/professional activity What best describes your position? (question 1 of 2) I agree to the Brief Media Privacy Policy and Terms of Use Yes, I would like to receive updates about products & services, promotions, special offers, news & events from Brief Media. You must agree to Brief Media's Privacy Policy and Terms of Use. Acceptance to the GDPR regulations is required. Cats with poor glycemic control and clinical signs associated with diabetes mellitus or those with diabetes that require > 6 units of insulin per dose may be characterized as insulin resistant. The most common cause of insulin resistance in cats is antagonism of insulins effects at the receptor or postreceptor level by excessive circulating glucocorticoids, progestogens, catecholamines, thyroid hormone, growth hormone, and glucagon. Common concurrent diseases include pancreatitis, hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, urinary tract infection, renal failure, hyperthyroidism, inflammatory bowel disease, acromegaly, and heart disease. A previous study evaluated 37 diabetic cats that underwent necropsy; 46% of cats had chronic pancreatitis, while 22% had pancreatic neoplasia. Another report described urinary tract infections in 13% of 141 tested cats; only 40% of cats with urinary tract infections had clinical signs. Obesity is not typically considered a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats - Overview

Diabetes Mellitus In Cats - Overview

By Ernest Ward, DVM & Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Emergency Situations, Medical Conditions What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the pancreas, a small organ located near the stomach. The pancreas has two different types of cells that have very different functions. One group of cells produces the enzymes necessary for proper digestion. The other group, called beta cells, produces the hormone insulin, which regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream and controls the delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body. In simple terms, diabetes mellitus is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. The clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are related to elevated concentrations of blood glucose and the inability of the body to use glucose as an energy source. What are the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in cats? The four main symptoms of diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss, and increased appetite. Because of the nature of cats, these signs may go unnoticed, especially in the early stages of disease or if a cat spends a lot of time outdoors. Cats that are fed canned or semi-moist diets receive much of their water intake from their food, and increased water intake will be harder to recognize. Are there different types of diabetes mellitus in cats? Diabetes mellitus is usually classified into 2 types of disease: Type I diabetes mellitus results from total or near-complete destruction of the beta cells. This appears to be a rare type of diabetes in the cat. Type II diabetes mellitus is different because some insulin-producing cells remain, but the amount of insulin produced is insufficient, there is a delayed response in secreting it, or the tissues of the cat's body are re Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance In Cats

Insulin Resistance In Cats

... Its diagnosis is usually suspected in cats affected by uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) as a result of GH-induced insulin resistance (IR) or, secondarily, in those with neurological compromise resulting from the expansion of a pituitary tumor, and exceptionally in cats that have only typical AMG features ( ScottMoncrieff, 2010;Fracassi et al., 2016). Treating IR to achieve good glycemic control becomes in most cases an essential goal in the management of AMG in cats ( ). To achieve this goal, procedures such as transsphenoidal surgery, cryohypophyisectomy and radiotherapy, as well as pharmacological treatments with somatostatin analogs (octreotide and pasireotide) and selegiline (dopaminergic agonist) have been tried ( Reusch, 2015). ... ... Three cats with DM and IR resulting from concomitant presence of AMG are described. The IR diagnosis was based on persistence of clinical signs: PU/PD/PF with insulin doses higher than 1.5 U/Kg/application ( ). In AMG, IR arises from the combined action of GH and its mediator, IGF-1. ... ... In AMG, IR arises from the combined action of GH and its mediator, IGF-1. The IGF-1 suppresses insulin secretions from pancreatic cells, while GH increases production of endogenous glucose with less peripheral muscle uptake and alterations in post-insulin receptor signaling mechanisms ( ). The AMG diagnosis in the three cases was based on clinical signs, IGF-1 levels and abnormal pituitary findings revealed by MRI. ... ... Madalina ROSCA, Mihai MUSTEATA, Carmen SOLCAN, Gabriela Dumitrita STANCIU*, Gheorghe SOLCAN Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine " Ion Ionescu de la Brad " , Iasi, Romania * corresponding author: [email protected] insulin to bind to receptors (receptor defect), an Continue reading >>

An In-depth Look: Insulin Resistance In Diabetic Patients: Causes And Management

An In-depth Look: Insulin Resistance In Diabetic Patients: Causes And Management

Insulin resistance can occur secondary to many diseases in dogs and cats. The most common causes of insulin resistance in dogs are hyperadrenocorticism, bacterial infections, hypothyroidism, and diestrus. In cats, the most common causes are acromegaly; hyperadrenocorticism; renal, hepatic, or cardiac insufficiency; bacterial infections; hyperthyroidism; and use of diabetogenic drugs. Common mechanisms of insulin resistance include decreased insulin-receptor concentration, decreased receptor affinity, and defects in the postreceptor pathways. Management of insulin resistance includes a thorough search for an underlying cause and dietary changes. Insulin resistance is a condition in which a normal amount of insulin causes a subnormal response in blood glucose levels.1,2 Insulin resistance progresses to overt diabetes mellitus (DM) when the existing insulin-producing beta cells cannot compensate for the insulin resistance, thus allowing hyperglycemia to occur.1 Insulin resistance should be suspected in a dog or cat when more than 2.2 U/kg per injection of insulin is required to maintain adequate glycemic control.1,3 In addition, insulin resistance in dogs and cats should be considered in the presence of persistent, marked hyperglycemia throughout the day, despite insulin doses of more than 1.5 U/kg per injection.2,3 The differential diagnosis of insulin resistance is quite extensive, and some of the possible diseases cause previously subclinical diabetic patients to become clinically diabetic, whereas other possible diseases exacerbate preexisting DM.2 In dogs, the most common causes of insulin resistance are hyperadrenocorticism, bacterial infections, hypothyroidism, and diestrus.2 In cats, the most common causes are acromegaly; hyperadrenocorticism; renal, hepatic, or ca Continue reading >>

Regulating & Monitoring A Diabetic Cat Using Insulin

Regulating & Monitoring A Diabetic Cat Using Insulin

Share with us any comments or suggestions, to help us build the best service for you and your pet Download our free app today and access verified vets, trainers, nutritionists and other pet experts anywhere, anytime Regulating & Monitoring a Diabetic Cat Using Insulin Not all cats with diabetes will need to be treated with insulin (some cats with mild diabetes may respond to and dietary change), but a majority of them will. The goal of treatment is to resolve the signs of the disease, maintain proper body weight, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of any complications, and provide the cat with a good quality of life. This can be accomplished by maintaining the blood glucose at an acceptable level (100-290 mg/dL; normal is 55-160 mg/dL). In addition to treating the diabetes, any other concurrent diseases such as pancreatic exocrine insufficiency , hyperthyroidism , Cushing's disease, and infections need to be treated as well. What should an owner know before trying to 'regulate' a cat with diabetes? Before treatment is started, it is important that the owner be well-informed and have the time necessary to make the correct decision since regulating a diabetic cat requires commitment. Owners should know: The cat will need to be hospitalized for a number of days and one or more blood glucose profiles (described below) will need to be performed. The initial regulation of a cat on insulin generally takes 2-8 weeks. The process of getting a cat regulated can be costly. Insulin must usually be given twice a day, every day at specific times, probably for the life of the cat. Insulin must be handled properly (refrigerated, not shaken, etc). There is a proper technique for administering insulin to a cat that must be followed. The type of insulin and insulin syringe that are used Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes | Cornell University College Of Veterinary Medicine

Feline Diabetes | Cornell University College Of Veterinary Medicine

Avoiding inducing inappropriately low blood glucose levels with therapy Cats with diabetes are most often treated with injectable insulin. Oral drugs for humans (hypoglycemic medications) such as glipizide rarely work in controlling diabetes in cats. Insulin injection (see Figure 1) can be taught to most owners and, with a bit of experience, both owners and cats usually adapt to these injections very well. There are a variety of insulin preparations available, and each works for a different duration and has different effects on the ups and downs of blood glucose. Ideally, your veterinarian will perform a 12-24 hour glucose curve, during which insulin is administered intermittently and blood glucose is measured to establish the type of insulin and dosing frequency that best controls blood glucose while avoiding inappropriately low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). Your veterinarian may recommend feeding your cat a diet restricted in carbohydrates, which has been shown to improve control of blood glucose levels. When it comes to diet, its important to help your cat combat the weight loss that often occurs as a result of this disease. In diabetic cats that are underweight, this often means feeding multiple meals per day or allowing access to food at all times. If your cat is overweight, however, work with your veterinarian to institute a weight loss program, as managed weight loss in overweight diabetic cats will likely help the cat maintain steadier glucose levels. The optimal timing of meals for diabetic cats is controversial. Many veterinarians recommend feeding at the time of insulin injection to avoid a dangerous drop in blood glucose levels. However, there is no definitive evidence that the timing or frequency of meals in diabetic cats protects them from insulin- Continue reading >>

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