Association Between Sleep Duration, Insulin Sensitivity, And -cell Function: The Egir-risc Study | The Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | Oxford Academic
In the past decade, over 3 dozen studies reported a relationship between self-reported short sleep and disturbed glucose metabolism. A study with insulin sensitivity assessed according to the gold standard hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is, however, still missing. To evaluate the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with insulin sensitivity and -cell function in the European group for the study of insulin resistance (EGIR-RISC) study cohort. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measures: We used data from the baseline measurements of the European, multicentre EGIR-RISC study that included 1319 clinically healthy participants. Sleep and physical activity were measured using a single-axis accelerometer. Insulin sensitivity and -cell function were estimated by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and from the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index model, using an oral glucose tolerance test. Associations of sleep duration with insulin sensitivity and -cell function were analyzed by multiple linear regression, stratified by sex. In our current analysis, we included 788 participants (57% women, age 44 8 y), who had an average sleep duration of 7.3 1.5 hours. In men, we observed an inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration categorized per hour and M/I (in mol/min per kgFFM/nM per hour) (-estimate [95% confidence intervals] 41 [2, 80]; P = .04 and 2-estimate 3 [6, 0.2], P = .04) as well as a trend for the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (in mL/min per kgFFM) (-estimate [95% confidence intervals] 0.8 [0.4, 2]; P = .17). In women, we observed a U-shaped association between sleep duration and -cell function (in pmol/min per m2/mM per hour) (-estimate 45 [86, 3]; P = .04 and 2-estimate 3 [0.2, 6]; P = .04). Sleep duration is associated with insulin sensit Continue reading >>
- Practical Approach to Using Trend Arrows on the Dexcom G5 CGM System for the Management of Adults With Diabetes | Journal of the Endocrine Society | Oxford Academic
- Diabetes and Sleep Apnea: How Sleep Affects Blood Glucose and Diabetes
- Association between consumption of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetesinsights from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer study
Too Little Sleep May Fuel Insulin Resistance
Too little sleep may fuel insulin resistance Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. Fat cells become "metabolically groggy" in someone who is sleep-deprived, according to a new study. Sleep deprivation impairs fat cells' ability to respond to insulin, a study shows Insulin regulates metabolism and is involved in diabetes Lack of sleep may trigger the body's stress response The small study needs to be confirmed in different populations, settings People who consistently get too little sleep face bigger concerns than daytime fatigue and crankiness. Over the long term, sleep deprivation also increases the risk of serious health problems including obesity and type II diabetes. Scientists have come up with a number of plausible explanations for this increased risk. Various studies have shown, for instance, that how much we sleep can affect blood sugar levels, hormones that control appetite, and even the brain's perception of high-calorie foods. A small new study , published Monday in the Annals of Internal Medicine, adds a key piece to the puzzle by drilling down to the cellular level: Sleep deprivation, the study found, impairs the ability of fat cells to respond to insulin, a hormone that regulates metabolism and is involved in diabetes. In the study, seven healthy young men and women spent a total of eight days and nights in a sleep lab. They were allowed to sleep normally on four of the nights, and on the other nights they were limited to just 4.5 hours. In order to neutralize the effects of appetite or overeating, the researchers strictly controlled the participants' meals and calorie intake. Health.com: Best and worst foods for sleep After the four nights of sleep deprivation, blood tests revealed that the participants Continue reading >>
Sleep Influences On Obesity, Insulin Resistance, And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes
Sleep influences on obesity, insulin resistance, and risk of type 2 diabetes Author links open overlay panel SirimonReutrakula Experimental sleep restriction led to changes in appetite regulating hormones and increased hunger. Caloric intake often exceeded slight increase in energy expenditure, leading to positive energy balance and weight gain. Sleep restriction led to increased insulin resistance and elevated diabetes risk, through multiple mechanistic pathways. Multiple pathways are involved in alterations of glucose metabolism. Limited available data suggested that sleep fragmentation led to alterations in glucose metabolism. Behavioral sleep extension and sleep quality improvement may help reduce obesity and diabetes risk. A large body of epidemiologic evidence has linked insufficient sleep duration and quality to the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. To address putative causal mechanisms, this review focuses on laboratory interventions involving several nights of experimental sleep restriction, fragmentation or extension and examining metabolically relevant outcomes. Sleep restriction has been consistently shown to increase hunger, appetite and food intake, with the increase in caloric intake in excess of the energy requirements of extended wakefulness. Findings regarding decreases in hormones promoting satiety or increases in hormones promoting hunger have been less consistent, possibly because of confounding effects of changes in adiposity when energy intake was not controlled and sampling protocols that did not cover the entire 24-h cycle. Imaging studies revealed alterations in neuronal activity of brain regions involved in food reward. An adverse impact of experimental sleep restriction on insulin resistance, leading to reduced glucose Continue reading >>
Insulin Sensitivity And Sleep, Or Lack Thereof
Study after worldwide study (and there were many this year) correlate the ramifications of sleep deprivation on insulin sensitivity. The jury was clear – sleep loss affects the body’s ability to match up the glucose-insulin response. Sleep isn’t always a priority, especially with the young population. Yet loss of sleep connects with insulin resistance without insulin secretion (1). This holds true for slow wave sleep (SWS), the deepest and most restorative sleep, as well as loss of sleep hours in general. Both types of sleep loss increase brain activity in areas associated with food stimulus. This makes sense since evidence shows hunger, appetite and ghrelin levels increase. While leptin levels decrease with loss of sleep. The relative risk (RR) of developing diabetes from less than or equal to 5 or 6 hours of sleep ranges from 1.57 to 1.84. Meta-analyses of several population-based studies evidenced these facts. Meanwhile, RR of developing type 2 diabetes with a family history ranges from 1.7 to 2.3 (1). Five hours a night for just one week causes significant reduction in insulin sensitivity (2). A Penn State Cohort (4) followed 1,000 men for 14 years and 741 women for 10 years. The risk of mortality was 21 percent for men and 5 percent for women. Insomniacs’ risk of type 2 diabetes, with polysomnogram verified sleep of less than 5 hours, was “nearly threefold higher.” (3) How Little is Too Little? The connection between partial sleep restriction and alterations in glucose metabolism has been established for quite some time. However, we may need to redefine the meaning of partial sleep restriction. Negative outcomes appear at the 5 hour mark (4). Some studies wrongly use less than 6 hours as the parameter. In consequence this represents only a small fractio Continue reading >>
Osa And Insulin Resistance: A Link?
Its common for people living with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to feel excessive fatigue during the day. But a group of studies show those living with untreated sleep apnea also could be on the road to diabetes. OSA obstructs the airway, making it difficult for a person to breathe properly during sleep and causing them to wake up frequently (even if they dont remember), which leads to the fatigue. Andseveral studies also show OSA triggers changes in the bodys use of insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas that plays a major role in metabolism, which leads to a person developing insulin resistancea precursor to diabetes. The risk isnt limited to adults: Sleep apnea has been linked to an increased risk of insulin resistance in children, according to astudyconducted at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services , a person with insulin resistance produces insulin but does not use it effectively. Insulin resistance causes a buildup of glucose in the blood by not being absorbed by cells. This leads to a person developing prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. The good news is most people can often prevent or delay diabetes that results from insulin resistance by making changes to their lifestyle. In addition to diet and exercise to control weight and sugar intake, one of the most significant changes is treating OSA. Thats because sleep apnea is thought to cause metabolic changes that increase insulin resistance, research showed. The intermittent deprivation of oxygen caused by obstructed airways associated with sleep apnea causes a distinct drop in insulin sensitivity. The first step in getting a handle on sleep apnea is assessing your risk for the sleep disorder. This online quiz can help you determine if you, Continue reading >>
Insulin Sensitivity: One Night Of Poor Sleep Could Equal Six Months On A High-fat Diet, Study In Dogs Suggests
New research finds that one night of sleep deprivation and six months on a high-fat diet could both impair insulin sensitivity to a similar degree, demonstrating the importance of a good night's sleep on health. This study used a canine model to examine whether sleep deprivation and a high-fat diet affect insulin sensitivity in similar ways. New research finds that one night of sleep deprivation and six months on a high-fat diet could both impair insulin sensitivity to a similar degree, demonstrating the importance of a good night's sleep on health. (stock image) New research finds that one night of sleep deprivation and six months on a high-fat diet could both impair insulin sensitivity to a similar degree, demonstrating the importance of a good night's sleep on health. (stock image) New research finds that one night of sleep deprivation and six months on a high-fat diet could both impair insulin sensitivity to a similar degree, demonstrating the importance of a good night's sleep on health. This study, conducted by Josiane Broussard, PhD, and colleagues from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, CA, used a canine model to examine whether sleep deprivation and a high-fat diet affect insulin sensitivity in similar ways. The findings will be presented during a poster presentation on Thursday, Nov. 5, at The Obesity Society Annual Meeting at ObesityWeekSM 2015 in Los Angeles, CA. When the body becomes less sensitive to insulin (i.e., "insulin resistant"), it needs to produce more insulin to keep blood sugar stable. This may eventually lead to Type 2 diabetes, a disease where the body's insulin response doesn't work properly and there is too much sugar in the blood. Diabetes is associated with a number of serious complications, including heart disease. Individuals w Continue reading >>
The Sleep-diabetes Connection
Whenever diabetes patients enter Lynn Maarouf’s office with out-of-control blood sugar levels, she immediately asks them how they are sleeping at night. All too often, the answer is the same: not well. “Any time your blood sugar is really high, your kidneys try to get rid of it by urinating,” says Maarouf, RD, the diabetes education director of the Stark Diabetes Center at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. “So you are probably getting up and going to bathroom all night long -- and not sleeping well.” Diabetes and sleep problems often go hand in hand. Diabetes can cause sleep loss, and there’s evidence that not sleeping well can increase your risk of developing diabetes. Maarouf says high blood sugar is a red flag for sleep problems among people with diabetes for another reason. “People who are tired will eat more because they want to get energy from somewhere,” she says. “That can mean consuming sugar or other foods that can spike blood sugar levels.” “I really push people to eat properly throughout the day and get their blood sugars under control so they sleep better at night,” Maarouf says. “If you get your blood sugar under control, you will get a good night sleep and wake up feeling fabulous with lots of energy.” “There is some evidence that sleep deprivation could lead to pre-diabetic state,” says Mark Mahowald, MD, director of the Minnesota Regional Sleep Disorders Center in Hennepin County. According to Mahowald, the body's reaction to sleep loss can resemble insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes. Insulin’s job is to help the body use glucose for energy. In insulin resistance, cells fail to use the hormone efficiently, resulting in high blood sugar. Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough in Continue reading >>
Sleep Apnea & Insulin Resistance: Why You Shouldnt Ignore This!
Sleep Apnea & Insulin Resistance: Why You Shouldnt Ignore This! A new study from Autonomy University of Madrid found that CPAP-continuous positive airway pressure treatment improved blood sugars in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes are more likely to have obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is typically difficult to diagnose because usually a bed partner notes the symptoms-not the patient, who is sleeping when symptoms occur. The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute defines obstructive sleep apnea as a common disorder in which you have one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep.Breathing pauses can last from a few seconds to minutes. They may occur 30times or more an hour. Typically, normal breathing then starts again, sometimes with a loud snort or choking sound.Sleep apnea usually is a chronic (ongoing) condition that disrupts your sleep. When your breathing pauses or becomes shallow, youll often move out of deep sleep and into light sleep.As a result, the quality of your sleep is poor, which makes you tired during the day. Sleep apnea is a leading cause of excessive daytime sleepiness. Can CPAP Therapy Help People with Diabetes and Sleep Apnea? The use of CPAP is a common and effective treatment for people with obstructive sleep apnea, which uses air pressure to help maintain the breathing airways open during sleep so they dont become blocked. The researchers in the study aimed to find out what effect CPAP had on blood sugars in patients with type 2 diabetes. The researchers studied results from 50 patients with obstructive sleep apnea and an A1c level above 6.5%. According to Diabetes.co.uk , this may be the first randomised controlled study of its kind. T Continue reading >>
The Impact Of Sleep Loss On Insulin Resistance And Diabetes
The Impact of Sleep Loss on Insulin Resistance and Diabetes We participate in affiliate programs, where we are compensated for items purchased through links from our site (at no cost to the buyer). See our disclosure page for our list of comped products and affiliate programs. No doubt about it: We could all do with a little more restorative sleep. In fact, a study from the National Academy of Medicine reports as many as 50 million to 70 million people in the U.S. suffer from chronic sleep problems, causing daytime drowsiness, poor work and school performance, and a litany of medical problems, including increased risks for high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says lack of sleep is a public health problem , with low levels of high-quality, restorative sleep leading to increases in workplace injuries, industrial disasters, and serious auto accidents every day. And thats just the tip of the iceberg. More recently, researchers have begun to take a closer look at the link between sleep and metabolism specifically, metabolism-related diseases and disorders like insulin resistance and type II diabetes. The studies have revealed an interesting if somewhat alarminglink among all three that could have far-reaching implications for both short-term and long-term health and even longevity. And it all seems to stem from glucose homeostasis the delicate balance between how much glucose is produced by the body and how much is used for energy production. To understand this interrelationship, you have to know a little bit about how the body processes glucose, sometimes called blood sugar. Under normal conditions, the body derives glucose from the foods we consume. Glucose, in turn, is converted into a usable form of energy b Continue reading >>
Sleep, Insulin Resistance, And Blood Sugars!
Sleep, Insulin Resistance, and Blood Sugars! Various r esearch studies consistently reveal that lack of sleep leads to insulin resistance . Insulin resistance is one of the primary culprits for weight gain becauseit means your body requires more insulin to maintain healthy blood sugar levels and therefore increases weight gain due to insulins fat-storing capabilities. Just4 daysin a row of inadequate sleep made the fat cells in the abdominal area insulin-resistant and reduced total body insulin sensitivity, says Precision Nutritions Dr. John Berardi. Another recent study shows consistent sleep deprivation leads to weight gain! Cortisol is a natural steroid hormone produced in the body. The body of a healthy man produces daily about 25 mg of cortisol, according to WhatIsCortisol.com. But under any kind of stress, the body will produce more in an effort to reduce inflammation in the body, among other things. Theres a sneaky little hormone called cortisol that can impact all kinds of things related to our diabetes management. The worst part is: it isnt reallyobviouswhen our body is producing more cortisol, and theres no quick test you can do at home to see whats happening. However, there are a few things you can definitely do to help ensure that your bodyisntover-producing cortisol, and one of those things is getting enough sleep! In large doses, cortisol can be given to reduce inflammation (often referred to as cortizone injections), and if youve ever had one of these injections in an injured shoulder, for example, then you know that your blood sugars are insanely resistant, requiring most people to increase their insulin doses by 50 to 100 percent in an effort to battle high blood sugars. In other words: cortisol/cortizone is not kind to those with diabetes, at least wh Continue reading >>
Less Sleep, More Insulin Resistance?
Most of us would love more sleep. Sure, good nutrition and exercise can offset some of the effects of sleep deprivation. But chronically inadequate sleep can lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Here’s how. And why. Deep thoughts on deep sleep Question: What is sleep? Maharishi: How can you know sleep when you are awake? The answer is to go to sleep to find out what it is. Question: But I cannot know it in this way. Maharishi: This question must be raised in sleep. Question: But I cannot raise the question then. Maharishi: So that is sleep. –Attributed to: Sri Ramana Maharishi Why do humans sleep? If you’re a fan of the Twilight series, you’ll know that the vampires didn’t need to sleep. But their bodies were also transformed into the embodiment of perfection — frozen in time with no need for bodily maintenance. Not so with us mere mortals. We need to sleep or we become pretty dang cranky, have memory lapses, drive sloppily, and increase our risk of developing obesity, high blood pressure, heart disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (1). And while you may not have ever put much thought into the functions of sleep, most folks will admit that there’s nothing better than a solid night’s sleep for improving mood and energy levels. Mood, memory, and learning are all more or less controlled by our central nervous system and studies have shown that sleep plays a key role (2). One way to understand the functions of sleep is to compare it to eating. It’s pretty easy to understand why we eat: We need to consume nutrients so that our bodies can grow, repair tissue and function properly. Both sleeping and eating are regulated by powerful internal drives. Go too long without food and your stomach rumbles, your blood sugar drops, and you’re fo Continue reading >>
Relationship Between Sleep Parameters, Insulin Resistance And Age-adjusted Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 Score In Non Diabetic Older Patients
Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Relationship between sleep parameters, insulin resistance and age-adjusted insulin like growth factor-1 score in non diabetic older patients Affiliations Assistance Publique-Hpitaux de Paris (APHP), DHU FAST, Functional Exploration Unit of older patients, Groupe hospitalier Piti-Salptrire-Charles Foix, Paris, France, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8256, Biological Adaptation and Aging, Paris, France, Universit degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Affiliations Assistance Publique-Hpitaux de Paris (APHP), Diabetology Department, Piti Salptrire Hospital, Paris, France, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France, INSERM, UMR_S 1138, Centre de recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France Affiliations Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8256, Biological Adaptation and Aging, Paris, France, CNRS, UMR 8256, Biological Adaptation and Aging, Paris, France Affiliations Assistance Publique-Hpitaux de Paris (APHP), DHU FAST, Functional Exploration Unit of older patients, Groupe hospitalier Piti-Salptrire-Charles Foix, Paris, France, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8256, Biological Adaptation and Aging, Paris, France, CNRS, UMR 8256, Biological Adaptation and Aging, Paris, France Affiliation Assistance Publique-Hpitaux de Paris (APHP), DHU FAST, Functional Exploration Unit of older patients, Groupe hospitalier Piti-Salptrire-Charles Foix, Paris, France Affiliations Assistance Publique-Hpitaux de Paris (APHP), DHU FAST, Functional Exploration Unit of older patients, Groupe hospitalier Piti-Salptrire-Charles Foix, Paris, France, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8256, Biological Adaptation and Aging, Paris, Fra Continue reading >>
Sleep Well To Avoid Insulin Resistance, Study Suggests
Sleep Well to Avoid Insulin Resistance, Study Suggests A single night of sleep deprivation can cause as much insulin resistance as six months on a high-fat diet, according to new animal research from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body does not use insulin efficiently to move glucose from the blood into the cells and is a characteristic feature of both Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Previous research looking into sleep and diabetes has indicated that short sleep duration can increase levels of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, can stimulate production of the stress hormone cortisol and decrease glucose tolerance, and may triple the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. To investigate whether sleep deprivation causes insulin resistance in a similar fashion as a high-fat diet, researchers deprived eight male dogs of a nights sleep, then tested their insulin sensitivity using an intravenous glucose tolerance test, comparing the results to those of dogs who had a normal nights sleep. The dogs were then given a high-fat diet for six months before having their insulin sensitivity tested again. The researchers found that the night of sleep deprivation decreased insulin sensitivity by 33%, while six months of a high-fat diet decreased it by 21%. Our study suggests that one night of total sleep deprivation may be as detrimental to insulin sensitivity as six months on a high-fat diet, said study author Josaine Broussard, PhD. This research demonstrates the importance of adequate sleep in maintaining blood sugar levels and reducing risk for metabolic diseases like obesity and diabetes. Caroline M. Apovian, MD, FACP, FACN, a spokesperson for The Obesity Society, added that Many patients understand the importance of a ba Continue reading >>
Sleep Disorders And The Development Of Insulin Resistance And Obesity
Sleep disorders and the development of insulin resistance and obesity Omar Mesarwi , MD,1 Jan Polak ,2 Jonathan Jun ,3 and Vsevolod Y. Polotsky Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, Phone: +1 (410) 550-6386, Fax: +1 (410) 550-2612 The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Sleep, which comprises a third of the human lifespan, consists of two major states, non-rapid eye movement (NREM, stages N13) and rapid eye movement (REM). Sleep is a physiologic state of decreased metabolism and likely serves a reparative role, marked by increased glycogen stores and peptide synthesis. Normal sleep is characterized by reduced glucose turnover by the brain and other metabolically active tissues, particularly during NREM sleep. Circadian and sleep-related changes in glucose tolerance occur in normal subjects, but there are conflicting data regarding lipid metabolism during sleep. Sleep duration has decreased over the last several decades, and with this have come cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggesting a link between short sleep duration and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Forced decreased sleep duration in healthy individuals has also been linked to impaired glucose homeostasis. Moreover, short sleep duration has been suggested to lead to obesity, although this is less conclusive since psychological and social factors also considerably impact food intake. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder of sleep characterized by diminished or abrogated airflow, which results in intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. Based on a large body of evidence, t Continue reading >>
Too Little Sleep May Fuel Insulin Resistance
By Dr. Mercola If you're sleep deprived for a night or two (or more), you expect to feel groggy and irritable. But losing sleep impacts your body on a far deeper level, too, increasing your risk of obesity and chronic diseases like diabetes. New research has shed some light onto why sleep deprivation may be so damaging to your health, as it linked lack of sleep to serious impairments in the way your body responds to the hormone insulin. Lack of Sleep Impairs Your Body's Insulin Sensitivity Impaired insulin sensitivity, also known as insulin resistance, occurs when your body cannot use insulin properly, allowing your blood sugar levels to get too high. Insulin resistance is a precursor to type 2 diabetes as well as a risk factor in many other chronic diseases. In fact, controlling insulin levels is one of the most powerful ways to reduce your risk of chronic diseases, including high blood pressure, heart disease, and cancer. The increase in insulin-related diseases we're now seeing is largely due to lack of exercise combined with the excessive consumption of fructose and carbohydrate consumption in the average American diet … but it also appears that lack of sleep is likely playing a part in the equation too. According to research published in the Annals of Internal Medicine,1 after four nights of sleep deprivation (sleep time was only 4.5 hours per night), study participants' insulin sensitivity was 16 percent lower, while their fat cells' insulin sensitivity was 30 percent lower, and rivaled levels seen in those with diabetes or obesity. The study's senior author, Matthew Brady, an associate professor of medicine at the University of Chicago, told CNN:2 "This is the equivalent of metabolically aging someone 10 to 20 years just from four nights of partial sleep restri Continue reading >>