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Injectable Diabetes Medications List

Non-insulin Injectable Diabetes Medications

Non-insulin Injectable Diabetes Medications

As you’ve learned over the past few months, there are numerous types of diabetes pills that can be effective in treating Type 2 diabetes. But, thanks to the changing nature of this condition, over time, diabetes pills may not be enough to keep blood sugars and HbA1c within a safe range. In the past, the next step would be to start on insulin. And while many people do, indeed, go on insulin (and there’s nothing wrong with that), today, there are other options: these are the non-insulin injectable medications. Amylin analog Amylin is a hormone that is secreted along with insulin in response to food intake. In people with Type 1 diabetes and people with Type 2 diabetes who require insulin, both insulin and amylin is reduced due to the beta cells in the pancreas not working as they should. The first non-insulin injectable drug for diabetes was approved by the FDA in 2005 — this drug was pramlintide (brand name Symlin), a synthetic form of amylin. How it works: Pramlintide slows gastric emptying, blocks the release of glucagon (a hormone that raises blood sugar), reduces after-meal glucose release from the liver, and helps to reduce food intake, possibly leading to weight loss. The result? Less of a rise in blood sugars after eating a meal. Who it’s for: Pramlintide is only used in people with diabetes who take insulin. People with Type 2 diabetes can take this medication if they also take mealtime, or fast-acting, insulin. How it’s taken: This drug must be injected before each major meal. It can’t be mixed with insulin, so it means taking more injections. Dosing is started low and gradually increased, as needed. Mealtime insulin doses usually need to be decreased to reduce the risk of low blood sugar. Pramlintide is available in a pen (much like an insulin pen). Continue reading >>

Byetta, Victoza, Bydureon: Diabetes Drugs And Weight Loss

Byetta, Victoza, Bydureon: Diabetes Drugs And Weight Loss

Tell me about the diabetes drugs Byetta, Victoza and Bydureon. Can they really help people who have diabetes lose weight? Are there side effects? Answers from M. Regina Castro, M.D. Exenatide (Byetta, Bydureon) and liraglutide (Victoza) are taken by injection, similar to insulin, but they're not insulin. These medications are in a class of drugs called incretin mimetics, which improve blood sugar control by mimicking the action of a hormone called glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Among other things, these drugs stimulate insulin secretion in response to rising blood sugar levels after a meal, which results in lowering of the blood sugar. Byetta, Bydureon and Victoza not only improve blood sugar control, but may also lead to weight loss. There are many proposed ways in which these medications cause weight loss. They appear to help suppress appetite. But the most prominent effect of these drugs is that they delay the movement of food from the stomach into the small intestine. As a result, you may feel "full" faster and longer, so you eat less. Byetta is injected twice daily, and Victoza is injected once a day. Bydureon, a newer formulation, is injected once a week. These drugs do have different effects and side effects to consider. Exenatide (Byetta, Bydureon). The most common side effect of exenatide is mild to moderate nausea, which improves with time in most people. Several cases of kidney problems, including kidney failure, have been reported in people who have taken exenatide. Rarely, exenatide may cause harmful inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Liraglutide (Victoza). Some studies have found that liraglutide reduces systolic blood pressure and triglycerides, in addition to improving blood sugar control. The most common side effects are headache, nausea and Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medication - Guides And Information

Diabetes Medication - Guides And Information

Tweet Diabetes medications are a common form of treatment for people with diabetes. There are many different types of diabetes medicines, or anti-diabetic drugs, and this includes insulin, which has its own area within the site. Whilst each drug is unique in the way it works to help patients with diabetes keep their condition under control, some act similarly to one other and are grouped in the same class of drugs. The way in which they are administered can also differ, with some medicines taken orally and others injected directly into the blood. Are diabetes drugs suitable for all diabetics? Most diabetes drugs are designed for people with type 2 diabetes who are unable to control their blood sugar levels through strict diet and exercise alone. But some, such as metformin, are sometimes taken alongside insulin treatment for people with type 1 diabetes. Medication guides Explore the 18 most common medications for diabetes: Assists insulin in controlling post-meal glucose levels. Can more than one drug be taken at the same time? Depending on individual circumstances, a GP may prescribe more than one anti-diabetic drug to help treat a patient’s diabetes. Watch the video below for more information on the types of diabetes medication available. What are the side effects of anti-diabetic medicines? As with any type of medication, blood glucose-lowering drugs can have a number of side effects. These potentially harmful effects are listed in the patient information leaflet that accompanies the medication, so make sure you check this before starting your drug treatment. You may not experience any of the adverse effects listed, but if you do, consult your doctor and/or diabetes care team as they may be able to suggest another suitable medication for your condition. They will a Continue reading >>

Table Of Medications

Table Of Medications

Medications used to treat type 2 diabetes include: Use this table to look up the different medications that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes. Use the links below to find medications within the table quickly, or click the name of the drug to link to expanded information about the drug. Table of oral medications, incretion-based therapy and amylin analog therapy: Medicine FDA Approval Formulations (color indicated if available by Brand only) Dosing Comments (SE = possible side effects) STIMULATORS OF INSULIN RELEASE (Insulin Secretagogues) – increase insulin secretion from the pancreas1 SULFONYLUREAS (SFUs) Tolbutamide Orinase® various generics 1957 500 mg tablets Initial: 1000-2000 mg daily Range: 250-3000 mg (seldom need >2000 mg/day) Dose: Taken two or three times daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain Preferred SFU for elderly Must be taken 2-3 times daily Glimepiride Amaryl® various generics 11/95 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg tablets Initial: 1-2 mg daily Range: 1-8 mg Dose: Taken once daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain Need to take only once daily Glipizide Glucotrol® Glucotrol XL® various generics 5/84 4/94 5 mg, 10 mg tablets ER: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg tablets Initial: 5 mg daily Range: 2.5-40 mg2 (20 mg for XL) Dose: Taken once or twice (if >15 mg) daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain Preferred SFU for elderly ER = extended release/take once a day Glyburide Micronase®, DiaBeta® various generics 5/84 1.25 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg tablets Initial: 2.5-5 mg daily Range: 1.25-20 mg2 Dose: Taken once or twice daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain Glyburide, micronized Glynase PresTab® various generics 3/92 1.5 mg, 3 mg, 4.5 mg, 6 mg micronized tablets Initial: 1.5-3 mg daily Range: 0.75-12 mg Dose: Taken once or twice (if >6 mg) daily SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain GLINIDES Repaglini Continue reading >>

Oral And Injectable (non-insulin) Pharmacological Agents For Type 2 Diabetes

Oral And Injectable (non-insulin) Pharmacological Agents For Type 2 Diabetes

Go to: ABSTRACT Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions throughout the world and will continue to grow and remain the greatest global health challenge the world has ever known: 415 million people have diabetes (1 in 11 adults), and the number of people with the disease is predicted to rise beyond 642 million (55%; 1 in 10 adults) in less than 25 years. Individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at a significantly greater risk for developing microvascular and macrovascular diseases. In response to the enormity of the growing problem, efforts to identify and develop new pharmacological agents for type 2 diabetes have increased dramatically over the past 25 years. Currently in the US and most other world areas, there are nine classes of orally available pharmacological agents to treat type 2 diabetes: 1) sulfonylureas, 2) meglitinides, 3) metformin (a biguanide), 4) thiazolidinediones, 5) α-glucosidase inhibitors, 6) dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, 7) bile acid sequestrant, 8) dopamine agonist, and 9) sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLT2) inhibitors. A variety of fixed combination of 2 agents are also available. Besides the many options for insulin, there are also two classes of injectable medications: glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (incretin mimetics) and an amylin analogue. This chapter provides an overview and description of the existing oral and injectable (non-insulin) pharmacological agents for type 2 diabetes along with an up-to-date listing of those agents currently in early and late-stage clinical development. Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions throughout the world and will continue to grow and remain the greatest global health challenge the world has ever known: 415 million people have diabetes Continue reading >>

For Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

For Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

What is the most important information I should know about Victoza®? Victoza® may cause serious side effects, including: Possible thyroid tumors, including cancer. Tell your health care provider if you get a lump or swelling in your neck, hoarseness, trouble swallowing, or shortness of breath. These may be symptoms of thyroid cancer. In studies with rats and mice, Victoza® and medicines that work like Victoza® caused thyroid tumors, including thyroid cancer. It is not known if Victoza® will cause thyroid tumors or a type of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in people. Who should not use Victoza®? Do not use Victoza® if: you or any of your family have ever had MTC or if you have an endocrine system condition called Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2). you are allergic to liraglutide or any of the ingredients in Victoza®. What should I tell my health care provider before using Victoza®? Before using Victoza®, tell your health care provider if you: have or have had problems with your pancreas, kidneys, or liver. have any other medical conditions or severe problems with your stomach, such as slowed emptying of your stomach (gastroparesis) or problems with digesting food. are pregnant or breastfeeding or plan to become pregnant or breastfeed. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, herbal supplements, and other medicines to treat diabetes, including insulin or sulfonylureas. How should I use Victoza®? Do not mix insulin and Victoza® together in the same injection. You may give an injection of Victoza® and insulin in the same body area (such as your stomach area), but not right next to each other. Do not share your Victoza® pen with ot Continue reading >>

List Of Medications Available For Diabetes

List Of Medications Available For Diabetes

Diabetes is a disorder of blood sugar levels. There are two main types of diabetes, plus rarer forms such as diabetes that can happen during pregnancy, known as gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results in high blood sugar levels because the body stops producing insulin, the hormone that regulates sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes leads to high blood sugars because the insulin in the body does not work effectively. The broad differences in treatment between the two types are: Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injection. Careful diet and activity planning is needed to avoid complications of treatment. Type 2 diabetes is treated with lifestyle measures, drugs taken by mouth, and sometimes also insulin if the other treatments fail. Medications for type 1 diabetes Treatment for type 1 diabetes is always with insulin, to replace the body's absent insulin and keep blood sugar levels under control. Insulin treatments Insulin is usually given by injection - by patients themselves, injecting it under the skin, or if hospitalized, sometimes directly into the blood. It is also available as a powder that patients can breathe in. Insulin injections vary by how quickly they act, their peak action, and how long they last. The aim is to mimic how the body would produce insulin throughout the day and in relation to energy intake. 1. Rapid-acting injections take effect within 5 to 15 minutes but last for a shorter time of 3 to 5 hours: Insulin lispro (Humalog) Insulin aspart (NovoLog) Insulin glulisine (Apidra) 2. Short-acting injections take effect from between 30 minutes and 1 hour, and last for 6 to 8 hours: Regular insulin (Humulin R and Novolin R) 3. Intermediate-acting injections take effect after about 2 hours, and last for 18 to 26 hours: Insulin isophane, also called NPH i Continue reading >>

New Injectables For Diabetes: Shots That Aren’t Insulin Are Becoming Popular Among Diabetics

New Injectables For Diabetes: Shots That Aren’t Insulin Are Becoming Popular Among Diabetics

No, it’s not insulin. New injections for diabetes may change the way we manage adult-onset diabetes. Approval of a new once-a-week injection called Bydureon is an exciting new option for blood sugar control. This new class of injectables may be popular for several reasons, not the least of which is they also result in weight loss. Yippee! Though it sounds straight out of outer space, these drugs are called incretin mimetics, meaning they mimic the incretin hormones that tell your body to release insulin after eating. These drugs work in very cool ways by enhancing insulin secretion, slowing stomach emptying, reducing food intake, and promoting proliferation of β-cells (cells that make insulin). Byetta (exenatide) was the first in this class and is used to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes. The most interesting part is that exenatide is an amino acid isolated from the salivary gland venom of the Gila monster. There are now three choices in this class: Byetta, Victoza and the newly approved Bydureon. All three may be used with other oral diabetes medicines. All three are used to treat adult onset diabetes and all three result in weight loss, a nice bonus. So how are Byetta, Victoza and the new Bydureon different? Byetta (exenatide) is injected twice a day before your morning and evening meal. Victoza (liraglutide) is given once a day instead of twice a day (like Byetta). The just-approved Bydureon is an extended release form Byetta (exenatide). Bydureon is attractive because it is a once-weekly injection. While all of them may cause some nausea/vomiting, this is higher with Byetta and was the most common adverse event associated with Byetta. The nausea/vomiting decreases in frequency and severity over time. Reports of pancreatitis have dogged a Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Non-insulin Injectable Medications

Diabetes: Non-insulin Injectable Medications

What are some non-insulin injectable drugs to treat diabetes, and how do they work? How it works: Keeps food in the stomach longer, increases insulin when you eat, and lowers the amount of glucose released by the liver. Comments/special instructions: Byetta® is taken twice a day, within one hour before the two largest meals of the day. Byetta® can be used in combination with a sulfonylurea, metformin, thiazolidinediones, or Lantus. Byetta® helps with weight loss. The risk of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is greater if Byetta® is used with insulin or a sulfonylurea. Byetta® should not be taken if there is a personal or family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and by patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2). Exenatide Extended Release (Bydureon®) Bydureon is an extended-release form of exenatide and is injected once every seven days. Bydureon® cannot be used when taking Byetta. Bydureon® can be used in combination with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or thiazolidienediones. The risk of hypoglycemia is greater if Bydureon® is used with sulfonylurea. Bydureon® should not be used in combination with insulin. Bydureon should not be taken if there is a personal or family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and by patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2). How it works: Keeps food in the stomach longer, increases insulin when you eat, and lowers the amount of glucose released by the liver. Comments/special instructions: Victoza® is taken once a day at any time, regardless of meal times. Victoza® can be used in combination with sulfonylureas, metformin, or thiazolidinediones. Victoza® helps with weight loss. The risk of hypoglycemia is greater if Victoza® is used with insulin or a sulfonylurea. Vict Continue reading >>

Injectable Type 2 Diabetes Medications List

Injectable Type 2 Diabetes Medications List

What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that leads to high levels of blood glucose because the body cannot produce enough insulin or it becomes resistant to it. There are 2 forms of diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the United States, 90% of patients are suffering from T2D. Patients with T1D require injectable insulin to control their levels of blood sugar because they cannot produce insulin naturally. On the other hand, patients with T2D can usually manage their condition through oral diabetes drugs, proper diet and regular exercise. In some cases, type 2 diabetic patients may take injectable diabetes medication to help them manage their levels of blood sugar. It is important to control blood sugar levels so as to prevent the risk of long-term diabetes complications. Injectable type 2 diabetes medications Injectable diabetes medications are usually prescribed when oral diabetes medications fail to control the level of blood sugar in type 2 diabetic patients. Injectable drugs that are used by type 2 diabetic patients could either be insulin-based or non-insulin injectables, such as Amylin. Injectable insulin is usually the last treatment to be prescribed to patients with T2D, and is only added when oral diabetes drugs like metformin or non-insulin injections fail to work. Here is the list of injectable type 2 diabetes drugs. Adlyxin Adlyxin is a once daily injectable diabetic drug that is usually prescribed together with diet and exercise program. Adlyxin is a new injectable drug in a class of drugs called GLP-1 or glucagon like peptide 1. Adlyxin should be used to control the levels of blood sugar in type 2 diabetic people and not those with T1D. The common side effects of Adlyxin include: Diarrhea; Dizzi Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medication

Diabetes Medication

There are different types of medications available for diabetes mellitus with each having their own mechanism of action and side effects. The best drug should be chosen by a doctor assessing the condition of the patient – please note all these are prescription medicines and need to be taken properly, under medical-supervision and with correct dosage and at the right timings. You must, at all times, follow instructions from your doctor. Never self-medicate. Basically, anti-diabetic drugs can be categorized into two classes: A. Oral anti-diabetic drugs: This includes the following classes: Insulin secretagogues: sulphonylureas and non-sulphonylureas(Glinides/Meglitinide) Biguanides Thiazolidinediones a-glucosidase inhibitors Di-peptydyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors/gliptins Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors B. Injectable anti-diabetic drugs: Insulin preparations Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) agonists According to A consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, a tier system is used to prescribe medicines depending on how validated (tested) the medication is. The tier is divided into steps depending on the stage of diabetes and how the patient responds to the lifestyle changes and medicines. Tier 1: This includes the best established, most-effective and most cost effective therapeutic strategies to control blood sugar. This is also the most preferred strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes. The tier is divided into 3 steps. Step 1: These are prescribed at when someone is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Apart from a lifestyle change, a mild medication that is well tested, has low and less severe side-effects and is cheap is prescribed. Step 2: A second medication is added when step 1 Continue reading >>

Comprehensive List Of Diabetes Medications

Comprehensive List Of Diabetes Medications

Understanding Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes occurs when your body no longer makes or uses insulin as it’s intended to. Insulin is a naturally occurring substance in the body, but some people don’t make enough of it or their cells become insulin resistant. Diabetic patients must manage higher than normal blood sugar (or glucose) levels in the body. Diabetes is classified into two types (Type 1 and Type 2). Diabetics of both types require medicines to normalize blood glucose levels. If the doctor says you’re diabetic, he or she will prescribe drugs for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. It’s good to know about the universe of treatment options diabetics have today. Here’s a comprehensive list of available diabetes medications along with links to Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes medication prices that will help you save up to 90% off U.S. retail prices. You may also find our Cheat Sheet helpful: 12 Ways to Save Money on Your Diabetes Medications [Cheat Sheet] Type 1 Diabetes Medications Short-Action Insulin Brand names: Novolin and Humulin (regular insulin) are two commonly prescribed, short-acting drugs your doctor may prescribe. Rapid-Action Insulin Brand names: Levemir FlexPen and NovoLog Flexpen are two commonly prescribed rapid action insulins. Brand name: Humalog Pen (insulin lispro) Brand name: Apidra (insulin glulisine) Intermediate-Action Insulin Brand name: Novolin N and Humulin N Pen (insulin isophane) are two intermediate-action insulins your doctor may prescribe. Long-Action Insulin Brand name Tresiba (insulin degludec) Brand name Levemir Flexpen (insulin detemir) Brand name Lantus Vials (insulin glargine) Brand name Toujeo (insulin glargine) Combination Medications Insulin Brand name: Ryzodeg Brand name: NovoLog Mix 70/30 Brand name: Novolin 70/30 Brand na Continue reading >>

Diabetes Drugs

Diabetes Drugs

Tweet There are a number of different types of diabetes drugs - with some having similar ways of acting. Drugs which act similarly to each other are put into the same class of drugs. Below is a list of the most common diabetes drug classes, an A-Z of all diabetes drugs, how they work, who they are for and which medications fall into these drug classes. Jump to the treatment you’re interested in: Biguanides / Metformin Sulphonylureas Meglitinides / Prandial glucose regulator / Glinides Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Thiazolidinedione / Glitazones DPP-4 inhibitors / Gliptins Incretin mimetics / GLP-1 analogues Amylin analogues A to Z of diabetes drugs Insulin Insulin is a hormone which helps to regulate blood sugar. A number of different types of insulin are available as medication, with some insulins acting for as long as a day and others acting for only a few hours. However, insulin is prescribed for people with type 1 diabetes and for people with type 2 diabetes who have not responded so well on oral medication (tablets). Read more on insulin Biguanides / Metformin The only available diabetes medication in the biguanides class of drugs is metformin. Biguanides prevent the liver from producing glucose and helps to improve the body’s sensitivity towards insulin. Metformin is commonly used as a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes and may occasionally be prescribed, in combination with insulin, for people with type 1 diabetes. Read more on metformin Sulphonylureas Sulphonylureas are the class of antidiabetic drug for type 2 diabetes that tends to include those drugs which end in ‘ide’. The following drugs are all in the sulphonylureas class (branded names in brackets): Glibenclamide –also known as Glyburide (Daonil) Glipizide (Glucotrol) Gliquidone (Glurenorm) Continue reading >>

Diabetes Drugs

Diabetes Drugs

XIAFLEX® is a prescription medicine used to treat adults with Dupuytren's contracture when a "cord" can be felt. It is not known if XIAFLEX® is safe and effective in children under the age of 18. Do not receive XIAFLEX® if you have had an allergic reaction to collagenase clostridium histolyticum or any of the ingredients in XIAFLEX®, or to any other collagenase product. See the end of the Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in XIAFLEX®. XIAFLEX® can cause serious side effects, including: Tendon rupture or ligament damage. Receiving an injection of XIAFLEX® may cause damage to a tendon or ligament in your hand and cause it to break or weaken. This could require surgery to fix the damaged tendon or ligament. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have trouble bending your injected finger (towards the wrist) after the swelling goes down or you have problems using your treated hand after your follow-up visit Nerve injury or other serious injury of the hand. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get numbness, tingling, increased pain, or tears in the skin (laceration) in your treated finger or hand after your injection or after your follow-up visit Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. Severe allergic reactions can happen in people who receive XIAFLEX® because it contains foreign proteins. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms of an allergic reaction after an injection of XIAFLEX®: hives swollen face breathing trouble chest pain low blood pressure dizziness or fainting Increased chance of bleeding. Bleeding or bruising at the injection site can happen in people who receive XIAFLEX®. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have a problem with your blood clotting. XIAFLEX® may not b Continue reading >>

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