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Infections And Diabetes

Yeast, Diabetes, And Sex

Yeast, Diabetes, And Sex

Vaginal yeast infections are annoying, not dangerous, but they can seriously hamper your sex life, especially if you have diabetes. What’s the connection, and what can you do to prevent and treat yeast infections? According to Chris Illiades, MD, on the website Everyday Health, “Normally, Candida albicans, the fungus that causes yeast infection, lives in balance with the other microorganisms in your body…. But anything that upsets this normal balance can lead to an overgrowth of yeast and can cause a yeast infection.” Diabetes is one of the things that can upset the normal balance because yeast love to eat sugar, especially glucose. In fact, they help make beer by eating sugar and turning it into alcohol, and they are crucial in bread-making because after eating sugar, they produce a gas that makes dough rise. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, there is likely to be more in your vagina and other tissues, so yeast grow better there. Yeast irritating the inside of your vagina is called “vaginitis.” In the tissues around the vagina – the vulva – such irritation is called “vulvitis.” Both are far more common in women with diabetes. There are many causes of yeast infections. One is the use of antibiotics, which can change the balance in the vagina by killing bacteria, thus allowing yeast to grow unchecked. A common pattern is for a woman to treat a bladder infection with antibiotics, only to wind up with a yeast infection that is just as annoying. According to Dr. Illiades, other causes of vaginitis include stress, illness, menstrual periods, pregnancy, and other medications. Diabetes Health writer Linda von Wartburg wrote that menopause may also increase the risk of vaginitis. Preventing Yeast Infections You can reduce your risk of vaginitis by ma Continue reading >>

Respiratory Infections In Diabetes: Reviewing The Risks And Challenges

Respiratory Infections In Diabetes: Reviewing The Risks And Challenges

ABSTRACT: Although the organisms that cause community-acquired pneumonia are similar in diabetic and nondiabetic patients, those who have diabetes mellitus (DM) may have more severe disease and a poorer prognosis. Elevated blood glucose levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with pneumonia, and the mortality risk may be as high as 30% in patients with uncontrolled DM. Thus, appropriate treatment- and possibly prevention-of bacterial pneumonia should include aggressive efforts directed at glycemic control. Other respiratory infections, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and fungal pneumonia, also are associated with greater morbidity in patients with DM. Diabetic patients with tuberculosis are more likely to present with bilateral lung involvement and pleural effusions. (J Respir Dis. 2008;29(7):285-293) Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with increasing incidence, morbidity, and mortality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 180 million persons have DM and 5% of deaths worldwide can be attributed to this disease. Also, there is evidence that DM is associated with an increased risk of infections and with more severe clinical consequences of such infections.1-3 The mechanisms that lead to excess morbidity and mortality are related in part to the host immune defects associated with DM. Coexisting conditions, such as vascular, renal, and cardiovascular diseases, and the various interventions associated with such diseases, contribute significantly to the increased incidence and complexity of infections in patients with DM. In this article, we will briefly review the immunological and respiratory changes associated with DM. Then we will focus on the challenges of community- Continue reading >>

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection

Diabetics are particularly prone to urinary tract infections (UTIs) because hyperglycemia[1] causes sugar to spill into the urine, and that sugary urine, while still in the body, becomes friendly to bacterial cultures. Since another symptom of hyperglycemia is excess urination, all the tissues of the urinary tract are being frequently bathed with this sugary bacterial culture[2]. In addition, a UTI can be a complication to diabetes since infections tend to cause hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia is also possible when dealing with infections[4][5]. The bacteria can migrate from the bladder to the kidneys causing Kidney infection if bladder infections are left untreated[6] The best prevention for this vicious circle is regulating blood glucose as best you can and treating the UTI when it becomes apparent. This is usually done with antibiotics. Recurring UTIs in diabetic cats can often be a sign of poor regulation[7]. UTI's can often be hidden[8] (called occult infections), with no clinical signs and normal-looking urinalysis results. Urine culture may help detect these hidden infections[9]. Some dogs have chronic urinary tract infections with no evidence of it in their blood glucose levels[10]. Recurring urinary tract infections may be the first 'alert' regarding an underlying disease or condition. The 2003 study link below of 100 dogs who had various recurrent urinary tract infections found that 71 of them had other diseases or conditions which would make them more prone to having UTIs. Those who had their predisposing disorder(s) AND their urinary infections treated were much less likely to suffer recurrences of their urinary problems than those whose UTIs alone were treated[11][12]. Need discussion of symptoms, treatment, and the effect of a UTI diet on a diabetic diet. Find Continue reading >>

Sepsis And Diabetes

Sepsis And Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (life-long) autoimmune disease that has a significant impact on your life. Having diabetes means you must work to control your blood glucose (sugar) levels to be sure that they don’t get too high or too low. The amount of glucose in your blood is important. Your body needs glucose for energy, but too much of it can destroy body tissues and too little can starve your body of nutrients. People who have diabetes are also at risk of developing wounds and sores that don’t heal well. While the wounds are present, they are at high risk of developing infection. And, again because of the diabetes, the infections can get severe quickly. When infection overwhelms the body, the body can respond by developing sepsis and going into septic shock. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and rapid treatment for survival. Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly) and/or amputations. What is diabetes? Your pancreas is a small organ (about 6” by 1.5”) that is part of your digestive system. It is connected to your small intestine and it lies just below your stomach towards the back. Your pancreas has a few roles, one is to help digest the food you eat and another is to secrete (send out) insulin, which stimulates your cells to use the glucose in the food and drink you consume. When a person has diabetes, the pancre Continue reading >>

Diabetes Linked To 3x Higher Risk Of A Staph Blood Infection In Study

Diabetes Linked To 3x Higher Risk Of A Staph Blood Infection In Study

New research from Denmark finds that people with diabetes are at three times greater risk than non-diabetics of developing a potentially fatal blood infection caused by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The study, “Diabetes and risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A population-based case-control study,” was published in the European Society of Endocrinology journal. Staphylococcus aureus lives on the surface of human skin, in symbiosis, but once it enters the bloodstream can cause a deadly infection. In fact, according to the Aarhus University Hospital and Aalbor University Hospital University researchers, a 30-day death rate analysis found that 20 percent to 30 percent of Staphylococcus aureus infections are lethal. The study was conducted by tracking the medical records of 30,000 individuals diagnosed with community acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections for the first time between 2000 and 2012. The teams assessed the staph infections’ progression according to several diabetes-related traits, such as time since diabetes’ diagnosis, glycemic control, and the presence of diabetes complications. From their analysis, the researchers found that people with diabetes of any type have a three times greater risk of contracting Staphylococcus aureus blood infections than those without diabetes, largely due to decreased immunity or coexisting morbidities. This risk increased to more than seven times in type 1 diabetics, and was almost three times higher in those with type 2 diabetes. According to the study, 95 percent of diabetics have type 2 disease, which is often associated with obesity and caused by the body’s inability to properly use insulin. Insulin is the hormone that allows the body to metabolize sugar, providing energy to cells. T Continue reading >>

One Test May Spot Cancer, Infections, Diabetes And More

One Test May Spot Cancer, Infections, Diabetes And More

One Test May Spot Cancer, Infections, Diabetes and More Researchers are starting to diagnose more ailments using DNA fragments found in the blood Along with red blood cells, white blood cells and a panoply of hormones, every drop of your blood contains tiny shards of DNA spewed out of various cells in your body as they die. Recent massive increases in the speed and efficiency of the instruments used to analyze these fragments of genetic information have led to some impressive advances in the development of so-called cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testsparticularly when it comes to prenatal testing of a developing fetus. But the best may yet be to come. Whenever cells die for one reason for another, theyll release DNA into the blood, says Kun Zhang, professor of bioengineering at the University of California, San Diego. If you can recognize where they come from, there are multiple possibilities to detect the damage in different parts of the body. Because cfDNA tests only require a simple blood draw, they may one day greatly improve a physicians ability to diagnose a wide range of illnesses at their earliest stages, when they are often easier to treat. They could also reduce the need for painful biopsies to monitor the health of a new organ after a transplant. In the words of one researcher, cfDNA could become the ultimate molecular stethoscope that opens up a whole new way of practicing medicinein much the same way that the acoustic stethoscope forever changed diagnostic opportunities after its introduction in the 1800s. The first commercial application of cfDNA sequencing debuted in 2011. New blood tests can identify Downs syndrome and similar genetic conditions during the first months of pregnancy by checking the fetal DNA in the bloodstream of a pregnant woman. (Anywhere from Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Infections

Diabetes And Infections

For people with diabetes, high blood sugars increase the risk of infections starting and spreading more quickly. High blood sugars also slow down the healing process and make infections more resistant to treatment. The first line of defense when it comes to managing the risk for infections is to manage your blood sugar levels as close to your target range as possible because high blood sugar can slow or limit your body’s ability to fight off infection. Some of the more likely places for infections in people with diabetes include the bladder, vagina, feet, kidneys, skin and gums. The Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism published a study by scientists who explain that the greater frequency of infections in people with diabetes is caused by numerous factors such as: high blood sugar levels that weaken the immune system micro- and macro-angiopathies (blood vessel disease) neuropathy which masks pain signals of an injury decrease in antibacterial activity of urine gastrointestinal and urinary function impairment frequent medical interventions due to other health issues People with diabetes are much more likely than people without diabetes to have a bladder infection which is also known as a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTI infections may involve the ureters, urethra, kidneys or bladder and you may experience pain, tiredness, nausea and fever. If you have a UTI, it is crucial to treat the infection because if not, the bacteria may spread to your kidneys and cause a dangerous kidney infection. An American Diabetes Association (ADA) published article states that more than 50% of men and women with diabetes live with some type of bladder dysfunction which involves symptoms like “urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia, and incontinence.” Early detection and treat Continue reading >>

Diabetic Foot Infections

Diabetic Foot Infections

Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated. Diabetic foot infections, which are infections of the soft tissue or bone below the malleoli, are a common clinical problem. Most infections occur in a site of skin tr Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Skin Conditions

Diabetes: Skin Conditions

Diabetes can affect every part of the body, including the skin. Many people with diabetes will have a skin disorder caused or affected by diabetes at some time in their lives. In some cases, skin problems can be the first sign that a person has diabetes. In some cases, people with diabetes develop skin conditions that can affect anyone. Examples of these conditions include bacterial infections, fungal infections, and itching. However, people with diabetes also are more prone to getting certain conditions. These include diabetic dermopathy, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, and eruptive xanthomatosis. Some common skin conditions in people with diabetes: Acanthosis nigricans This is a condition that results in the darkening and thickening of the skin. Often, areas of tan or brown skin, sometimes slightly raised, appear on the sides of the neck, the armpits, and groin. Occasionally, these darkened areas might appear on the hands, elbows, and knees. Acanthosis nigricans can affect otherwise healthy people, or it can be associated with certain medical conditions. It is frequently found in people with diabetes. Allergic reactions Allergic reactions to foods, bug bites, and medicines can cause rashes, depressions or bumps on the skin. If you think you might be having an allergic reaction to a medicine, contact your health care provider. Severe allergic reactions might require emergency treatment. It is especially important for people with diabetes to check for rashes or bumps in the areas where they inject their insulin. Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of blood vessels thickening of the vessel walls. While atherosclerosis most often is associated with blood vessels in or near the heart, it can affect blood vessels throughout the body, including those that su Continue reading >>

7. Long Course Of Suppository Medication Most Effective If You Have Yeast Infections With Diabetes

7. Long Course Of Suppository Medication Most Effective If You Have Yeast Infections With Diabetes

People who are diabetic experience spikes in blood sugar. Sugar is a favorite food of different types of yeast. This includes candida. Mix the two together and you have a yeast overgrowth. And since vaginal yeast infection is said to have occurred when there is an overgrowth of yeast, this makes diabetes one of those conditions that increase the risks of a candida yeast infections -- oral, vaginal and any other. The first was that diabetic women were more prone to candida yeast infections as opposed to non-diabetic women (18.8% vs. 11.8%). The second finding was that women with diabetes had a higher risk of displaying yeast infection symptoms when compared to those who didn't have diabetes. The third finding was that when using fluconazole ( a vaginal yeast infection treatment), the diabetic group had a lower cure rate (75%, although this is still good) than those who didn’t have diabetes (86.7%). This was a study that was published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. You can find more details of the study here. According to Heathline, since high blood sugar levels encourage yeast infections, the best way treat the yeast infection is to take away the thing that is feeding it -- high blood sugar. Better management of diabetes is therefore a must if you want to keep yeast infections at bay. Treatment will also be easier as whichever medication you will be using will be fighting against a yeast-starved fungi ( candida, the yeast that causes most cases of vaginal yeast infections is a fungus). Do you have a yeast infection that keeps coming back? If your infection simply won’t go away, your diabetes might be to blame. It all has to do with the environment that your body creates. A healthy vagina can have yeast cells without causing any Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

As the incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, common focus areas for diabetes control are blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. Addressing and controlling these factors as well as other factors associated with diabetes are essential for a better quality of life; however, awareness of an increased risk of infections is also warranted in diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia. The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defense, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defense. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system has physical and chemical mechanisms of response. These include but are not limited to sneezing, coughing, sweating, maintenance of normal body temperature, and gram-positive normal flora on the skin. Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Complications of Chronic Hyperglycemia Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through diffe Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Some types of infection occur more frequently in patients with diabetes. This increased risk is largely attributable to an altered immune response due to chronic hyperglycaemia, but increased susceptibility to infection may also result from diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. Risk of most common infections is only modestly increased (e.g. 1.2 fold), but a number of rare but potentially fatal infections occur primarily or even almost exclusively in patients with diabetes. These include mucormycosis, emphysematous urinary tract infections, emphysematous cholecystitis, necrotizing fasciitis and malignant otitis externa. Immediate antimicrobial and/or surgical treatment is needed to prevent serious complications from these infections, including death. In general, antimicrobial treatment of infections in patients with diabetes is not different than in patients without diabetes. Glucose lowering therapy often needs to be increased to counter the loss of control associated with infection. Vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcal infections are recommended for patients with diabetes. Incidence and contributing factors People with diabetes are reported to experience 21% more infections than the general population[1]. Several factors may contribute to this, for example possible ‘reporting bias’: more frequent medical visits due to diabetes may lead to better recording of infectious complications. Even so, it seems clear that the risk of many common infections increases in proportion to hyperglycemia. Special problems may also arise in relations to diabetic nephropathy, which may undermine host defences against infection, and peripheral vascular disease which may impair tissue nutrition, oxygen supply and the ability to mount a Continue reading >>

Your Diabetes Puts You At Greater Risk Of Infections

Your Diabetes Puts You At Greater Risk Of Infections

Diabetes mellitus is a complex, chronic disease. By 2025, the disease will have affected a whopping 380 million people worldwide. Reduced immunity is one of the worst health challenges of diabetes. It makes diabetics vulnerable to a host of infections. Such infections include both common ones as well as those unique to diabetics. An example is rhinocerebral mucormycosis, a type of fungal infection. Diabetics with uncontrolled sugar are at high risk of getting this infection. Those with diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state are particularly vulnerable. Nearly 70% of all reported cases of this fungus in the U.S. happen to diabetics. Diabetes And Infections: What’s The Connection? High blood sugar levels compromise how immune cells work. Our immune system produces special proteins called “antibodies.” These antibodies attach to bacterial cells that cause diseases. And they “mark” these cells for destruction by other cells of the immune system. When blood glucose levels are high, these antibodies get “glycated.” In other words, they are literally “stuck” to glucose molecules, making them ineffective. Hyperglycemia also hampers the production of “cytokines.” Cytokines are the chemical messengers of the immune system. Cytokines play a vital role in communication between cells. This communication is crucial for fighting off infections quickly. High blood sugar also hampers other immune cells called “phagocytes,” which are responsible for destroying bacterial cells. High blood sugar also feeds viruses and bacteria, helping them multiply faster. What Are the Common Infections Related to Diabetes? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Diabetics are at a higher risk of serious infections in their upper urinary tract. These infections affect Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Infection: How To Spot The Signs

Diabetes And Infection: How To Spot The Signs

Diabetes can slow down your body's ability to fight infection. The high sugar levels in your blood and tissues allow bacteria to grow and help infections develop more quickly. Common sites for these problems are your bladder, kidneys, vagina, gums, feet, and skin. Early treatment can prevent more serious issues later on. What to Look For Most infections in people with diabetes can be treated. But you have to be able to spot the symptoms. Tell your doctor immediately if you have any of the following: Fever over 101 F Pain, tenderness, redness, or swelling Wound or cut that won't heal Red, warm, or draining sore Sore throat, scratchy throat, or pain when you swallow Sinus drainage, nasal congestion, headaches, or tenderness along upper cheekbones White patches in your mouth or on your tongue Flu-like symptoms (chills, aches, headache, or fatigue) or generally feeling "lousy" Painful or frequent peeing or a constant urge to go Bloody, cloudy, or foul-smelling pee *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, if patient is taking acetaminophen, or if symptoms/expectations do not match CGM readings, and if not performed, may result in hypoglycemia. Please see important risk and safety information. Continue reading >>

Get Unlimited Access On Medscape.

Get Unlimited Access On Medscape.

You’ve become the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal of medicine. A must-read every morning. ” Continue reading >>

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