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Infections And Diabetes

Diabetes Symptoms You Can’t Afford To Ignore & What You Can Do About Them

Diabetes Symptoms You Can’t Afford To Ignore & What You Can Do About Them

In the U.S., diabetes — or diabetes mellitus (DM) — is full-blown epidemic, and that’s not hyperbole. An estimated 29 million Americans have some form of diabetes, nearly 10 percent of the population, and even more alarming, the average American has a one in three chance of developing diabetes symptoms at some point in his or her lifetime. (1) The statistics are alarming, and they get even worse. Another 86 million people have prediabetes, with up to 30 percent of them developing type 2 diabetes within five years. And perhaps the most concerning, about a third of people who have diabetes — approximately 8 million adults — are believed to be undiagnosed and unaware. That’s why it’s so vital to understand and recognize diabetes symptoms. And there’s actually good news. While there’s technically no known “cure” for diabetes — whether it’s type 1, type 2 or gestational diabetes — there’s plenty that can be done to help reverse diabetes naturally, control diabetes symptoms and prevent diabetes complications. The Most Common Diabetes Symptoms Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results from problems controlling the hormone insulin. Diabetes symptoms are a result of higher-than-normal levels of glucose (sugar) in your blood. With type 1 diabetes, symptoms usually develop sooner and at a younger age than with type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes also normally causes more severe symptoms. In fact, because type 2 diabetes signs and symptoms can be minimal in some cases, it sometimes can go diagnosed for a long period of time, causing the problem to worsen and long-term damage to develop. While it’s still not entirely known how this happens, prolonged exposure to high blood sugar can damage nerve fibers that affect the blood vessels, heart, e Continue reading >>

Diabetes: 12 Warning Signs That Appear On Your Skin

Diabetes: 12 Warning Signs That Appear On Your Skin

Diabetes can affect many parts of your body, including your skin. When diabetes affects the skin, it’s often a sign that your blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. This could mean that: You have undiagnosed diabetes, or pre-diabetes Your treatment for diabetes needs to be adjusted If you notice any of the following warning signs on your skin, it’s time to talk with your doctor. This skin condition often begins as small raised solid bumps that look like pimples. As it progresses, these bumps turn into patches of swollen and hard skin. The patches can be yellow, reddish, or brown. You may also notice: The surrounding skin has a shiny porcelain-like appearance You can see blood vessels The skin is itchy and painful The skin disease goes through cycles where it is active, inactive, and then active again The medical name for this condition is necrobiosis lipodica (neck-row-by-oh-sis lee-poi-dee-ka). TAKE ACTION Get tested for diabetes if you have not been diagnosed. Work with your doctor to better control your diabetes. See a dermatologist about your skin. Necorbiosis lipodica is harmless, but it can lead to complications. A dark patch (or band) of velvety skin on the back of your neck, armpit, groin, or elsewhere could mean that you have too much insulin in your blood. AN is often a sign of prediabetes. The medical name for this skin condition is acanthosis nigricans (ay-can-THOE-sis NIE-gri-cans). TAKE ACTION: Get tested for diabetes. 3. Hard, thickening skin When this develops on the fingers, toes, or both, the medical name for this condition is digital sclerosis (sclear-row-sis). On the hands, you’ll notice tight, waxy skin on the backs of your hands. The fingers can become stiff and difficult to move. If diabetes has been poorly controlled for years, it can f Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Diabetes Mellitus And Infection

Some types of infection occur more frequently in patients with diabetes. This increased risk is largely attributable to an altered immune response due to chronic hyperglycaemia, but increased susceptibility to infection may also result from diabetic complications such as diabetic neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. Risk of most common infections is only modestly increased (e.g. 1.2 fold), but a number of rare but potentially fatal infections occur primarily or even almost exclusively in patients with diabetes. These include mucormycosis, emphysematous urinary tract infections, emphysematous cholecystitis, necrotizing fasciitis and malignant otitis externa. Immediate antimicrobial and/or surgical treatment is needed to prevent serious complications from these infections, including death. In general, antimicrobial treatment of infections in patients with diabetes is not different than in patients without diabetes. Glucose lowering therapy often needs to be increased to counter the loss of control associated with infection. Vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcal infections are recommended for patients with diabetes. Incidence and contributing factors People with diabetes are reported to experience 21% more infections than the general population[1]. Several factors may contribute to this, for example possible ‘reporting bias’: more frequent medical visits due to diabetes may lead to better recording of infectious complications. Even so, it seems clear that the risk of many common infections increases in proportion to hyperglycemia. Special problems may also arise in relations to diabetic nephropathy, which may undermine host defences against infection, and peripheral vascular disease which may impair tissue nutrition, oxygen supply and the ability to mount a Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Diabetic Retinopathy: Q&a

Diabetes And Diabetic Retinopathy: Q&a

Q&A Menu To find the Q&As most helpful to you, please click on one of these subjects: How Does Diabetes Affect Eyes? Q: How does diabetes affect your eyes? — L.L., Connecticut A: Diabetes causes problems in the retina with what are collectively called microvascular abnormalities. The small blood vessels develop microaneurysms and leak blood. New blood vessel growth (neovascularization) occurs. Unfortunately, these blood vessels are weak and also leak. These leaks (hemorrhages) can cause irreversible damage to the retina and permanent vision loss. Patients with controlled diabetes do better than those with uncontrolled diabetes. However, even a person whose diabetes is under perfect control can still develop diabetic retinopathy — hence, the need for yearly retinal exams. — Dr. Slonim Q: Does diabetic retinopathy get progressively worse? — F.R. A: Yes. When left unrecognized and untreated, diabetic retinopathy can get worse and eventually lead to blindness. Diabetic retinopathy can even get worse despite use of the best treatments that currently exist for it. — Dr. Slonim Q: My father has type 2 diabetes and he is seeing double. We went to the hospital about a week ago and they said the diabetes had affected a nerve on the right eye. Can medicine get his sight back to normal? — W.C. A: Diabetes can affect any one of the three cranial nerves that are responsible for movement of the eyes. Diabetes is one of the more common conditions associated with sixth nerve (Abducens nerve) palsies. Paralysis of this nerve affects the lateral rectus muscle that allows the eye to look outward. There is no specific medicine for this. The paralysis can be temporary and last a few months or it can be permanent. — Dr. Slonim Q: Can diabetes cause you to have eye infections suc Continue reading >>

Yeast Infections And Diabetes, The Unwelcome Guest

Yeast Infections And Diabetes, The Unwelcome Guest

I can name many things that go hand in hand, but yeast infections and diabetes- I could think of some better things… With fluctuations in blood sugars or sub-par diabetes management, many issues may crop up with your health. Unfortunately one is…Yeast. What is a yeast infection? Our bodies are alive with bacteria and yeasts that live in a harmonious balance with one another. If something sets that balance off, we can see infection occur. In women, small amounts of yeast are always present in the vagina but when overgrowth happens an uncomfortable fungal infection sets in. Vaginal yeast infections cause irritation and itchiness on the vagina and vulva in women. Because men aren’t excluded from this, they may also experience similar symptoms under the belt. A thick white bothersome discharge may be noticed from the vagina or penis. Yeast infections may happen in children for various reasons as well. “Yeast infections are very common. About 75 percent of women have one during their lives. And almost half of women have two or more vaginal yeast infections.” “Many things can raise your risk of a vaginal yeast infection, such as: Stress Lack of sleep Illness Poor eating habits, including eating extreme amounts of sugary foods Pregnancy Having your period Taking certain medicines, including birth control pills, antibiotics, and steroids Diseases such as poorly controlled diabetes and HIV/AIDS Hormonal changes during your periods” ~ According to Womenshealth.com What is the diabetes/ yeast infection connection? Women that have diabetes will have fluctuations in their blood sugars. There will be shifts in the amount of sugar present in vaginal fluids and also in the urine. Yeast likes sugar/ glucose and proliferates freely in an environment that is moist, warm and Continue reading >>

Serious Infections In Elderly Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Serious Infections In Elderly Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease that affects 7%–8% of the overall adult population of the United States [1]. DM occurs in 18% of persons between the ages of 65 and 75 years and in as many as 40% of persons >80 years old; in addition, 23% of persons aged 65–70 years have impaired glucose tolerance, and nearly 50% of cases in elderly individuals with DM remain undiagnosed [2, 3]. Some investigators have linked persistently elevated glucose levels in individuals with DM to the subsequent development of infection and/or to the inability to control established infection [4]. Although optimal glycemic control contributes to the prevention of common and life-threatening infections associated with DM, the enhanced susceptibility to infection has also been attributed to defects in both cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity [5]; furthermore, immune senescence, which occurs as a result of aging and which predominantly affects CMI, results in increased risk for intracellular bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral infections [6, 7]. Clinical experience has clearly demonstrated that elderly individuals with DM are especially susceptible to infection. Although infections in elderly individuals with DM seem to be no different from those encountered by their younger counterparts, the combination of immune system deficits that can potentially result from DM and aging can presumably lead to serious and life-threatening complications of infection. Moreover, because a significant number of infections in elderly individuals are known to present in a subtle and atypical manner, prompt recognition and treatment with appropriate empirical broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents in conjunction with surgical intervention is often essential to eradicate such infections Continue reading >>

Infections In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Infections In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. Contrary to common belief, the association between diabetes mellitus and increased susceptibility to infection in general is not supported by strong evidence.1,2 However, many specific infections are more common in diabetic patients, and some occur almost exclusively in them. Other infections occur with increased severity and are associated with an increased risk of complications in patients with diabetes. Several aspects of immunity are altered in patients with diabetes. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte function is depressed, particularly when acidosis is also present. Leukocyte adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis may be affected.3–5 Antioxidant systems involved in bactericidal activity may also be impaired.6 The . . . From Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pa. (N.J., G.M.C., M.R.W.); and Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston (A.W.K.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Joshi at Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Suite UPC 4100, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, P.O. Box 850, MC-HU15, Hershey, PA 17033. Continue reading >>

Urinary Tract Infections In Patients With Diabetes

Urinary Tract Infections In Patients With Diabetes

Abstract Results of various epidemiologic studies suggest that bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI) occur more commonly in women with diabetes than in women without this disease. Similar findings have been demonstrated for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), with ASB being a risk factor for pyelonephritis and subsequent decline in renal function. Although ASB is not associated with serious health outcomes in healthy patients, further research needs to be undertaken regarding the impact of ASB in patients with diabetes. Patients with diabetes often have increased complications of UTI, including such rare complications as emphysematous cystitis and pyelonephritis, fungal infections (particularly Candida species), and increased severity and unusual manifestations (e.g., gram-negative pathogens other than Escherichia coli). Anatomic and functional abnormalities of the urinary tract are also associated with diabetes. Such abnormalities result in greater instrumentation of the urinary tract, thereby increasing the risk of secondary UTI. In addition, these abnormalities complicate UTI and require specialized treatment strategies. There is a greater likelihood of UTI affected by antimicrobial resistance or atypical uropathogens, and the risk of upper tract involvement is increased. Pre- and posttherapy urine cultures are therefore indicated. The initial choice of empiric antimicrobial therapy should be based on Gram stain and urine culture. Choice of antibiotic therapy should integrate local sensitivity patterns of the infecting organism. Fluoroquinolones are a reasonable empiric choice for many patients with diabetes. For seriously ill patients, including patients infected with Pseudomonas spp., such agents as imipenem, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin-tazobactam Continue reading >>

Get Unlimited Access On Medscape.

Get Unlimited Access On Medscape.

You’ve become the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal of medicine. A must-read every morning. ” Continue reading >>

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection

Diabetics are particularly prone to urinary tract infections (UTIs) because hyperglycemia[1] causes sugar to spill into the urine, and that sugary urine, while still in the body, becomes friendly to bacterial cultures. Since another symptom of hyperglycemia is excess urination, all the tissues of the urinary tract are being frequently bathed with this sugary bacterial culture[2]. In addition, a UTI can be a complication to diabetes since infections tend to cause hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia is also possible when dealing with infections[4][5]. The bacteria can migrate from the bladder to the kidneys causing Kidney infection if bladder infections are left untreated[6] The best prevention for this vicious circle is regulating blood glucose as best you can and treating the UTI when it becomes apparent. This is usually done with antibiotics. Recurring UTIs in diabetic cats can often be a sign of poor regulation[7]. UTI's can often be hidden[8] (called occult infections), with no clinical signs and normal-looking urinalysis results. Urine culture may help detect these hidden infections[9]. Some dogs have chronic urinary tract infections with no evidence of it in their blood glucose levels[10]. Recurring urinary tract infections may be the first 'alert' regarding an underlying disease or condition. The 2003 study link below of 100 dogs who had various recurrent urinary tract infections found that 71 of them had other diseases or conditions which would make them more prone to having UTIs. Those who had their predisposing disorder(s) AND their urinary infections treated were much less likely to suffer recurrences of their urinary problems than those whose UTIs alone were treated[11][12]. Need discussion of symptoms, treatment, and the effect of a UTI diet on a diabetic diet. Find Continue reading >>

People With Diabetes Face Increased Risk Of Infections

People With Diabetes Face Increased Risk Of Infections

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! People with diabetes face increased risk of infections Diabetes patients have an increased risk of suffering serious infections or death compared to the general public, new research has shown. Diabetes patients have an increased risk of suffering serious infections or death compared to the general public, new research has shown. The study analysed the electronic GP and hospital records of more than 100,000 English adults aged 40 to 89 years with a diabetes diagnosis, and compared them to those without a diabetes diagnosis. The researchers estimated that 6% of infection-related hospital admissions, such as for pneumonia, and 12% of infection-related deaths among adults could be attributed to diabetes. Dr Iain Carey, of the Population Health Research Institute, at St George's, University of London, said: "We have confirmed that people with diabetes are more prone to all infections, particularly serious infections like bone and joint infections, endocarditis and sepsis. "We have also shown that infections among people with diabetes cause substantial ill-health and need for NHS treatment. "Despite this, current NHS guidance for Type 2 diabetes does not specifically mention infections or recommend ways to reduce this problem. "Better management of diabetes patients, through improvements in control of their blood sugar levels for example, or more rapid recognition of infections by patients and carers, may help prevent future infections." The large size of the study enabled the researchers to show that diabetes patients with the less common Type 1 diagnosis were at even greater risk of being hospitalised and dying from infection. Over a seven year period, patients with Type 2 diabetes were twice as Continue reading >>

Respiratory Infections In Diabetes: Reviewing The Risks And Challenges

Respiratory Infections In Diabetes: Reviewing The Risks And Challenges

ABSTRACT: Although the organisms that cause community-acquired pneumonia are similar in diabetic and nondiabetic patients, those who have diabetes mellitus (DM) may have more severe disease and a poorer prognosis. Elevated blood glucose levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with pneumonia, and the mortality risk may be as high as 30% in patients with uncontrolled DM. Thus, appropriate treatment- and possibly prevention-of bacterial pneumonia should include aggressive efforts directed at glycemic control. Other respiratory infections, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and fungal pneumonia, also are associated with greater morbidity in patients with DM. Diabetic patients with tuberculosis are more likely to present with bilateral lung involvement and pleural effusions. (J Respir Dis. 2008;29(7):285-293) Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with increasing incidence, morbidity, and mortality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 180 million persons have DM and 5% of deaths worldwide can be attributed to this disease. Also, there is evidence that DM is associated with an increased risk of infections and with more severe clinical consequences of such infections.1-3 The mechanisms that lead to excess morbidity and mortality are related in part to the host immune defects associated with DM. Coexisting conditions, such as vascular, renal, and cardiovascular diseases, and the various interventions associated with such diseases, contribute significantly to the increased incidence and complexity of infections in patients with DM. In this article, we will briefly review the immunological and respiratory changes associated with DM. Then we will focus on the challenges of community- Continue reading >>

Bacterial Infections In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A 14-year Follow-up Study

Bacterial Infections In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A 14-year Follow-up Study

Abstract Objective This study explored the annual occurrence/incidence of bacterial infections, and their association with chronic hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy, in patients with type 1 diabetes. Design In a register-based follow-up study, we investigated the frequency of bacterial infections in patients with type 1 diabetes (n=4748) and age-matched and sex-matched non-diabetic control (NDC) subjects (n=12 954) using nationwide register data on antibiotic drug prescription purchases and hospital discharge diagnoses, collected between 1996 and 2009. Diabetic nephropathy was classified based on the urinary albumin excretion rate (AER). Results The hospitalization rate due to bacterial infections was higher in patients with diabetes compared with NDCs (rate ratio (RR) 2.30 (95% CI 2.11 to 2.51)). The rate correlated with the severity of diabetic nephropathy: RR for microalbuminuria was 1.23 (0.94 to 1.60), 1.97 (1.49 to 2.61) for macroalbuminuria, 11.2 (8.1 to 15.5) for dialysis, and 6.72 (4.92 to 9.18) for kidney transplant as compared to patients with diabetes and normal AER. The annual number of antibiotic purchases was higher in patients with diabetes (1.00 (1.00 to 1.01)) as compared with NDCs (0.47 (0.46 to 0.47)), RR=1.71 (1.65 to 1.77). Annual antibiotic purchases were 1.18-fold more frequent in patients with microalbuminuria, 1.29-fold with macroalbuminuria, 2.43-fold with dialysis, and 2.74-fold with kidney transplant as compared to patients with normal AER. Each unit of increase in glycated hemoglobin was associated with a 6–10% increase in the number of annual antibiotic purchases. Conclusions The incidence of bacterial infections was significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with age-matched and sex-matched NDC subjects, and cor Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Skin Conditions

Diabetes: Skin Conditions

Diabetes can affect every part of the body, including the skin. Many people with diabetes will have a skin disorder caused or affected by diabetes at some time in their lives. In some cases, skin problems can be the first sign that a person has diabetes. In some cases, people with diabetes develop skin conditions that can affect anyone. Examples of these conditions include bacterial infections, fungal infections, and itching. However, people with diabetes also are more prone to getting certain conditions. These include diabetic dermopathy, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, and eruptive xanthomatosis. Some common skin conditions in people with diabetes: Acanthosis nigricans This is a condition that results in the darkening and thickening of the skin. Often, areas of tan or brown skin, sometimes slightly raised, appear on the sides of the neck, the armpits, and groin. Occasionally, these darkened areas might appear on the hands, elbows, and knees. Acanthosis nigricans can affect otherwise healthy people, or it can be associated with certain medical conditions. It is frequently found in people with diabetes. Allergic reactions Allergic reactions to foods, bug bites, and medicines can cause rashes, depressions or bumps on the skin. If you think you might be having an allergic reaction to a medicine, contact your health care provider. Severe allergic reactions might require emergency treatment. It is especially important for people with diabetes to check for rashes or bumps in the areas where they inject their insulin. Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of blood vessels thickening of the vessel walls. While atherosclerosis most often is associated with blood vessels in or near the heart, it can affect blood vessels throughout the body, including those that su Continue reading >>

Infection In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Infection In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Diabetes increases susceptibility to various types of infections. The most common sites of infection in diabetic patients are the skin and urinary tract. Ear, Nose, and Throat Infections Malignant otitis externa and rhinocerebral mucormycosis are 2 head-and-neck infections seen almost exclusively in patients with diabetes. Malignant or necrotizing otitis externa principally occurs in diabetic patients older than 35 years and is almost always due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [1] Infection starts in the external auditory canal and spreads to adjacent soft tissue, cartilage, and bone. Patients typically present with severe ear pain and otorrhea. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis collectively refers to infections caused by various ubiquitous molds. [2] Invasive disease occurs in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, especially those with diabetic ketoacidosis. Organisms colonize the nose and paranasal sinuses, spreading to adjacent tissues by invading blood vessels and causing soft tissue necrosis and bony erosion. Urinary Tract Infections Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria, cystitis, and, more important, serious upper urinary tract infection. [3, 4] Intrarenal bacterial infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with diabetes who presents with flank or abdominal pain. Pyelonephritis makes control of diabetes more difficult by causing insulin resistance; in addition, nausea may limit the patient's ability to maintain normal hydration. Treatment of pyelonephritis does not differ for patients with diabetes, but a lower threshold for hospital admission is appropriate. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Sensory neuropathy, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and hyperglycemia all predis Continue reading >>

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