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Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes

Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes In Finland

Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes In Finland

The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D), one of the most prevalent chronic disease in children, has increased worldwide.1 The highest recorded incidence in children younger than 15 years was 64.2 per 100 000 person-years in Finland in 2005.2 We examined the incidence rates between 2006 and 2011 in Finnish children younger than 15 years as well as the 32-year trend (1980-2011). All children with newly diagnosed T1D were ascertained using several nationwide registers as previously described.2 Age-standardized and age-specific annual incidence rates for age groups 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years were calculated. Changes in trends between 1980 and 2011 were identified using the Joinpoint Regression Program version 4.0.1 (National Cancer Institute; The study was approved by the ethics committee of the National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland, as a part of the FinDM II database studies. A waiver of informed consent is not required for register-based studies in Finland. A total of 14 069 children (7695 boys and 6374 girls) were diagnosed with T1D between 1980 and 2011, of whom 3332 were new cases between 2006 and 2011. The peak incidence of 64.9 (95% CI, 59.7-70.3) per 100 000 person-years was observed in 2006 (Table), whereas the mean incidence was 62.5 (95% CI, 60.2-64.4) per 100 000 person-years between 2006 and 2011, 68.4 (95% CI, 65.7-71.9) per 100 000 person-years for boys and 55.4 (95% CI, 52.7-58.4) per 100 000 person-years for girls. The mean age-specific incidences were 55.0 (95% CI, 51.6-58.6) per 100 000 person-years for children aged 0-4 years, 71.5 (95% CI, 67.5-75.6) per 100 000 person-years for 5-9 years, and 60.6 (95% CI, 57.1-64.3) per 100 000 person-years for 10-14 years. Joinpoint regression highlighted 2 significant changes in the longer-term trend (Fig Continue reading >>

Epidemiology, Presentation, And Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Children And Adolescents

Epidemiology, Presentation, And Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Children And Adolescents

INTRODUCTION Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, is caused by insulin deficiency following destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. It most commonly presents in childhood, but one-fourth of cases are diagnosed in adults. T1DM remains the most common form of diabetes in childhood, accounting for approximately two-thirds of new diagnoses of diabetes in patients ≤19 years of age in the United States, despite the increasing rate of type 2 diabetes [1-4]. The epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of T1DM in children and adolescents are presented here. The pathogenesis of T1DM and the management and complications of childhood T1DM are discussed separately. (See "Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus" and "Management of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents" and "Complications and screening in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus".) The assessment and management of individuals presenting during infancy with hyperglycemia also are discussed separately. (See "Neonatal hyperglycemia".) EPIDEMIOLOGY The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1DM) varies based upon geography, age, gender, family history, and ethnicity. Geographical variation — The incidence of childhood T1DM varies worldwide [5,6]. In Europe and China, the risk appears to rise as the geographical latitude (distance from the equator) increases [7-9]. This North-South variation is not found in the United States, even after adjusting for racial and ethnic variation [10]. When people relocate from a region of low to high incidence, their risk of developing T1DM also increases, suggesting a causative role for environmental factor(s). However, wide variations in incidence occur between neighboring areas of Continue reading >>

Rates Of New Diagnosed Cases Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes On The Rise Among Children, Teens

Rates Of New Diagnosed Cases Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes On The Rise Among Children, Teens

Press Release Contact: Rates of new diagnosed cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing among youth in the United States, according to a report published today in the New England Journal of Medicine, entitled “Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012.” In the United States, 29.1 million people are living with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, and about 208,000 people younger than 20 years are living with diagnosed diabetes. This study is the first ever to estimate trends in new diagnosed cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in youth (those under the age of 20), from the five major racial/ethnic groups in the U.S.: non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), found that from 2002 to 2012, incidence, or the rate of new diagnosed cases of type 1 diabetes in youth increased by about 1.8 percent each year. During the same period, the rate of new diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes increased even more quickly, at 4.8 percent. The study included 11,244 youth ages 0-19 with type 1 diabetes and 2,846 youth ages 10-19 with type 2. “Because of the early age of onset and longer diabetes duration, youth are at risk for developing diabetes related complications at a younger age. This profoundly lessens their quality of life, shortens their life expectancy, and increases health care costs,” said Giuseppina Imperatore, M.D., Ph.D., epidemiologist in CDC’s Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Results of this study reflect the nation’s first and only ongoing assess Continue reading >>

Incidence And Temporal Trends Of Type 1 Diabetes In China: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis - Sciencedirect

Incidence And Temporal Trends Of Type 1 Diabetes In China: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis - Sciencedirect

Incidence and temporal trends of type 1 diabetes in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis Studies of type 1 diabetes incidence in China have conflicting findings, and the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in China is unclear. We aimed to assess the incidence and epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in relation to age, sex, and geographical area in mainland China. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched Pubmed (Jan 1, 1980, to May 18, 2016), Embase (Jan 1, 1980 to May 18, 2016), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (Jan 1, 1999, to May 20, 2016), and Wanfang Medical Database (Jan 1, 1998, to May 19, 2016) to identify population-based studies of type 1 diabetes incidence in mainland China. Only population-based studies with data on the incidence of type 1 diabetes in mainland China were included, and studies with overlapping data from included studies were excluded. We extracted data from the published reports and used random-effects meta-analysis to pool the incidence and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs. We used the Q statistic and I2 method to assess heterogeneity, and also did subgroup analyses by sex, age, and geographical area. Additionally, we used time trends to explore the difference in incidence over time. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016039284. We identified 816 reports from the search and included 19 reports of population-based studies published between 1994 and 2015 in the analysis. Overall incidence of type 1 diabetes in mainland China was 074 (95% CI 055100) per 100 000 person-years between 1980 and 2013. Incidence (per 100 000 person-years) increased rapidly from 057 (043075) in 1990 to 104 (064168) in 2000 and 336 (166682) in 2010 (p<00001). The mean annual increase in incidence was 90% (51159), and the Continue reading >>

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century

The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes increased worldwide in the closing decades of the 20th century, but the origins of this increase are poorly documented. A search through the early literature revealed a number of useful but neglected sources, particularly in Scandinavia. While these do not meet the exacting standards of more recent surveys, tentative conclusions can be drawn concerning long-term changes in the demography of the disease. Childhood type 1 diabetes was rare but well recognized before the introduction of insulin. Low incidence and prevalence rates were recorded in several countries over the period 1920–1950, and one carefully performed study showed no change in childhood incidence over the period 1925–1955. An almost simultaneous upturn was documented in several countries around the mid-century. The overall pattern since then is one of linear increase, with evidence of a plateau in some high-incidence populations and of a catch-up phenomenon in some low-incidence areas. Steep rises in the age-group under 5 years have been recorded recently. The disease process underlying type 1 diabetes has changed over time and continues to evolve. Understanding why and how this produced the pandemic of childhood diabetes would be an important step toward reversing it. At the start of the 20th century, childhood diabetes was rare and rapidly fatal. By its end, some 3–4 children per 1,000 in Western countries would require insulin treatment by the age of 20 years, and a steady rise in incidence had been reported from many other parts of the world. This increase has been extensively documented over the past two decades, over which time standard means of data collection have been agreed, central registries have been established, and numerous epidemiological stu Continue reading >>

The Prevalence Of Type 1 Diabetes In The United States

The Prevalence Of Type 1 Diabetes In The United States

The Prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes in the United States Menke, Andy; Orchard, Trevor J.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Cowie, Catherine C. Social & Scientific Systems, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, [email protected] Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. This work was supported by a contract from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (GS10F0381L). The authors report no conflicts of interest. There are few data on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus 1 , 2 and no estimates for the entire US population. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a representative cross-sectional survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. Although NHANES does not explicitly collect information on type 1 diabetes mellitus, we estimated the prevalence based on age of diabetes diagnosis, the age of insulin initiation, and current use of insulin. 3 The protocol for the 19992010 NHANES was approved by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Ethics Review Board. All participants gave written informe Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?

When public health officials fret about the soaring incidence of diabetes in the U.S. and worldwide, they are generally referring to type 2 diabetes. About 90 percent of the nearly 350 million people around the world who have diabetes suffer from the type 2 form of the illness, which mostly starts causing problems in the 40s and 50s and is tied to the stress that extra pounds place on the body’s ability to regulate blood glucose. About 25 million people in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and another million have type 1 diabetes, which typically strikes in childhood and can be controlled only with daily doses of insulin. For reasons that are completely mysterious, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing throughout the globe at rates that range from 3 to 5 percent a year. Although the second trend is less well publicized, it is still deeply troubling, because this form of the illness has the potential to disable or kill people so much earlier in their lives. No one knows exactly why type 1 diabetes is rising. Solving that mystery—and, if possible, reducing or reversing the trend—has become an urgent problem for public health researchers everywhere. So far they feel they have only one solid clue. “Increases such as the ones that have been reported cannot be explained by a change in genes in such a short period,” says Giuseppina Imperatore, who leads a team of epidemiologists in the Division of Diabetes Translation at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “So environmental factors are probably major players in this increase.” A Challenge of Counting Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the same underlying defect—an inability to deploy insulin in a manner that keeps blood sugar from rising too high—but they arise out of almos Continue reading >>

Chapter 1: Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

Chapter 1: Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: Introduction This chapter describes the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) around the world and across the lifespan. Epidemiologic patterns of T1D by demographic, geographic, biologic, cultural and other factors in populations are presented to gain insight about the etiology, natural history, risks, and complications of T1D. Studies of the epidemiology of T1D in diverse populations are aimed at the identification of causal factors of the disease and its complications. The elucidation of the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors leading to T1D should inform ongoing efforts to treat, prevent, and eventually cure T1D. T1D is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells, culminating in absolute insulin deficiency. The majority of cases are attributable to an autoimmune-mediated destruction of beta cells (type 1a) while a small minority of cases results from an idiopathic destruction or failure of beta cells (type 1b). T1D accounts for 5–10% of the total cases of diabetes worldwide1. A second and more prevalent category, type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate compensatory insulin secretory response1. T1D has been historically, and continues to be, the most common type of diabetes in children and adolescents, although type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasingly diagnosed in youth2,3. In this chapter, we will review the epidemiology of T1D in the following order: Incidence and Prevalence, Risk Factors, Clinical Course, Treatment and Management, and Complications. Other reviews of the Epidemiology of T1D have been published recently4 including a text on the epidemiology of diabetes in youth5. Additionally, some topics in this chapter will be Continue reading >>

Increasing Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Increasing Incidence Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Philadelphia youth see rise in diagnosis; especially for African Americans, by 70%. A study was conducted in all children ages 0-14 years with a diagnosis code of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus in Philadelphia from 2000–2004. The study aimed to describe the increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes in children. Researchers then used these data to compare to the previous three cohorts in the Philadelphia Pediatric Diabetes Registry to determine an increase in incidence over 20 years. In addition, these data describe the first cohort of youth with type 2 diabetes. The records of all children from 0-14 years old with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were obtained through a retrospective population-based registry. Researchers reviewed inpatient and outpatient records from World Health Organization (WHO) diabetes registry to identify diabetes cases diagnosed from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2004. In addition, data on length, height, weight, and BMI were collected for children ages 0-14 years. The completeness of validation was ascertained through a survey of nurses who worked for the School District of Philadelphia. The changing pattern of the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes over 20-year period was evaluated using time series analysis. The overall incidence rate of type 1 diabetes was 17.2 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 15.2–19.3) and the age-adjusted incidence was 17.0 per 100,000 per year (95% CI 15.8–18.3). The incidence was higher than that of previous cohorts by an average of 1.5% annually and an average 5-year cohort was increased by 7.8% (P = 0.025). The racial/ethnic data showed that the highest age-adjusted rate was in Hispanic children (19.6; 95% CI 15.9–23.3) which had increased 27%, followed by non-Hispanic whites (19.2 [16.8–21.5]) with an increase of 4 Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Prevalence Increasing Globally And Regionally: The Role Of Natural Selection And Life Expectancy At Birth

Type 1 Diabetes Prevalence Increasing Globally And Regionally: The Role Of Natural Selection And Life Expectancy At Birth

Abstract Objective Prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease is increasing worldwide. We aim to test correlation of T1D prevalence to the reduced natural selection measured by Biological State Index (Ibs). Research design and methods Country-specific estimates of T1D prevalence, life expectancy, obesity prevalence rate, urbanization rates, per capita sugars consumption and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were obtained. Ibs and country-specific longevity (e50) increase for each country were self-calculated. These data were then matched to T1D prevalence by country for our ecological study among 118 countries. Countries were also grouped to study the associations in different regions. SPSS V.22 was used for correlation analysis. Results Worldwide, both Ibs and life expectancy at birth (Ibs proxy) were significantly correlated to T1D prevalence in Pearson r (r=0.713, p<0.001 and r=0.722, p<0.001, respectively) and Spearman's r (r=0.724, p<0.001 and r=0.689, p<0.001, respectively). T1D prevalence was not correlated to longevity increase measured as life expectancy at 50 years old. T1D prevalence was significantly associated with Ibs (r=0.307, p<0.001) and newborn life expectancy (r=0.349, p<0.001) independent of per capita total sugar consumption, per capita GDP, urbanization and obesity prevalence in partial correlation. Globally, both life expectancy at birth and Ibs exponentially correlated to T1D prevalence. Pearson correlations generally existed in different country categorizations by geographic region, culture background and economic status. Conclusions Reduced natural selection may have contributed to the increasing T1D prevalence worldwide. T1D epidemiology study in total population may be the practical solution to identify the causes of increasing T1D pr Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Facts

Type 1 Diabetes Facts

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when a person’s pancreas stops producing insulin, the hormone that controls blood-sugar levels. T1D develops when the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells are mistakenly destroyed by the body’s immune system. The cause of this attack is still being researched, however scientists believe the cause may have genetic and environmental components. There is nothing anyone can do to prevent T1D. Presently, there is no known cure. Who T1D affects Type 1 diabetes (sometimes known as juvenile diabetes) affects children and adults, though people can be diagnosed at any age. With a typically quick onset, T1D must be managed with the use of insulin—either via injection or insulin pump. Soon, people who are insulin dependent may also be able to use artificial pancreas systems to automatically administer their insulin. How T1D is managed Type 1 diabetes is a 24/7 disease that requires constant management. People with T1D continuously and carefully balance insulin intake with eating, exercise and other activities. They also measure blood-sugar levels through finger pricks, ideally at least six times a day, or by wearing a continuous glucose monitor. Even with a strict regimen, people with T1D may still experience dangerously high or low blood-glucose levels that can, in extreme cases, be life threatening. Every person with T1D becomes actively involved in managing his or her disease. Insulin is not a cure While insulin therapy keeps people with T1D alive and can help keep blood-glucose levels within recommended range, it is not a cure, nor does it prevent the possibility of T1D’s serious effects. The outlook for treatments and a cure Although T1D is a serious and challenging disease, long-term management options cont Continue reading >>

Global Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes In Young Adults And Adults: A Systematic Review

Global Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes In Young Adults And Adults: A Systematic Review

Abstract Background Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) can affect patients of all ages, most epidemiological studies of T1D focus on disease forms with clinical diagnosis during childhood and adolescence. Clinically, adult T1D is difficult to discriminate from certain forms of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and from Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). We searched the information available worldwide on the incidence of T1D among individuals over 15 years of age, and which diagnostic criteria should be used use to qualify T1D in adults. We then studied the variation of T1D incidence with age in adults, and compared it to the incidence in the <15 years-old. A systematic review of the literature was performed to retrieve original papers in English, French and Spanish published up to November 6, 2014, reporting the incidence of T1D among individuals aged over 15 years. The study was carried out according to the PRISMA recommendations. We retrieved information reporting incidence of T1D among individuals aged more than 15 years in 35 countries, and published in 70 articles between 1982 and 2014. Specific anti-beta-cell proteins or C-peptide detection were performed in 14 of 70 articles (20%). The most frequent diagnostic criteria used were clinical symptoms and immediate insulin therapy. Country-to-country variations of incidence in those aged >15 years paralleled those of children in all age groups. T1D incidence was larger in males than in females in 44 of the 54 (81%) studies reporting incidence by sex in people >15 years of age. The overall mean male-to-female ratio in the review was 1.47 (95% CI = 1.33-1.60, SD = 0.49, n = 54, p = <0.0001). Overall, T1D incidence decreased in adulthood, after the age of 14 years. Few studies on epidemiology of T1D in adults are available wor Continue reading >>

Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

Epidemiology Of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes may present at any age, but most typically presents in early life with a peak around the time of puberty. Its incidence varies 50–100-fold around the world, with the highest rates in northern Europe and in individuals of European extraction. Both sexes are equally affected in childhood, but men are more commonly affected in early adult life. The distinction between type 1 and type 2 diabetes becomes blurred in later life, and the true lifetime incidence of the condition is therefore unknown. A variant form known as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) has been described. The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes is rising rapidly in all populations, especially in the under 5-year-old age group, with a doubling time of less than 20 years in Europe. The increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes suggests a major environmental contribution, but the role of specific factors such as viruses remains controversial. Incidence rates Type 1 diabetes has historically been most prevalent in populations of European origin, but is becoming more frequent in other ethnic groups. Within Europe the highest rates of childhood diabetes are found in Scandinavia and north-west Europe, with an incidence range from 57.4 cases/100,000 per year in Finland to 3.9/100,000 in Macedonia for children aged 0–14 years.[1] Genetically related populations may differ in incidence: for example, type 1 diabetes is more common in Norwegians than in Icelanders of largely Norwegian descent, while Finnish children have a threefold risk compared with Estonians.[2] The incidence of type 1 diabetes remains relatively low in populations of non-European descent around the world, but many of these now report a rising incidence of the disease. Kuwait, for example, now has an incidence of 22.3/ Continue reading >>

Diabetes Compendium

Diabetes Compendium

Type 1 diabetes There are currently no national data that capture the prevalence of type 1 diabetes at all ages, but there are estimates for children—over 6,000 children aged 0–14 had type 1 diabetes in 2015, according to the National (insulin-treated) Diabetes Register (NDR). There were 2,600 new cases (incidence) of type 1 diabetes in Australia in 2015, equating to 12 cases per 100,000 population, according to the NDR. There were around 38,900 new cases of type 1 diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2015. This was around 2,400 new cases of type 1 diabetes each year—an average of 7 new cases per day. The incidence of type 1 diabetes remained relatively stable between 2000 and 2015, fluctuating between 11 to 13 new cases per 100,000 population each year. The incidence rate for 0–14 year olds remained on average 1.5 times as high as for those aged 15–24 years and 4 times as high as for those aged 25 years and over during this period (Figure 3). Figure 3: Trends in incidence of type 1 diabetes, by age, 2000–15 Source: AIHW analysis of 2015 National (insulin-treated) Diabetes Register (NDR) (see data). Age and sex In 2015: The incidence rate of type 1 diabetes was higher in males than females (13 compared with 10 per 100,000 population). Almost 2 in 3 (63%) new cases of type 1 diabetes were among children and young people under 25 years. The peak age group of diagnosis was 10–19 years (29 and 24 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively)─at least 2.4 times the rate at age 30–39 (12 and 6 per 100,000) and at least 12 times the rate for those aged 80 years and over (2 per 100,000 for males and females) (Figure 4). Figure 4: Incidence of type 1 diabetes, by age at diagnosis and sex, 2015 Inequalities In 2015, the incidence rate of type 1 diabetes was (F Continue reading >>

Why Is Type 1 Diabetes Increasing?

Why Is Type 1 Diabetes Increasing?

Abstract A series of studies have reported a constant global rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. Epidemiological and immunological studies have demonstrated that environmental factors may influence the pathogenesis, leading to a cell-mediated pancreatic β-cell destruction associated with humoral immunity. The search for the triggering factor(s) has been going on for the past century, and yet they are still unknown. This review provides an overview of some of the most well-known theories found in the literature: hygiene, viral, vitamin D deficiency, breast milk and cow's milk hypotheses. Although the hygiene hypothesis appears to be the most promising, positive evidence from animal, human and epidemiological studies precludes us from completely discarding any of the other hypotheses. Moreover, due to contrasting evidence in the literature, a single factor is unlikely to cause an increase in the incidence of diabetes all over the world, which suggests that a multifactorial process might be involved. Although the immunological mechanisms are still unclear, there seems to be some overlap between the various hypotheses. It is thought that the emphasis should be shifted from a single to a multifactorial process and that perhaps the ‘balance shift’ model should be considered as a possible explanation for the rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. Introduction Type 1 diabetes has been on the rise since the 20th century. Gale (2002b) demonstrated how the data point towards a stable and low incidence in the first half of the century, followed by a clear rise in the second half. Onkamo et al. (1999) reported that the global incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing by 3% per year. The DIAMOND Project Group (2006) estimated a global annual increase in incidence of 2. Continue reading >>

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