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In What Ways Is Diabetes Insipidus Similar To Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Insipidus (water Diabetes) In Cats And Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus (water Diabetes) In Cats And Dogs

Overview of diabetes insipidus Most everyone is familiar with the term “diabetes;” it is a common human disease. But our four-legged friends can get diabetes, too. There are different types of diabetes, one being diabetes insipidus—an uncommon disorder that affects our pet’s ability to conserve water. Because of this disease, your dog or cat urinates and drinks water excessively in an attempt to keep up with the loss of water through the urine. There are two types of diabetes insipidus. One is due to the insufficient production of a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that regulates the body’s ability to absorb water from the kidneys. The other form of diabetes insipidus is caused by the kidneys’ inability to respond to ADH. The kidneys are responsible for regulating the water in your pet’s body. So, without this hormone or the kidney’s response to it, your dog or cat can’t conserve water. Access to water is critical for pets with diabetes insipidus—without it, a dog or cat can become dehydrated in as little as 4–6 hours. Generally, diabetes insipidus is considered idiopathic, which means the ultimate cause is unknown. Possible causes include congenital issues, trauma, metabolic conditions, kidney disease, adverse reactions to certain medications, or tumors of the pituitary gland. Despite the underlying cause of diabetes insipidus, the symptoms are the same. They include: Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam and take a detailed history of your pet’s health. The symptoms of diabetes insipidus are very similar to other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (“sugar diabetes”), Cushing’s syndrome, liver or kidney disease, Addison’s disease, and hypo-/hyperthyroidism. Your veterinarian may Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus: The “other” Type Of Diabetes

Diabetes Insipidus: The “other” Type Of Diabetes

Download Interview Transcript Diabetes insipidus, often called the “other” type of diabetes, is different from the more common diabetes mellitus, though they share some symptoms. Diabetes insipidus, or DI, is a metabolic disorder in which the kidneys aren’t able to reabsorb normal amounts of water. That’s why one of the chief symptoms of DI is the production of large quantities of very dilute urine. There are two primary types of DI, central diabetes insipidus, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. There’s also a less common third type called psychogenic diabetes insipidus. Symptoms of DI besides excessive urination include extreme thirst with increased water intake, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, house soiling, weight loss, poor coat condition and disorientation. Treatment for a pet with DI will depend on its cause. Some forms of DI can be cured, while others will be with the animal for life. Caring for a pet with diabetes insipidus includes insuring the animal has access to fresh water at all times, as well as constant access to a potty spot. By Dr. Becker Diabetes insipidus, or DI, is also referred to as water diabetes. The more common form of diabetes, diabetes mellitus, is known as sugar diabetes. The two conditions are actually very different, though they have some symptoms in common. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of sugar metabolism involving the hormone insulin. Diabetes insipidus is a metabolic disorder in which the kidneys aren’t able to reabsorb normal amounts of water, so the dog or cat eliminates large quantities of very dilute urine. The word “insipid” describes this colorless, tasteless characteristic of the dilute urine. DI is also called the “other type of diabetes.” There are two forms of DI: central diabetes insipidus and neph Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is characterised by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of urine. It is caused by the lack of sufficient vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain that instructs the kidneys to retain water. Treatment options include vasopressin replacement. On this page: Diabetes insipidus is characterised by extreme thirst and the passing of vast amounts of urine. It is caused by insufficient vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain that instructs the kidneys to retain water. Without enough vasopressin, too much water is lost from the body in urine, which prompts the affected person to drink large amounts of fluids in an attempt to maintain their fluid levels. In severe cases, a person may pass up to 30 litres of urine per day. Without treatment, diabetes insipidus can cause dehydration and, eventually, coma due to concentration of salts in the blood, particularly sodium. The name of this condition is a little misleading, since diabetes insipidus has nothing to do with diabetes mellitus (a condition characterised by high blood sugar levels), apart from the symptoms of thirst and passing large volumes of urine. The word diabetes means 'to go through' - describing the excessive urination. Insipidus means the urine is tasteless, whereas mellitus suggests it is sweet from its sugar content. This terminology dates back to a time when physicians literally dipped a finger in the patient's urine and tested its taste. Not a diagnostic method much in use today! Symptoms The symptoms of diabetes insipidus include: Extreme thirst that can't be quenched (polydipsia) Excessive amounts of urine (polyuria) Colourless urine instead of pale yellow Waking frequently through the night to urinate Dry skin Constipation Weak muscles Bedwetting. Too much water is lost in Continue reading >>

Nervous System: Neurons And Synapses

Nervous System: Neurons And Synapses

Chapter 4 Overview The nervous system is made up of two parts; the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheal nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheal nervous system (PNS) is made up of all the other parts of the nervous system, some of which are included are nerves and ganglia. retrieved from: book Neurons are made up of three parts: the cell body, the dendrites, and the axon. The cell body is where the nucleus is contained. The dendrites recieve stimulation. The axons conduct impusles to and away the the cell body. Axons are surrouned by insulating material known as a myelin sheath. retrieved from: book The Parts of a Neuron The figure above illustrates the different structures of a neuron. There Are Tree Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons Motor Neurons Association Neurons Sensory Nuerons Sensory neurons are afferent neruons that bring impulses into the central nervous system. There are two types of sensory neurons; bipolar neurons and pseudounipolar neurons. Bipolar neurons may be found in the eye and eay have two processes, one dendrite and one one axons. Pseudounipolar neurons have one process and divides/splits into two. Motor Neurons Motor neurons are efferent neurons that conduct impulses out of the central nervous system. Motor neurons can be divided into two groups; somatic motor neurons or automatic motor neurons. Somatic neurons stimulate muscles, glands, and cardiac muscles. Automatic neurons are subdivided into two divisions: sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Multipolar neurons are a type of motor neurons that have many dendrites but have one axon. retrieved from: book Association Neurons Association Neurons are neurons whose dendrites, cell body, and axon is located within Continue reading >>

Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes Mellitus

Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes Mellitus

1 Diabetes Treatment - Help Manage Type 2 Diabetes Learn More About an Insulin/Non-Insulin Treatment Option for Type 2 Diabetes. xultophy10036.com 2 Blood Glucose Levels Chart - Signs and Symptoms Know More About Blood Glucose Levels Chart. Find Expert Advice Here. speaklocal.net Increased urination, otherwise known as polyuria, occurs when the body produces abnormally large amounts of urine output. It should not be confused with increased urine frequency as the amount of times a person urinates each day might be the same but the volume of urine increases. Diabetes causes an excess amount of sugar in the blood, which forces the kidneys to work overtime to filter and absorb it. When the kidneys fail to synthesize the sugar in time, it is excreted via the urine along with fluids from the tissues. Unexplained weight loss occurs when a person loses weight without dieting or intending to. In people with diabetes, it occurs when insufficient insulin levels prevent glucose or energy from reaching the body’s cells. This lack of nutrition causes cells to start burning stored fat and muscle for energy, which causes weight loss. Weight loss is common in people with type one diabetes. Type two diabetes is usually associated with weight gain but has also been known to cause weight loss in some cases. Symptoms Of Pneumonia - Browse for Best Listings Search for Symptoms Of Pneumonia. Find Expert Advice Here. comparemarts.com Polydipsia is a classic diabetes condition characterized by excessive thirst. It occurs when the increased urine output resulting from excess sugar in the blood causes dehydration and an increased need to drink. The kidneys work overtime to synthesize the increased amount of sugar in the blood. When it cannot be metabolized in time, the excess sugar is excreted Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Open Document Save to my library Please sign up to read full document. Mariah Stoeckman Diabetes Insipidus 1. Describe the mechanism by which normal fluid regulation in the body occurs? The kidneys remove extra body fluids in the bloodstream; this waste is stored in the bladder. If the fluid regulations system is working right the kidneys will make less urine to save your body’s fluids so you don’t become dehydrated. 2. What is considered to be excessive thirst and urination in an adult? Excessive thirst is the intake of more than one gallon of fluid per day. Excessive urination is more than 3.5 liters for a 150lb person. 3. List and briefly describe the four types of diabetes insipidus. 1. Central DI, the most common form, results from damage to the pituitary gland. This disrupts the normal storage and release of ADH. 2. Nephrogenic DI occurs when the kidneys are unable to respond to ADH. 3. Dipsogenic DI is caused by a defect in or damage to the thirst mechanism. This can result in an increase in thirst and fluid intake that suppresses ADH secretion and increases urine output. 4. Gestational DI only occurs during pregnancy. It occurs when the enzyme made by the placenta destroys ADH in the mother 4. How is pituitary diabetes insipidus diagnosed? A physical and chemical examination of the urine called a urinalysis can be done. Someone with DI will have less concentrated urine. The salt and water concentrations would be low and the amount of water excreted would be high. Another test that can be done is a fluid deprivation test. This will help determine what that specific persons DI is caused by. This test measures urine output, changes in body weight, and urine composition when fluids are withheld. Some patients may require and MRI of the brain as well. 5. In what Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is The Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus?

The word diabetes is an interesting one. Its origin is in the Greek language where it is derived from the word for a siphon or, more simply, a pipe or hose. This word was used to describe the disorder in ancient times because those suffering from it produced such plentiful amounts of urine that they were reminiscent of a water pipe. The reason for the plentiful amounts of urine lies in the fact that when the sugar glucose reaches excessively high levels in our bloodstream, it is filtered into the kidney and enters the urine in large quantities. Due to its chemical and physical properties, when large amounts of glucose are filtered by our kidneys into the urine, it cannot be fully reabsorbed and retains a large amount of water with it, thus creating very large volumes of urine. The second part of the name, mellitus, is derived from the word meaning sweet, as in mellifluous music. Mellitus was added when it was discovered that the urine in a person with diabetes and very high blood sugar is sweet. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder with an entirely different basis, but its sufferers share the siphon-like quality of very frequent and very high volume urination. Diabetes insipidus is due to failure of production or action of another vital hormone, known as arginine vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH), that is responsible for maintaining the normal volume and concentration of our urine. When AVP is deficient (usually due to damage or disease of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland) or fails to work (usually due to disease of or damage to the kidney), we are unable to concentrate our urine and it becomes excessively dilute. As such, it appears pale, almost colorless and watery—in a word insipid, hence insipidus. It is not sweet, as it has negligible amoun Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Practice Essentials Diabetes insipidus (DI) is defined as the passage of large volumes (>3 L/24 hr) of dilute urine (< 300 mOsm/kg). It has the following 2 major forms: Two other forms are gestational DI and primary polydipsia (dipsogenic DI); both are caused by deficiencies in AVP, but the deficiencies do not result from a defect in the neurohypophysis or kidneys. Signs and symptoms The predominant manifestations of DI are as follows: The most common form is central DI after trauma or surgery to the region of the pituitary and hypothalamus, which may exhibit 1 of the following 3 patterns: In infants with DI, the most apparent signs may be the following: In children, the following manifestations typically predominate: If the condition that caused DI also damaged the anterior pituitary or hypothalamic centers that produce releasing factors, patients may present with the following: Physical findings vary with the severity and chronicity of DI; they may be entirely normal or may include the following: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. If the clinical presentation suggests DI, laboratory tests must be performed to confirm the diagnosis, as follows: Additional studies that may be indicated include the following: See Workup for more detail. Management Most patients with DI can drink enough fluid to replace their urine losses. When oral intake is inadequate and hypernatremia is present, provide fluid replacement as follows: Give dextrose and water or an intravenous fluid that is hypo-osmolar with respect to the patient’s serum; do not administer sterile water without dextrose IV Administer fluids at a rate no greater than 500-750 mL/hr; aim at reducing serum sodium by approximately 0.5 mmol/L (0.5 mEq/L) every hour Pharmacologic therapeutic options include the follo Continue reading >>

Know The Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus.

Know The Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus.

Diabetes – We know what it is… Insulin deficiency! How does that occur? Here is how – When we consume a meal that contains carbohydrates and sugar, it is absorbed into our bloodstream quickly. But when the amount of sugar gets too high in our blood, we might become a diabetes victim. Now let us know the differentiation between Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are very different conditions. Except the word “diabetes,” the common factors between these 2 are that both involve thirst as well as urination. But beyond this point the conditions differ significantly. Diabetes Insipidus – What is it? This happens due to some injuries or else viral diseases, the hypothalamus or pituitary gland gets damaged and it might be rendered unable to produce the hormone called as vasopressin. Vasopressin is created as well as secreted by our brain in order to control the water metabolism. According to a detailed study from National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, when this specific hormone is secreted to our kidneys it directs our kidneys to concentrate urine through a filtration process. And in the presence the condition – Diabetes insipidus, this process of communication from the production as well as secretion of vasopressin is disrupted completely before reaching the kidneys. As discussed earlier, the defect might be in the kidneys or they might be damaged due to specific reasons that results in inability to respond to the hormone vasopressin. This situation or the inability to respond to vasopressin results our body to lose water through excessive urination. This condition is known as diabetes insipidus. Diabetes Mellitus – What is it? Diabetes mellitus differs from diabetes insipidus especially Continue reading >>

Vasopressin Contributes To Hyperfiltration, Albuminuria, And Renal Hypertrophy In Diabetes Mellitus: Study In Vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro Rats

Vasopressin Contributes To Hyperfiltration, Albuminuria, And Renal Hypertrophy In Diabetes Mellitus: Study In Vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro Rats

Abstract Diabetic nephropathy represents a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and the origin of this complication is poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP), which is elevated in type I and type II DM, has been shown to increase glomerular filtration rate in normal rats and to contribute to progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. The present study was thus designed to evaluate whether VP contributes to the renal disorders of DM. Renal function was compared in Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus (DI) lacking VP and in normal Long-Evans (LE) rats, with or without streptozotocin-induced DM. Blood and urine were collected after 2 and 4 weeks of DM, and creatinine clearance, urinary glucose and albumin excretion, and kidney weight were measured. Plasma glucose increased 3-fold in DM rats of both strains, but glucose excretion was ≈40% lower in DI-DM than in LE-DM, suggesting less intense metabolic disorders. Creatinine clearance increased significantly in LE-DM (P < 0.01) but failed to increase in DI-DM. Urinary albumin excretion more than doubled in LE-DM but rose by only 34% in DI-DM rats (P < 0.05). Kidney hypertrophy was also less intense in DI-DM than in LE-DM (P < 0.001). These results suggest that VP plays a critical role in diabetic hyperfiltration and albuminuria induced by DM. This hormone thus seems to be an additional risk factor for diabetic nephropathy and, thus, a potential target for prevention and/or therapeutic intervention. One of the major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) is a progressive nephropathy that develops in about one-third of patients within 10–20 years after the onset of the disease and leads in most cases to end stage renal failure (1). This represents a major problem of public health because a l Continue reading >>

Diabetes & Urination: What’s Your Urine Color Tells You?

Diabetes & Urination: What’s Your Urine Color Tells You?

Out of all the things in the world, and you pick up urine to write about. Is that what you’re thinking about? It may sound strange and bizarre to listen or read about urine, but boy it’s important down to every line. Urine is one thing that can offer great insight into the diabetic condition of the patient. We here would look into the correlation between diabetes and urine as part of our informative series. Perio Protect Treatment Non-surgical, Painless, Easy Method Using an FDA- Cleared Medical Device perioprotect.com Let’s head down and have a look as to how your urine says a lot about your health condition. Diabetes & Urine, A strange yet important relation It has long been practices that the urine color, consistency, and smell has been a benchmark for seeking the status of diabetes within the patient’s body. Up until the recent development of sophisticated machines that help gauge blood glucose levels, urine helped in finding the answers that one sought. But nonetheless, urine still hasn’t lost its place in today’s time of medical practices. Frequent Urination and Diabetes One of the major symptoms of diabetes is increased urination in the patient. The situation in which our body tends to urinate more than the normal is also known as polyuria. When a patient suffers from any type of diabetes, type 1 or type 2, the major symptom of the condition is the excessive passage of urine. In other words, you not only want to urinate more frequently but the volume also increases each time you urinate. In a healthy person, the volume of urine that passes is somewhere around 1-2 liters. However, in the case of diabetes, the patient passes around 3-4 liters of urine each day. Why Does Diabetes Cause Frequent Urination? We know understand the reasons as to why diabetes Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs And Cats

Diabetes In Dogs And Cats

Diabetes is something that most people think only humans can develop, but the truth is that dogs and cats can also develop diabetes. And like humans, dogs and cats are susceptible to both diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. This guide will help you learn more about diabetes in dogs and cats so you get your pet the treatment they need, or to help prevent your pet from developing diabetes in the first place. 4 Key Facts About Diabetes in Cats and Dogs Diabetes is a fatal disease for cats and dogs if it is left untreated If a cat or dog requires insulin, there is a chance that the pet could recover after a period and no longer need it How the insulin is administered can affect how it works A cat or dog’s diet is the top factor in causing, treating, and avoiding diabetes The Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus in Cats and Dogs Of the two types of diabetes, diabetes mellitus is the most common to develop in dogs and cats. It is diagnosed as either Type I or Type II diabetes mellitus. Type I is known as “Insulin Dependent Diabetes.” This type of diabetes is caused by a total or near-total destruction of the beta-cells in the animal’s body. Type II diabetes, on the other hand, leaves some insulin-producing cells in the body, although not enough to do an adequate job of regulating the animal’s blood sugar levels. For this reason, it is known as “Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.” This type of diabetes is most commonly caused by obesity and poor diet. Diabetes insipidus is the rarer of the two forms of diabetes. It is also known as “watery diabetes” or “weak diabetes” because it affects the animal’s water metabolism. Rather than storing water, the animal’s body releases it, thus causing increased thirst and urination Continue reading >>

6 Things You Need To Know About Diabetes Insipidus

6 Things You Need To Know About Diabetes Insipidus

Tatiana Ayazo /RD.com What is diabetes insipidus? You’re no doubt aware of diabetes mellitus, which has type 1 and type 2 variations. However, there’s another form out there known as diabetes insipidus (DI). It’s a disorder of water balance and control in the body, explains Christopher Calapai, DO, an osteopathic physician board-certified in family medicine, anti-aging medicine, and chelation therapy. People with the condition are typically always thirsty, even after drinking fluids, and they also produce large amounts of urine—over three liters per day in adults, or two liters per day in children. What is its link to type 1 or type 2 diabetes? The name is misleading because DI has nothing to do with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Patients with DI have normal blood sugars, says Mark Terris, MD, an otolaryngology-head and neck surgeon and author of Bullets to Bandages. However, if you or someone you know is battling type 2 diabetes, check out this step-by-step plan for reversing diabetes. What are the symptoms I need to watch for? The main symptom is producing very large amounts of urine, so other symptoms are related to dehydration: a dry mouth, excessive thirst, dry eyes, fatigue, and lightheadedness, says Dr. Terris. Other possible symptoms are weight loss and issues with memory focus and concentration. It can also lead to low blood pressure, headaches, rapid heart rate, and dry mouth, and can cause muscle cramps and confusion, says Dr. Calapai. Here are 10 more silent signs of diabetes you might ignore. The brain secretes a hormone—ADH—that helps maintain water balance in the body; when the brain fails to make enough ADH, diabetes insipidus results, explains Dr. Terris. In most cases, no one’s sure what triggers the disorder. “It may be related to an auto Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

What is Diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the kidneys are no longer able to conserve water or concentrate the urine. This, in turn, leads to excessive thirst (polydipsia), an increased intake of fluids and thus excessive urination (polyuria). Despite the similar names and certain symptoms in common, including increased thirst and increased urination, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are not related diseases. In the case of DI, sometimes called “water diabetes,” the body is in an abnormal state of water diuresis (overproduction of diluted urine). With diabetes mellitus, sometimes called “sugar diabetes,” the body is in an abnormal state of osmotic diuresis (excess urine caused by high glucose). A part of the brain called the hypothalamus is responsible for producing the antidiuretic hormone ADH, which is commonly referred to as vasopressin. This hormone signals the kidneys to conserve water by creating concentrated urine. If there is a lack of vasopressin, the kidneys will no longer absorb excess water, leading to diabetes insipidus. This causes the body to rapidly lose water in the form of dilute urine. This form of DI, commonly referred to as central diabetes insipidus, is often a result of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland caused by surgery, infection, tumor or a head injury. DI can also be caused by certain medications, such as lithium, and it can be inherited. About 25 percent of the time, a definitive cause cannot be found, according to the American Academy of Physicians. The prevalence of all types of DI is rare, occurring in 1 out of 25,000 people. Central DI (also called neurogenic DI) can be either a temporary or permanent disorder, depending on the injury or underlying condition. Altho Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is an entirely different disorder than diabetes mellitus, or "sugar diabetes." Diabetes insipidus occurs in patients with pituitary disease, such as a pituitary tumor, or recent surgery to the pituitary gland, and in patients with disease of the hypothalamus and pituitary stalk. Diabetes insipidus results from an inadequate secretion of vasopressin or ADH from the back part of the pituitary. Vasopressin is made and stored in the hypothalamus. It then travels through the stalk to the posterior part of the pituitary where it is stored for release into the bloodstream when needed. Symptoms The main purpose of vasopressin is to acts on the kidneys to hold onto any water in the body to prevent dehydration. If you have an inability to release this hormone when needed, then you will urinate very frequently, sometimes as often as every 15 minutes. Your urine will also be very clear, like water. Because your body is getting rid of so much water you will also become very thirsty. Most people are so thirsty that they will drink enough water to keep up with all of the water they are urinating, and therefore will not become dehydrated. The frequent thirst and urination as a result of this disorder is not only uncomfortable, but also inconvenient. Treatment The medication used to treat this disorder is called desmopressin acetate (DDAVP). DDAVP is manufactured to be very similar to the hormone vasopressin that is naturally produced by your body. DDAVP comes in several forms and your doctor will work with you to prescribe the one that works best for you. These different forms are: 1. Nasal Spray: This is a non-refrigerated medication that you squirt into your nostril. A dose is usually taken at bedtime so that you may sleep through the night uninterrupted. Some peop Continue reading >>

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