Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus
Main Difference Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin to maintain the blood glucose level resulting in high glucose level in blood. Diabetes is a general term for diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterized by excessive thirst with excretion of large amount of diluted urine. Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are two totally different medical conditions. In diabetes mellitus polyuria is because of osmotic diuresis while in diabetes insipidus polyuria is because of diminished production of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) or kidney’s response to ADH. Diabetes mellitus commonly referred as diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which the blood glucose level is prolonged for a long time. Diabetes is due to cells of pancreas do not produce enough insulin or the cells of the body do not response adequately to the insulin produced. Diabetes mellitus is classified into type I DM and type II DM. Type I DM also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile diabetes. In type I DM cells of pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to maintain the blood glucose level. The etiology of type I DM is unknown. Type II DM also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult onset diabetes. In type II DM body’s cells fails to respond to insulin produced by pancreas. Type II DM primary cause is excessive weight gain and not enough activity. There is also another type of diabetes that occur during pregnancy known as gestational diabetes. Symptoms of untreated diabetes mellitus are polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss. Symptoms can be developed within one month of type I DM while in type II DM the symptoms develop much more slowly. Type I DM can be treated on Continue reading >>
What is Diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the kidneys are no longer able to conserve water or concentrate the urine. This, in turn, leads to excessive thirst (polydipsia), an increased intake of fluids and thus excessive urination (polyuria). Despite the similar names and certain symptoms in common, including increased thirst and increased urination, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are not related diseases. In the case of DI, sometimes called “water diabetes,” the body is in an abnormal state of water diuresis (overproduction of diluted urine). With diabetes mellitus, sometimes called “sugar diabetes,” the body is in an abnormal state of osmotic diuresis (excess urine caused by high glucose). A part of the brain called the hypothalamus is responsible for producing the antidiuretic hormone ADH, which is commonly referred to as vasopressin. This hormone signals the kidneys to conserve water by creating concentrated urine. If there is a lack of vasopressin, the kidneys will no longer absorb excess water, leading to diabetes insipidus. This causes the body to rapidly lose water in the form of dilute urine. This form of DI, commonly referred to as central diabetes insipidus, is often a result of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland caused by surgery, infection, tumor or a head injury. DI can also be caused by certain medications, such as lithium, and it can be inherited. About 25 percent of the time, a definitive cause cannot be found, according to the American Academy of Physicians. The prevalence of all types of DI is rare, occurring in 1 out of 25,000 people. Central DI (also called neurogenic DI) can be either a temporary or permanent disorder, depending on the injury or underlying condition. Altho Continue reading >>
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst. The amount of urine produced can be nearly 20 liters per day. Reduction of fluid has little effect on the concentration of the urine. Complications may include dehydration or seizures. There are four types of DI, each with a different set of causes. Central DI (CDI) is due to a lack of the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone). This can be due to damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland or genetics. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidneys do not respond properly to vasopressin. Dipsogenic DI is due to abnormal thirst mechanisms in the hypothalamus while gestational DI occurs only during pregnancy. Diagnosis is often based on urine tests, blood tests, and the fluid deprivation test. Diabetes mellitus is a separate condition with an unrelated mechanism, though both can result in the production of large amounts of urine. Treatment involves drinking sufficient fluids to prevent dehydration. Other treatments depend on the type. In central and gestational disease treated is with desmopressin. Nephrogenic disease may be treated by addressing the underlying cause or the use of a thiazide, aspirin, or ibuprofen. The number of new cases of diabetes insipidus each year is 3 in 100,000. Central DI usually starts between the ages of 10 and 20 and occurs in males and females equally. Nephrogenic DI can begin at any age. The term "diabetes" is derived from the Greek word meaning siphon. Signs and symptoms Excessive urination and extreme thirst and increased fluid intake (especially for cold water and sometimes ice or ice water) are typical for DI. The symptoms of excessive urination Continue reading >>
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
NORD gratefully acknowledges Jeff M. Sands, MD, Juha P. Kokko Professor of Medicine and Physiology, Renal Division Director, Executive Vice-Chair of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, for assistance in the preparation of this report. Synonyms of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus NDI vasopressin-resistant diabetes insipidus General Discussion Summary Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare kidney disorder that may be inherited or acquired. NDI is not related to the more common diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. NDI is a distinct disorder caused by complete or partial resistance of the kidneys to arginine vasopressin (AVP). Vasopressin is an antidiuretic hormone used by the kidney to manage water balance in the body. NDI causes chronic excessive thirst (polydipsia), excessive urine production (polyuria), and potentially dehydration. If left untreated, repeated episodes of severe dehydration may develop, eventually resulting in serious complications. Most cases of hereditary NDI are inherited as X-linked recessive disorders. Rare cases are inherited as an autosomal recessive or dominant disorder. Two different genes have been identified that cause hereditary NDI. NDI may also be acquired during life as a result of drug use (e.g., lithium therapy), kidney disease, obstruction of the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), and prolonged metabolic imbalances such as low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) or high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). NDI may also be a temporary complication associated with pregnancy. Introduction Th Continue reading >>
Diabetes Insipidus In Children
What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon condition that causes excessive production of very diluted urine and intense thirst. In a healthy body, the kidneys filter waste from the blood in a constant flow. Water cleaned of waste is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream and the body. Waste is concentrated in the kidneys into a small amount of urine and excreted. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) helps the kidneys and body conserve the correct amount of water. ADH is secreted by the hypothalamus (a small gland located at the base of the brain), stored in the pituitary gland, and then released into the bloodstream. The underlying problem in diabetes insipidus is either too little ADH reaching the kidneys or the failure of the kidneys to respond to it. For either reason, when a person has diabetes insipidus the kidneys are unable to concentrate the urine, and large amounts of dilute urine are released. The disease is separated into two categories: Central diabetes insipidus results from an insufficient production or secretion of ADH. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results from a lack of kidney response to normal levels of ADH. Note that diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, a more common and better-known disorder in the production of a different hormone, insulin. Causes of diabetes insipidus Central diabetes insipidus can be the result of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland caused by: Brain surgery Brain malformation Tumor in or near the pituitary gland Inflammation of the pituitary gland (hypophysitis) Langerhan cell histiocytosis Some genetic disorders Head injury Interruption of the blood supply to the pituitary gland Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, the membranes tha Continue reading >>
Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs
What is Diabetes insipidus? There are two types of diabetes in dogs. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is also called “sugar diabetes” and results from a disruption of pancreas function and abnormal regulation of blood sugar. The term, meaning “sweetened with honey,” originated from the fact that the urine of these patients was “sweet” due to high amounts of sugar excreted from the body. Diabetes insipidus (DI) gets its name from the fact that the urine of these patients is dilute enough to be “tasteless” or “insipid.” Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs, and is characterized by excessive thirst/drinking and the production of enormous volumes of extremely dilute urine. Some dogs may produce so much urine that they become incontinent (incapable of controlling their urine outflow). The irony of this disease is that despite drinking large volumes of water, the dog can become dehydrated from urinating so much. My dog is drinking and urinating a lot. Is DI the likely cause? There are many causes of increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urine production (polyuria), including diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, liver problems, and kidney disease, to name a few. It is essential that several diagnostic tests be performed to determine the cause of your dog’s problem. How is DI diagnosed? Part of diagnosing DI involves first eliminating other potential explanations for increased drinking and increased urinating. Typical laboratory testing will include a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry panel to evaluate liver and kidney parameters and blood sugar, and a urinalysis. The urine concentration (specific gravity) is quite low in these dogs. A more advanced test involves calculating normal daily water intake, measuring how much the dog is truly drinking Continue reading >>
Diabetes Insipidus: How To Recognize And Treat It
Let’s go ahead and quell your nagging question right away: no, diabetes insipidus is not the same as diabetes mellitus. There’s definitely a difference. Diabetes mellitus is most familiar to us as type 1 and type 2 diabetes. And it’s all the rage these days. That is to say, type 2 diabetes is the one that is plaguing Western countries due to various factors such as our absurdly fast-paced lifestyles and overly processed foods with zero nutritional value. That kind of diabetes is related to insulin levels or what we usually refer to as blood sugar levels. Diabetes insipidus, on the other hand, is the lesser known condition in the diabetic family tree. While diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus have some similar symptoms like excessive thirst and urination, they are indeed quite different. In fact, diabetes insipidus is a fairly uncommon condition that causes a water imbalance in the body. A water imbalance doesn’t sound all that bad, does it? Is this really that big of a deal? Yes, including some dangerous complications! The Mayo Clinic explains that the two main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are extreme thirst and excessive amounts of diluted urine. They say that healthy adults will urinate about three quarts per day, but with diabetes insipidus, you can urinate up to 16 quarts in a day if you’re drinking a lot of fluid. Bottom line: if you are experiencing these symptoms, you need to get to a doctor immediately so they can rule out any other conditions, such as diabetes mellitus. Your physician will also work with you to get your body back to actually absorbing fluids for healthy hydration. We’ll come back to that shortly because that causes other serious problems as well. Depending on the severity of your condition, you may even find yourself needing Continue reading >>
When most people think of diabetes, they think of blood sugar, insulin, and obesity. This form of diabetes is known as Diabetes Mellitus, which occurs in two types: Type I or Juvenile Diabetes and Type II or Adult-onset Diabetes. Both types of Diabetes Mellitus involve the pancreas, the gland which produces insulin to help our bodies use blood sugar for energy. The malfunction of this gland can be the result of genetics, as with Type I, or a lifestyle of inactivity and excess weight gain leading to obesity, which puts us at higher risk of developing Type II. However, many people may not be as familiar with Diabetes Insipidus. DI and DM are wholly unrelated but can share many of the same symptoms . Our bodies use a complex hormone system to regulate hydration and thirst. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, is produced in the hypothalamus in the brain and stored in the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then releases ADH to the kidneys to prevent them from filtering too much water out of the blood. Typically, most water is reabsorbed into the body and only some is concentrated into urine. Most healthy adults produce between 1.5–2.5 liters of urine per day. However, someone with Diabetes Insipidus may produce anywhere from 2–20 liters of urine per day, depending on severity, and the frequency of needing to go can potentially disrupt sleep or even lead to bedwetting. As a result, the most common symptoms of DI are persistent thirst, excessive production of diluted urine, and frequent urination, or polyuria. With such fluid loss, it can be easy for someone with DI to become dehydrated if they cannot drink enough fluid to make up for what is lost. If dehydrated, one may feel symptoms of lethargy, unexplained weakness, or muscle pain. Diabetes Insipidu Continue reading >>
Diabetes Insipidus Vs Mellitus
Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus might share a name and have some similar symptoms, but they are two very different diseases. They also require two very different treatments. Because diabetes mellitus involves blood sugar levels and insulin resistance, it is important for most people to use a blood sugar monitoring device daily and eat low glycemic foods that won’t spike their blood sugar levels. For diabetes insipidus, it isn’t blood sugar that is the problem, but blood water levels. The body produces a hormone called Vasopressin that is supposed to control how much water the kidneys take out of the blood stream. Converted to urine, these fluids flush out the wastes that the kidneys filter out. When this system malfunctions, a person’s thirst increases because the body thinks it needs more water to flush out impurities. By paying attention to the specific signs and symptoms of each disease, it becomes possible to discover which is the problem and find an appropriate solution to the issue. Here are the common symptoms and what they mean for each. Excessive Fatigue For diabetes insipidus, excessive fatigue occurs because of an overall lack of hydration. It may also be caused by an electrolyte imbalance. For diabetes mellitus, excessive fatigue generally occurs because blood sugar levels are too low or too high. Excessive Thirst This symptom occurs in diabetes insipidus because the body senses a lack of Vasopressin and so it demands more fluids because it thinks it needs them. For diabetes mellitus, the excessive thirst occurs because of excessive glucose levels that need to be expelled from the body. Urine for those with diabetes insipidus is clear and transparent, while with diabetes mellitus, it is yellow, pale, and often cloudy. Blurred Vision With diabe Continue reading >>
What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes Insipidus?
Diabetes is a health condition that is well-known around the world because of its prevalence in the recent years. The most common types of the disease are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes with the latter being the highest occurring among all. There are also other forms of the disease that are rare and not known by many. One of such types is diabetes insipidus. It is cited as the rarest form of diabetes that is diagnosed in one out of 25,000 people. The particular type is also called ‘water diabetes’ since the affected person suffers from abnormally frequent, heavy urination and general poor health along with a lot of thirst which almost seems like impossible to get rid of. The common types of diabetes are mostly linked to insulin resistance and the inability of the body to use insulin due to pancreas malfunction. Diabetes insipidus, on the other hand, is usually caused by a defect in the kidneys or in the pituitary gland. The word insipidus used in the term comes from Latin and means tasteless. It is a reference to the urine passed by patients with diabetes insipidus which is low in sodium content, diluted, and odorless. On the other hand, the word mellitus used in the term diabetes mellitus, which used for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, means sweet as the patients of this health condition usually pass urine which is high in sugars. Contrary to the popular belief, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are not related although they share common characteristics such as people having either experience frequent urination and increased thirst. People having diabetes insipidus do not have high blood-sugar levels unlike patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The main problem in diabetes insipidus is that the kidneys of the affected person are unable to balance f Continue reading >>
On this page: What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person's kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day. As a result, a person with diabetes insipidus may feel the need to drink large amounts of liquids. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus—which includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes—are unrelated, although both conditions cause frequent urination and constant thirst. Diabetes mellitus causes high blood glucose, or blood sugar, resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. People with diabetes insipidus have normal blood glucose levels; however, their kidneys cannot balance fluid in the body. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys normally filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. How is fluid regulated in the body? A person's body regulates fluid by balancing liquid intake and removing extra fluid. Thirst usually controls a person’s rate of liquid intake, while urination removes most fluid, although people also lose fluid through sweating, breathing, or diarrhea. The hormone vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, con Continue reading >>
Lithium And Chronic Kidney Disease
What is lithium? Lithium is a common medicine used to help calm mood for treating people with mental disorders. Since such disorders need lifelong treatment, long-term use of lithium may be harmful to organs, such as the kidneys. How does lithium cause kidney damage? Lithium may cause problems with kidney health. Kidney damage due to lithium may include acute (sudden) or chronic (long-term) kidney disease and kidney cysts. The amount of kidney damage depends on how long you have been taking lithium. It is possible to reverse kidney damage caused by lithium early in treatment, but the damage may become permanent over time. What is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus? The most common problem from taking lithium is a form of diabetes due to kidney damage called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This type of diabetes is different than diabetes mellitus caused by high blood sugar. In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the kidneys cannot respond to anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), a chemical messenger that controls fluid balance. This results in greater than normal urine out-put and excessive thirst. It can be hard to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. What are the signs and symptoms of kidney damage and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus due to lithium? When the kidneys are not able to control fluid balance you may notice: Greater than normal urine out-put (polyuria), along with greater than normal fluid intake (polydipsia) due to excessive thirst Getting up at night to urinate (nocturia) can be a sign of polyuria Signs of modest dehydration Low blood pressure while standing (orthostatic hypertension) Very fast heart beat (tachycardia) Dry mouth Signs of severe dehydration High blood sodium level (hypernatremia) Change in mental status Too much fluid loss can cause electrolyte imbalance. E Continue reading >>
What Is Diabetes?
What is diabetes mellitus? The term ‘diabetes’ means excessive urination and the word ‘mellitus’ means honey. Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong condition caused by a lack, or insufficiency of insulin. Insulin is a hormone – a substance of vital importance that is made by your pancreas. Insulin acts like a key to open the doors into your cells, letting sugar (glucose) in. In diabetes, the pancreas makes too little insulin to enable all the sugar in your blood to get into your muscle and other cells to produce energy. If sugar can’t get into the cells to be used, it builds up in the bloodstream. Therefore, diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels. Before you got diabetes Before you got diabetes, your body automatically kept your blood sugar exactly at the right level. Here is how that worked. After a meal containing carbohydrates, sugar is absorbed into the blood stream very quickly. The amount of sugar in your blood must not get too high or too low. Two hormones – insulin and glucagon – were produced in the pancreas – to ensure that the blood sugar was always well controlled no matter how much you had to eat and how much you exercised. Types of diabetes Diabetes Mellitus is the most common and there is two different categories: Type 1 diabetes tends to occur in childhood or early adult life, and always requires treatment with insulin injections. It is caused by the body’s own immune system destroying the insulin-making cells (beta-cells) of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes usually develops slowly in adulthood. It is progressive and can sometimes be treated with diet and exercise, but more often Type 2 diabetes may require antidiabetic medicine and/or insulin injections. Prediabetes is described in this video clip – Diabetes Insipidu Continue reading >>
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What Is Diabetes Insipidus?
Diabetes Insipidus What is diabetes insipidus (DI) and why do we get it? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is caused by a problem with either the production, or action, of the hormone vasopressin (AVP). If you have DI your kidneys are unable to retain water. This leads to the production of large volumes of urine and, in turn, greatly increased thirst. DI can occur at any age, but is mostly found in adults. It is a rare disorder, affecting only about 1 in 25,000 people. To understand DI we need to understand a little about how the body regulates water balance - the difference between how much water the body takes in and how much it passes out. Water balance is very important for the body. A large proportion of what we are is made up of water. In addition, the amount of water we have in our circulation is a large factor in determining the balance of salt in our bodies. As with any function that is important, the body has a sensitive mechanism for regulating water balance. Like any good mechanism it is also simple, involving two key components: • Vasopressin (AVP or ADH - antidiuretic hormone) - which regulates the amount of water passed out of the body in urine. • Thirst and drinking - which determines the amount of water the body takes in. AVP (sometimes called Anti-diuretic hormone or ADH) is a hormone released from the rear most part of the pituitary gland (the posterior pituitary). This gland is located at the base of the brain, and is about 3 to 5 centimetres behind the bridge of the nose. AVP circulates in the bloodstream and acts on the kidneys to reduce the amount of water that is passed out in urine. How AVP and thirst work together is best described with the help of the bath tub analogy. As with a bath tub, the body likes to keep the level of water it contains at the Continue reading >>
Diabetes insipidus is characterised by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of urine. It is caused by the lack of sufficient vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain that instructs the kidneys to retain water. Treatment options include vasopressin replacement. On this page: Diabetes insipidus is characterised by extreme thirst and the passing of vast amounts of urine. It is caused by insufficient vasopressin, a hormone produced by the brain that instructs the kidneys to retain water. Without enough vasopressin, too much water is lost from the body in urine, which prompts the affected person to drink large amounts of fluids in an attempt to maintain their fluid levels. In severe cases, a person may pass up to 30 litres of urine per day. Without treatment, diabetes insipidus can cause dehydration and, eventually, coma due to concentration of salts in the blood, particularly sodium. The name of this condition is a little misleading, since diabetes insipidus has nothing to do with diabetes mellitus (a condition characterised by high blood sugar levels), apart from the symptoms of thirst and passing large volumes of urine. The word diabetes means 'to go through' - describing the excessive urination. Insipidus means the urine is tasteless, whereas mellitus suggests it is sweet from its sugar content. This terminology dates back to a time when physicians literally dipped a finger in the patient's urine and tested its taste. Not a diagnostic method much in use today! Symptoms The symptoms of diabetes insipidus include: Extreme thirst that can't be quenched (polydipsia) Excessive amounts of urine (polyuria) Colourless urine instead of pale yellow Waking frequently through the night to urinate Dry skin Constipation Weak muscles Bedwetting. Too much water is lost in Continue reading >>