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Impaired Glucose Tolerance Diet During Pregnancy

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms;[2] however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section.[2] Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too large, having low blood sugar after birth, and jaundice.[2] If untreated, it can also result in a stillbirth.[2] Long term, children are at higher risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.[2] Gestational diabetes is caused by not enough insulin in the setting of insulin resistance.[2] Risk factors include being overweight, previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes, and having polycystic ovarian syndrome.[2] Diagnosis is by blood tests.[2] For those at normal risk screening is recommended between 24 and 28 weeks gestation.[2][3] For those at high risk testing may occur at the first prenatal visit.[2] Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising before pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes is a treated with a diabetic diet, exercise, and possibly insulin injections.[2] Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with a diet and exercise.[3] Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is often recommended four times a day.[3] Breastfeeding is recommended as soon as possible after birth.[2] Gestational diabetes affects 3–9% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.[3] It is especially common during the last three months of pregnancy.[2] It affects 1% of those under the age of 20 and 13% of those over the age of 44.[3] A number of ethnic groups including Asians, American Indians, Indigenous Australians, and Pacific Continue reading >>

Planning Detailed Menus For Glucose Intolerant Folks, I.e.,me

Planning Detailed Menus For Glucose Intolerant Folks, I.e.,me

Planning detailed menus for glucose intolerant folks, i.e.,me I have impaired glucose tolerance , which is a step below gestational diabetes. The pregnancy hormones in my body are causing my insulin to not process sugar as well as it usually would. Left unchecked, and by left unchecked I mean if I continued my ramen-eating habits as they were, I could very possibly develop gestational diabetes, which would pose some mild-to-serious problems for myself and the baby (fat baby, hard labor/delivery, future risk of diabetes, post-birth dangerously low blood sugar for baby, among others). While some health care providers simply advise diet modification for women who have IGT, my health care provider deals with it aggressively by putting me into the same type of lifestyle program that I would be in if I had gestational diabetes, minus any medication or insulin shots. The program involves: Testing my blood sugar (yes, poking myself with a small needle gun) four times a day once when I first wake up (between 8-10 hours since I last ate), then once an hour after breakfast, lunch, and dinner Meeting with a dietitian to learn the types of foods I can eat and cant eat, and how much I should eat at a time Planning very detailed menus or at least keeping track of what you eat to try to balance the appropriate amounts of starch, protein, fat, milk, fruits, and veggies Phoning or emailing blood sugar results for accountability and for the dietitian and nurse to make sure things are going well As someone who already tries (but is not always successful) to eat according to the food pyramid guidelines, Im familiar with the concepts of serving sizes and food portions. The food categories for this are a bit different, however, based on the amounts of carbohydrates in the food. Some of the m Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common medical complication of pregnancy and is defined as diabetes with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Paul Terranova, in xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference , 2007 While the incidence of gestational diabetes is approximate 0.5%, it affects 4% of pregnant women. It is estimated that 135,000 cases of gestational diabetes are diagnosed in the United States each year. Although gestational diabetes usually dissipates after pregnancy, it typically recurs during subsequent pregnancies. In some cases, pregnancy reveals the patient has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is uncertain whether these women have gestational diabetes or whether the diabetes coincidentally began during pregnancy. In either case, they are likely to require treatment after pregnancy. Some women with gestational diabetes develop type 2 diabetes, suggesting a possible link between the two conditions. Peter Hornnes, Jeannet Lauenborg, in Obesity , 2013 Gestational diabetes is an asymptomatic condition associated with adverse outcome for mother and child. Overweight and obesity confer a higher risk of gestational diabetes up to 11-fold. Health care providers of pregnant women should ensure that a strategy for screening gestational diabetes is in place. Either general screening programmes or selective screening programmes may be employed. Women with gestational diabetes should be monitored and treated vigorously. After delivery, glucose metabolism is most often normalised, but women with previous gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type-2 diabetes in later years. Therefore, they should be counselled about healthy lifestyles and offered exanimations for diabetes or pre-diabetes with 13 year intervals. Christopher Federico, Gabriella Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Home The Diet Weekly Record Physiology FAQ Principles Special Needs No-Risk Diet Weight Gain Salt Water Bed Rest Herbal Diuretics Vegetarian Twin Pregnancy The Twin Diet Premature Labor Swelling Blood Pressure Pre-eclampsia HELLP/Hemorrhage Mistaken Diagnoses IUGR Underweight Babies Obesity Anemias Gestational Diabetes Abruption Brewer/ACOG Topics News Stories Inaccuracies Research In Memory Letters History Suppression Resources Other Issues Morning Sickness Colds and Flu About Contact Registry Registry II Registry III "Keep your nutritional needs clearly in mind" There is a summary and list of suggestions at the end of this page The following description of gestational diabetes is reprinted from The Brewer Medical Diet for Normal and High-Risk Pregnancy, by Gail Sforza Brewer [Krebs] with Thomas Brewer, M.D., published in 1983. While the standards recommended by the Diabetes Data Group may have been revised in more recent years to yet another, possibly even lower blood glucose level, which I will be researching in coming weeks, the principles advocated by Dr. Brewer in this reprint remain relevant. For an additional source on gestational diabetes, please see "Gestational Diabetes: Myth or Metabolism?", by Joy Jones, RN, which has been reprinted at the end of this page. For more information on testing for blood glucose and proper nutrition for apparently elevated blood glucose levels, please see Understanding Diagnostic Tests in the Childbearing Year, by Anne Frye, CPM, listed on our "Resources" page. Perhaps you can obtain a cop Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes definition and facts Risk factors for gestational diabetes include a history of gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, There are typically no noticeable signs or symptoms associated with gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes can cause the fetus to be larger than normal. Delivery of the baby may be more complicated as a result. The baby is also at risk for developing low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) immediately after birth. Following a nutrition plan is the typical treatment for gestational diabetes. Maintaining a healthy weight and following a healthy eating plan may be able to help prevent or minimize the risks of gestational diabetes. Women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes after the pregnancy What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is diabetes, or high blood sugar levels, that develops during pregnancy. It occurs in about 4% of all pregnancies. It is usually diagnosed in the later stages of pregnancy and often occurs in women who have no prior history of diabetes. What causes gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is thought to arise because the many changes, hormonal and otherwise, that occur in the body during pregnancy predispose some women to become resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by specialized cells in the pancreas that allows the body to effectively metabolize glucose for later usage as fuel (energy). When levels of insulin are low, or the body cannot effectively use insulin (i.e., insulin resistance), blood glucose levels rise. What are the screening guidelines for gestational diabetes? All pregnant women should be screened for gestational diabetes during their pregnancy. Most pregnant women are tested between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy (see Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Practice Essentials Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of variable degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. A study by Stuebe et al found this condition to be associated with persistent metabolic dysfunction in women at 3 years after delivery, separate from other clinical risk factors. [1] Infants of mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus experience double the risk of serious injury at birth, triple the likelihood of cesarean delivery, and quadruple the incidence of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Gestational diabetes mellitus accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, while preexisting type 2 diabetes accounts for 8% of such cases. Screening for diabetes mellitus during pregnancy Gestational diabetes The following 2-step screening system for gestational diabetes is currently recommended in the United States: Alternatively, for high-risk women or in areas in which the prevalence of insulin resistance is 5% or higher (eg, the southwestern and southeastern United States), a 1-step approach can be used by proceeding directly to the 100-g, 3-hour OGTT. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for gestational diabetes mellitus after 24 weeks of pregnancy. The recommendation applies to asymptomatic women with no previous diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. [2, 3] The recommendation does not specify whether the 1-step or 2-step screening approach would be preferable. Type 1 diabetes The disease is typically diagnosed during an episode of hyperglycemia, ketosis, and dehydration It is most commonly diagnosed in childhood or adolescence; the disease is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy Patients diagnosed during pregnancy most often present with unexpected Continue reading >>

Impaired Glucose Tolerance And Pregnancy Outcome In Chinese Women With High Body Mass Index

Impaired Glucose Tolerance And Pregnancy Outcome In Chinese Women With High Body Mass Index

Impaired glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcome in Chinese women with high body mass index Human Reproduction, Volume 15, Issue 8, 1 August 2000, Pages 18261829, T.T. Lao, L.F. Ho; Impaired glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcome in Chinese women with high body mass index, Human Reproduction, Volume 15, Issue 8, 1 August 2000, Pages 18261829, To determine if impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) impacts on the outcome of singleton pregnancies in Chinese women with a high (>26 kg/m2) body mass index (BMI), a retrospective case-control study was performed on 128 women with IGT and 128 controls with normal oral glucose tolerance test results, who were matched for pre-pregnancy BMI (within 0.1 kg/m2) and delivered within the same 3 year period. The IGT group was older, with more multiparae, a higher incidence of previous gestational diabetes mellitus, higher booking haemoglobin and fasting glucose concentrations, but no difference in the pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, or weight or BMI at delivery. There was no difference in the obstetric complications, mode of delivery, or the gestational age or mean infant birthweight. However, the birthweight ratio (relative to mean birthweight for gestation), incidence of large-for-gestational-age (birthweight >90th percentile) and macrosomic (birthweight 4000 g) infants, and treatment for neonatal jaundice, were significantly higher in the IGT group. The results suggest that some of the complications attributed to gestational diabetes mellitus are probably related to maternal weight excess/obesity in the affected subjects, but IGT could still affect infant birthweight outcome despite diet treatment which has normalized gestational weight gain. birthweight , body mass index , impaired glucose tolerance The impact of maternal Continue reading >>

Diet During Early Pregnancy And Development Of Gestational Diabetes

Diet During Early Pregnancy And Development Of Gestational Diabetes

Go to: Summary Diet composition may be a modifiable predictor of risk for abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Prior studies suggest that diets high in total fat, saturated fat, red and processed meats, and with high glycaemic load increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), while polyunsaturated fats, carbohydrates and fibre are protective. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of these and other nutrients and foods, including n-3 fatty acids, trans fats, whole grains and dietary patterns, with risk of GDM. We studied 1733 women with singleton pregnancies enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort study in eastern MA. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined associations of first trimester diet, assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire, with results of glucose tolerance testing at 26−28 weeks of gestation. A total of 91 women developed GDM and 206 women had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was a strong predictor for GDM risk (OR 3.44 [95% CI 1.88, 6.31] for pre-pregnancy BMI ≥30 vs. <25 kg/m2). After adjustment for confounders, the OR [95% CI] for risk of GDM for total dietary fat was 1.00 [0.96, 1.05], for saturated fat 0.98 [0.88, 1.08], for polyunsaturated fat 1.09 [0.94, 1.26], for trans fat 0.87 [0.51, 1.49], and for carbohydrates 1.00 [0.96, 1.03] per each 1% of total energy. The adjusted OR [95% CI] for risk of GDM for a one standard deviation increase in energy-adjusted glycaemic load (32 units, about two soft drinks) was 0.96 [0.76, 1.22] and for each daily serving of whole grains was 0.90 [0.73, 1.13]. Dietary patterns and intake of red and processed meats were not predictive of glucose tolerance outcome. Estimates for IGT were Continue reading >>

Impaired Glucose Tolerance In Pregnancy

Impaired Glucose Tolerance In Pregnancy

Is there another test, such as a urine test, to screen for diabetes? Afraid not. The only definitive screening and diagnostic test is a blood test. A urine test is very unreliable as a screening tool and is most certainly not diagnostic. How is the diagnostic test for diabetes conducted? You will hear the term Glucose Tolerance Test or, more often, GTT. It simply involves the person fasting for several hours overnight and taking a measured sugary drink in the morning. A series of blood samples are taken, normally every thirty minutes for the next two hours. Levels of sugar in each sample are analyzed. It will tell the doctor whether the mother's body is processing sugars (and other carbohydrates) efficiently. If this is the case, it will mean she is not diabetic. It could, on the other hand, show that the control of blood sugars is not optimal - which will be termed "impaired glucose tolerance". It could show that blood sugar level control has been completely lost. This will mean she has gestational diabetes. What are the implications of impaired glucose tolerance? Well, she does not have diabetes, so things are not too bad. The standard control of this is purely dietary. Her doctors and midwife will give her advice on the kind of changes she needs to make in her diet. In most cases, a dietician is involved, to give personalized specialist dietary advice. Regular blood sugar tests will be done for the remainder of the pregnancy. Can the baby be affected by impaired glucose tolerance? When this diagnosis is made, the mother is bound to have a closer follow-up of her pregnancy. Sometimes impaired glucose tolerance progresses into gestational diabetes, which may call for changes in the management strategy. If impaired glucose tolerance is well controlled, there is no evid Continue reading >>

Anyone With Impaired Glucose Tolerance/ Gestational Diabetes In 2nd/3rd Trimester?

Anyone With Impaired Glucose Tolerance/ Gestational Diabetes In 2nd/3rd Trimester?

I had my GTT at 24 weeks and turns out I have impaired glucose tolerance. I have seen the diabetes midwife and also seen the dietician. They have taught me how to test myself 4 times a day. I'm trying to be on a very controlled and balanced diet but still not able to get my sugars completely under control. I think I have another 3 days to try on the diet and i dont succeed in controlling the sugars, they might put me on medication. I am now 26 weeks pregnant - so still have a long way to go and wondering if there is anyone else there who is in a similar position as I am. Any tips on diet? Any experiences to share? Just a quick post from me. I had GD with my 2nd child, who is now 20 months. I was diagnosed at 16 weeks because I was tested early as there were suspicions that I'd had it with my first child, and also have PCOS. I adopted a very strict diet and still ended up on insulin, which was entirely due to my condition, not because I wasn't following the diet. So don't be too hard on yourself if you find it difficult to control. At the time I was devastated, partly due to the rubbish nurse (I hesitate to call her a specialist nurse) who was almost gleeful when she told me that my son would have to go into special care after the birth, which turned out to be complete bollocks. Still, every cloud had a silver lining and I finished my pregnancy a lot lighter than I did at the beginning. 20 months on, and I'm 5 dress sizes smaller than I was pre-pregnancy. Bacon, bacon and more bacon for breakfast! My GD was much worse in the morning so I couldn't even eat porridge. Eat lots and lots of veg, protein and carbs like sweet potato in the evening. Follow the low GI diet for suggestions. I used to snack on things like cheese and apple together, which satisfied my sweet craving Continue reading >>

A Tale Of Low Carb Diets And Gestational Diabetes

A Tale Of Low Carb Diets And Gestational Diabetes

With the rising popularity of low carb/paleo type diets has come a curious unintended consequence: expecting mothers receiving a false positive on their Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) test. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) GDM is diabetes (“Type 4 Diabetes”) diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not obviously type 1 or 2 [1]. Women with diabetes in the first trimester would be classified as having type 2 diabetes [1]. The essential contributing factor to GDM is pancreatic insufficiency [2]. Basically, your pancreas is not making enough insulin for your body to overcome the increased insulin resistance due to the placental hormones of pregnancy and increased maternal adipose tissue, which could potentially cause your blood glucose levels to remain high. GDM = weak pancreas. Not making enough insulin for you and the baby. Testing There are two test for GDM: the one step and two step strategy. The One-Step test is the first test for diagnosing GDM. The diagnosis of GDM is made when any of the following plasma glucose values are met or exceeded [3]: Fasting: 92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L) 1 hour into the test: 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L) 2 hours into the test: 153 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L) If for whatever reason you do not pass the One-Step Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), ask for the Two-Step test or ask them to check your HbA1C, as it shows blood sugar levels over time as opposed to the brief snapshot these one and two step tests provide. HbA1C can be measured with a simple blood test. The Two-Step test involves the following [3]: Step 1: Perform a 50-g Glucose Loading Test (GLT) (non-fasting), with plasma glucose measurement at 1 h. If the plasma glucose level measured 1 h after the load is ≥140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L), proceed to a 100-g OGTT. Step 2: Continue reading >>

Family Health Online | From Managing Diabetes Magazine |diabetes | Impaired Glucose Tolerance - Lower Your Chances Of Developing Diabetes

Family Health Online | From Managing Diabetes Magazine |diabetes | Impaired Glucose Tolerance - Lower Your Chances Of Developing Diabetes

Lower your chances of developing diabetes Impaired glucose tolerance is a condition to be taken seriously, as it places you at higher risk of developing heart disease and diabetes. What exactly is impaired glucose tolerance? Who is at risk? How do you know if you have impaired glucose tolerance? As the daughter of a person with diabetes, Nancy knew she was at higher risk of developing the disease. Last week, she asked to be tested for diabetes. The test involved drinking a special glucose mixture, then having blood taken two hours later. Today, when Nancy returned for her results, her doctor told her she has impaired glucose tolerance. "Does this mean I am diabetic?" asked Nancy. "Not quite. Impaired glucose tolerance is a state between normal blood glucose and diabetes," said Dr. Smith. "Your blood test result was 8.2 mmol/L. We say that a person has impaired glucose tolerance if his or her blood glucose is between 7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L two hours after the glucose drink. Your test result is high, but not high enough to be called diabetes." Impaired glucose tolerance is sometimes inappropriately called borderline diabetes. People with impaired glucose tolerance are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes within seven or eight years. They are also at risk of developing gestational diabetes (high blood glucose during pregnancy) and cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack or stroke. "There are no signs of impaired glucose tolerance except that the results of your blood test were high. It was good that we checked you for diabetes. Many people have impaired glucose tolerance and don't know it," Dr. Smith said. Nancy had been at higher risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance for a few reasons. Having a relative with diabetes, being over 45 years of age, being overweig Continue reading >>

Increased Fat Intake Linked To Impaired Glucose Tolerance In Pregnancy

Increased Fat Intake Linked To Impaired Glucose Tolerance In Pregnancy

Increased Fat Intake Linked to Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Pregnancy Mar. 5, 2004 Increased fat intake is associated with the development of glucose abnormalities in pregnancy, according to results of a prospective cohort study published in the March issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The conclusion contrasted with those of a study by Wang and colleagues published in 2000 showing that polyunsaturated fats had a strong protective effect on impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women. Tina M. Saldana, PhD, RD, and colleagues from the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill examined data from a cohort of 1,698 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study. They collected sociodemographic information, data on body mass index (BMI), and smoking habits. The investigators excluded women who were not black or white, those in their second pregnancy, and those with preexisting diabetes. Researchers assessed participants' dietary intake during the second trimester using a food frequency questionnaire in which patients were asked to report usual intake during the previous three months. Dietary variables of interest to investigators included macronutrients and total energy. Dr. Saldana and colleagues assessed macronutrients as percentages of total energy and as calories from each macronutrient source. Information was obtained on glucose tolerance from hospital computer databases and medical charts, then women were divided into one of three glucose categories: GDM, IGT, and normal glucose tolerance. The researchers employed multivariate logistic regression to calculate the relative risk of IGT and GDM, with adjustment for potential confounders. They also designed several models to test hypotheses about the r Continue reading >>

My Doctor Has Told Me I Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, What Should I Do?

My Doctor Has Told Me I Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, What Should I Do?

My doctor has told me I have impaired glucose tolerance, what should I do? If you have been diagnosed with Impaired Glucose Tolerance (commonly known as pre-diabetes) you are at much greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Following a healthy lifestyle can help to reduce your chances of developing type 2 diabetes . If you are overweight , losing some weight (even just 5-7 percent of your current body weight) is important. This reduces stress on the body and can help make all body systems work more efficiently. To help with weight loss, try eating smaller portion sizes andbeing more physically active, and eating food and drink lower in kilojoules. Cooking more meals at home can also help you manage your weight better because you are in control of all of the ingredients. Healthy eating is important. Follow the Australian Dietary Guidelines and include low glycaemic index foods in your eating plan. Getting involved in moderate exercise for 30 minutes a day, on most or every day of the week will also help. An Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD) can help you develop a healthy eating plan that suits your individual lifestyle, maximising the variety of foods you are able to eat. Continue reading >>

Glucose Intolerance

Glucose Intolerance

Tweet Glucose intolerance is term for metabolic conditions which result in high blood glucose levels. Pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are all conditions which fall under the term glucose intolerant. Glucose intolerance is defined by the World Health Organisation as: A blood sugar level of 6.0 mmol/l or above whilst fasting A blood glucose level of over 7.8 mmol/l 2 hours after consuming 75g of glucose The figures above are based on the assumption that people are not taking blood glucose lowering medication. The symptoms of glucose intolerance may not be so easy to spot. The symptoms may include: Feeling thirsty Being tired or lethargic Needing to urinate more than usual Itchiness around the genitals People with impaired glucose tolerance are more likely to notice symptoms after meals. Whereas people with impaired fasting glucose will notice the symptoms through other parts of the day including during the night. Glucose intolerance will often be diagnosed by a fasting plasma glucose test or by a glucose tolerance test. A plasma glucose test is when a blood sample is taken, usually from your arm, and the blood glucose levels measured. A glucose tolerance test involves taking a set amount of glucose orally, usually 75g of glucose, and then taking your blood glucose levels over regular periods of time over the next few hours. Glucose intolerance can be treated through diet and lifestyle changes or with assistance from anti-diabetic medication, such as tablets and/or insulin. Your doctor will measure your long term blood glucose control via an HbA1c test. Your doctor may also prescribe you with blood glucose testing supplies to allow you to make diet choices and to indentify and prevent high or low blood glucose levels. Continue reading >>

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