diabetestalk.net

Igf 1 Diabetes Type 2

Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, And Cancer: The Insulin And Igf Connection

Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, And Cancer: The Insulin And Igf Connection

Link between obesity, diabetes, and cancer In the past several decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the rates of obesity (defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2). Currently, one-third of all adults in the United States are obese and similar trends have been observed worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. In 2008, 1.5 billion adults, aged 20 years and older, were overweight. Of these, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese (World Health Organization 2011a,b). Obesity has many associated comorbidities, including T2D and cancer. The association between obesity and cancer has been recognized and widely studied. The results of the Cancer Prevention Study suggested that 14% of cancer deaths in men and 20% in women could be attributed to obesity (Calle et al. 2003). More recent evidence suggests that about one-third of the 571 950 cancer deaths that were expected to occur in 2011 in the United States would be related to overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition (American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts and Figures 2011 www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-029771.pdf). Meta-analyses of prospective studies from other parts of the world show similar findings (Bergstrom et al. 2001, Pan et al. 2004, Kuriyama et al. 2005). With the worsening obesity epidemic, there has also been an increase in the rate of T2D. The CDC estimates that in the United States alone, there are 25.8 million people with diabetes, a number that comprises 8.3% of the population (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and pre-diabetes in the Uni Continue reading >>

The Association Between Igf-i And Insulin Resistance

The Association Between Igf-i And Insulin Resistance

Abstract OBJECTIVE IGF-I has an almost 50% amino acid sequence homology with insulin and elicits nearly the same hypoglycemic response. Studies showed that low and high IGF-I levels are related to impaired glucose tolerance and to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between IGF-I level and insulin resistance in a Danish general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Included were 3,354 adults, aged 19–72 years, from the cross-sectional Health2006 study. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as the index to estimate insulin resistance. Serum IGF-I levels were determined by an immunoassay and grouped into quintiles (Q1–Q5). Linear or multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS In the study population, 520 subjects (15.5%) had increased HOMA-IR values above 2.5. After adjustment for age, sex, physical activity, and waist-to-height ratio, a U-shaped association between IGF-I and HOMA-IR was found. Low IGF-I (Q1: odds ratio [OR] 1.65 [95% CI 1.16–2.34], P < 0.01) as well as high IGF-I (Q5: 1.96 [1.38–2.79], P < 0.01) levels were related to a higher odds of increased HOMA-IR values compared with subjects with intermediate (Q3) IGF-I levels. These associations remained statistically significant after the exclusion of subjects with type 2 diabetes and by using the updated computer HOMA2-IR model. CONCLUSIONS Low- and high-normal IGF-I levels are both related to insulin resistance. The biological mechanism of this complex phenomenon has to be elucidated in more detail for future risk stratification. IGF-I, predominantly synthesized in the liver upon stimulation by growth hormone (GH), is usually bound to IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in circulation (1). Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Is There A Therapeutic Role For Igf-1?

Insulin Resistance And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Is There A Therapeutic Role For Igf-1?

Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus: is there a therapeutic role for IGF-1? Novo Nordisk Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. [email protected] Severe insulin resistance represents a heterogeneous set of conditions with diverse underlying pathophysiology and limited therapeutic options. While recent studies have identified some of the molecular mechanisms resulting in extreme insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and liver, these studies have resulted in relatively few advances in therapy. Insulin like-growth factor 1 (IGF-1) lowers blood glucose while at the same time lowering serum insulin levels in normal volunteers. Its mechanism of action appears to be independent of activation of the insulin receptor although the role of IGF-1 in normal carbohydrate metabolism remains incompletely defined. IGF-1 also improves insulin resistance both in type 2 diabetes and in subjects with more severe insulin resistance. Small-scale clinical trials have demonstrated the potential utility of rhIGF-1 in selected cases of severe insulin resistance and, in these cases, the risk-benefit ratio appears to favor the use of this drug to ameliorate biochemical abnormalities and clinical symptoms. Continue reading >>

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.[5][6] IGF-1 has also been referred to as a "sulfation factor"[7] and its effects were termed "nonsuppressible insulin-like activity" (NSILA) in the 1970s. IGF-1 is a hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults. A synthetic analog of IGF-1, mecasermin, is used for the treatment of growth failure.[8] IGF-1 consists of 70 amino acids in a single chain with three intramolecular disulfide bridges. IGF-1 has a molecular weight of 7,649 Daltons.[9] Synthesis and circulation[edit] See also: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § IGF-1 signaling IGF-1 is produced primarily by the liver as an endocrine hormone as well as in target tissues in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. Production is stimulated by growth hormone (GH) and can be retarded by undernutrition, growth hormone insensitivity, lack of growth hormone receptors, or failures of the downstream signaling pathway post GH receptor including SHP2 and STAT5B. Approximately 98% of IGF-1 is always bound to one of 6 binding proteins (IGF-BP). IGFBP-3, the most abundant protein, accounts for 80% of all IGF binding. IGF-1 binds to IGFBP-3 in a 1:1 molar ratio. IGFBP-1 is regulated by insulin.[medical citation needed] IGF-1 is produced throughout life. The highest rates of IGF-1 production occur during the pubertal growth spurt. The lowest levels occur in infancy and old age.[medical citation needed] 3-d model of IGF-1 Protein intake increases IGF-1 levels in humans, independent of total calorie consumption.[10] Factors that are known to cause variation in the levels of growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 in th Continue reading >>

Prediction Of Incident Diabetes Mellitus By Baseline Igf1 Levels

Prediction Of Incident Diabetes Mellitus By Baseline Igf1 Levels

Prediction of incident diabetes mellitus by baseline IGF1 levels Medizinische Klinik-Innenstadt, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Ziemssenstrasse 1, 80336 Munich, Germany 1Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany 2Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany 3Institute for Community Medicine, University of Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany 4Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, 80804 Munich, Germany 5Synlab Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum Heidelberg GmbH, 69214 Eppelheim, Germany (Correspondence should be addressed to H J Schneider; Email: harald.schneider{at}med.uni-muenchen.de) Objective IGF1 is associated with metabolic parameters and involved in glucose metabolism. Low-IGF1 has been implicated in the etiology of glucose intolerance and subjects with pathological causes of either low- or high-IGF1 are at risk of diabetes. We hypothesized that both low- and high-IGF1 levels increase the risk of diabetes and aimed to assess the role of IGF1 in the risk of developing diabetes in a large prospective study. Design An analysis of two prospective cohort studies, the DETECT study and SHIP. Methods We measured IGF1 levels in 7777 nondiabetic subjects and assessed incident diabetes mellitus during follow-up. Results There were 464 cases of incident diabetes during 32 229 person-years (time of follow-up in the DETECT study and SHIP: 4.5 and 5 years respectively). There was no heterogeneity between both studies (P>0.4). The hazard ratios (HRs) of incident diabetes in subjects with IGF1 levels below the 10th or above the 90th age- and sex-specific percentile, compared to subjects with intermediate IGF1 levels, were 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.071.94 Continue reading >>

Igf In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Igf In The Treatment Of Diabetes

Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE, volume 17) Since the identification of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) as one of the proteins responsible for the nonsuppressible insulin-like activity described by Froesch et al. (1),IGF-I has been an attractive candidate for use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. IGF-I shares not only structural homology with insulin, but cognate receptor and post-receptor signaling similarities as well. The large-scale production of recombinant hIGF-I has led to an explosion in research characterizing the metabolic effects and therapeutic actions of IGF-I in different forms of diabetes. Initial studies focused on the use of IGF-I in patients with severe insulin resistance, a group in whom effective therapeutic options are quite limited. Early reports with this patient population provided the rationale for using IGF-I in both type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) and type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. This chapter reviews the rationale for the use of exogenous IGF-I in different types of diabetes mellitus and summarizes the therapeutic trials that have been published based on treatment with IGF-I. Glycemic ControlInsulin ReceptorHepatic Glucose ProductionContinuous Subcutaneous Insulin InfusionSevere Insulin Resistance These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Froesch ER, Burgi H, Ramsier EB, Bally P, Labhart A. Antibody suppressible and nonsuppressible insulin-like activities in human sera and their physiologic significance. An insulin assay with adipose tissue of increased precision and specifi Continue reading >>

Association Of Serum Free Igf-1 And Igfbp-1 With Insulin Sensitivity And Insulin Secretory Defects In Bangladeshi Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Sciencedirect

Association Of Serum Free Igf-1 And Igfbp-1 With Insulin Sensitivity And Insulin Secretory Defects In Bangladeshi Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Sciencedirect

Volume 9, Issue 2 , June 2014, Pages 132-138 Association of serum free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretory defects in Bangladeshi type 2 diabetes mellitus Serum free insulin like growth factors-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) may have an association with insulin resistance and B-cell secretory dysfunction. Present study is undertaken to explore the independent association of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1with two basic defects in type 2 diabetic patients in a Bangladeshi population. Sixty eight type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects are studied along with age-, sex- and BMI-matched 61 healthy controls without family history of diabetes or prediabetes. Insulin, free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 are measured by the standard ELISA method. Insulin secretory capacity (HOMA B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA S) are calculated using fasting glucose and fasting insulin by HOMA-CIGMA software. Fasting free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 levels are not significantly different between the study groups. But the level of free IGF-1 is significantly higher (p=0.03) in type 2 DM subjects compared to controls in the low BMI group (BMI23). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, positive association of HOMA B with free IGF-1 is evident. Similarly positive association of HOMA B and HOMA S with IGFBP-1 is shown in different models. In the same analysis, both free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 are inversely associated with fasting insulin in different models of stepwise multiple regression analysis. Both IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 are negatively associated with fasting insulin levels. Moreover B-cell secretory dysfunction is positively associated with IGF-1 and both B-cell secretory dysfunction and insulin sensitivity are also positively associated with IGFBP-1 in type 2 diabetic Continue reading >>

Diabetes, Vegetables, Igf-1

Diabetes, Vegetables, Igf-1

Diabetes, Vegetables, IGF-1 (Source) Health-e-Solutions comment: The source of this article, Diabetes, Vegetables, IGF-1 is from a vegetarian web site, so there is an underlying presupposition to the article that influences some of their conclusions. However, the excerpts below suggest a strong link between diabetes, cancer and poor diet, suggesting that plant foods should be regarded as the healthiest sources of nutrition for long term health. Diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by too much sugar (glucose) in the blood. Blood sugar levels rise when there is not enough insulin in the blood or the insulin that is in the blood does not work properly. Insulin is an important hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It regulates blood sugar levels by, for example, promoting the uptake of glucose into the cells. When things go wrong, high levels of glucose in the blood can cause damage to the nerves and blood vessels. Without treatment diabetes can lead to long-term health problems including kidney failure, gangrene, sensory loss, ulceration, blindness, cardiovascular disease and stroke. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 (insulin-dependent diabetes) occurs when the body produces little or no insulin. People who have type 1 diabetes must check the levels of glucose in their blood regularly and will need treatment for the rest of their lives. Type 1 diabetes is sometimes called juvenile-onset diabetes because it tends to develop before the age of 40, often in the teenage years. The peak age for diagnosis in the UK is between 10 and 14 years but is becoming younger with a steep rise in the under fives (Williams and Pickup, 2004). Symptoms include a frequent urge to urinate, extreme thirst and hunger, weight lo Continue reading >>

Association Of Serum Free Igf-1 And Igfbp-1 With Insulin Sensitivity In Impaired Glucose Tolerance (igt) - Sciencedirect

Association Of Serum Free Igf-1 And Igfbp-1 With Insulin Sensitivity In Impaired Glucose Tolerance (igt) - Sciencedirect

Association of serum free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 with insulin sensitivity in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) Author links open overlay panel GolamKabirab Aim and Background: Free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 are associated with obesity which is one of the major features of insulin resistance. But very few studies exist on free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 in IGT subjects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 with insulin sensitivity in IGT subjects. Subjects and Methods: Ninety-one subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were studied along with age- sex- and BMI-matched sixty-one healthy Controls without family history of diabetes or prediabetes. Insulin, free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 were measured by standard ELISA method. Insulin secretory capacity (HOMA B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA S) were calculated using fasting glucose and fasting insulin by HOMA-CIGMA software. Results: Fasting free IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 levels were not significantly different among the study groups. In stepwise multiple regression analysis, when free IGF-1 was considered as a dependent variable with other independent variables, model 1 (=0.352, p=0.03), model 2 (=0.355, p=0.033) and model 5 (=0.378, p=0.026) have shown significant association of fasting glucose with free IGF-1. Similarly when IGFBP-1 was considered as a dependent variable, model 4 (=0.865, p=0.03) and model 5 (=0.1.07, p=0.004) have shown negative association of fasting glucose with IGFBP-1. In this analysis model 5 have also shown negative association of HOMA S with IGFBP-1 (=1.015, p=0.017). Conclusion: IGF1 and IGFBP-1 seems to be negatively associated with fasting glucose in IGT subjects and insulin sensitivity (HOMA S) may also be negatively associated with IGFBP-1 in IGT subjects. Continue reading >>

Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Deficiency And Metabolic Syndrome

Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Deficiency And Metabolic Syndrome

Abstract Consistent evidence associates IGF-1 deficiency and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will focus on the metabolic effects of IGF-1, the concept of metabolic syndrome and its clinical manifestations (impaired lipid profile, insulin resistance, increased glucose levels, obesity, and cardiovascular disease), discussing whether IGF-1 replacement therapy could be a beneficial strategy for these patients. The search plan was made in Medline for Pubmed with the following mesh terms: IGF-1 and “metabolism, carbohydrate, lipids, proteins, amino acids, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes” between the years 1963–2015. The search includes animal and human protocols. In this review we discuss the relevant actions of IGF-1 on metabolism and the implication of IGF-1 deficiency in the establishment of metabolic syndrome. Multiple studies (in vitro and in vivo) demonstrate the association between IGF-1 deficit and deregulated lipid metabolism, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and an altered metabolic profile of diabetic patients. Based on the available data we propose IGF-1 as a key hormone in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome; due to its implications in the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Previous data demonstrates how IGF-1 can be an effective option in the treatment of this worldwide increasing condition. It has to distinguished that the replacement therapy should be only undertaken to restore the physiological levels, never to exceed physiological ranges. Keywords Lipid metabolismInsulin resistanceDyslipidemiaAgingOxidative stressGH/IGF-I axisObesityMitochondrial dysfunctionCellular protection Background Consistent data from multiple studies (in vitro and in vivo) demonstrate the association between IGF-1 deficit and deregulated Continue reading >>

Association Between Serum Igf-1 And Diabetes Among U.s. Adults

Association Between Serum Igf-1 And Diabetes Among U.s. Adults

Association Between Serum IGF-1 and Diabetes Among U.S. Adults Srinivas Teppala , MD, MPH and Anoop Shankar , MD, PHD From the Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia. Corresponding author: Anoop Shankar, [email protected] . Received 2010 Apr 23; Accepted 2010 Jul 9. Copyright 2010 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been corrected. See Diabetes Care. 2015 May; 38(5): 943 . This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 may have a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. We examined the association between serum IGF-1 and diabetes in a representative sample of U.S. adults. Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) participants aged 18 years (n = 5,511) were the subjects of the study. The main outcome was the presence of diabetes (n = 387). Lower serum IGF-1 levels were positively associated with diabetes after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, BMI, hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, and serum cholesterol. Compared with quartile 4 of IGF-1 (referent), the odds ratio (OR) of diabetes associated with quartile 1 was OR 2.16 (95% CI 1.243.76); P-trend = 0.002. However, the observed association between IGF-1 and diabetes was present only in those <65 years of age (OR = 3.05; P-trend = 0.006) and disappeared in those 65 years of age (OR = 0.51; P-trend = 0.18); P-interaction = 0.0056. Low IGF-1 levels are associated with diabetes among young subjects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is involved in the regu Continue reading >>

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 And Insulin-like Growth Factor–binding Protein 3 In Relation To The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From The Epic–potsdam Study

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 And Insulin-like Growth Factor–binding Protein 3 In Relation To The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From The Epic–potsdam Study

Higher levels of insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) might raise the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via binding of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), an insulin-like hormone that is involved in glucose homeostasis. We investigated serum concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and their molar ratio in relation to T2DM incidence in a nested case-cohort study within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition–Potsdam Study. We included a randomly selected subcohort of persons without T2DM at the time of blood sampling (n = 2,269) and 776 individuals with incident T2DM identified between 1994 and 2005. For the highest quartile versus lowest, the multivariable-adjusted hazard rate ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68, 1.23; P for trend = 0.31) for IGF-1, 1.33 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.76; P for trend = 0.04) for IGFBP-3, and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.03; P for trend = 0.03) for IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio. IGFBP-3 level remained positively associated with T2DM incidence—and the ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 was inversely related with T2DM incidence—in models that included adjustment for IGF-1 concentrations (P for trend < 0.05). Therefore, our findings do not confirm an association between total IGF-1 concentrations and risk of T2DM in the general study population, although higher IGFBP-3 levels might raise T2DM risk independent of IGF-1 levels. Accumulating evidence links extremes of sleep duration with chronic diseases, including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and cancer (1–3). Simultaneously, racial/ethnic disparities in sleep duration are gaining attention (4–6). Though a majority of studies use questionnaires to assess sleep duration, little research examines the validity of self-reporting against objective measuremen Continue reading >>

Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (igf-1) And Development Of Glucose Intolerance

Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (igf-1) And Development Of Glucose Intolerance

The Durk Pearson & Sandy Shaw® Life Extension NewsTM A new study1 reports that, in 615 initially normoglycemic men and women aged 45-65, those with IGF-1 serum levels above the median (above 152 mcg/ml) were only half as likely to develop glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes as those with IGF-1 serum levels below the median, during an observation period of 4.5 years. It has been known for a number of years that IGF-1, a growth factor produced largely in the liver in response to pulsatile releases of growth hormone, mimics many of the effects of insulin. IGF-1 has even been used to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetics with extreme insulin resistance. The insulin and IGF-1 molecules share much structural homology. Studies in experimental and transgenic animals have shown that inactivation of the IGF-1 gene in the liver is associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin insensitivity. IGFBP-1 is an IGF-1 binding protein that holds IGF-1 in an unusable form, from which it must be released in order to be bioavailable.1 Experimental data show that overexpression of IGFBP-1 is also associated with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.1 Interestingly, it has been reported that obese individuals who have chronic hyperinsulinemia have lower-than-normal levels of growth hormone release but have similar circulating IGF-1 levels to normal controls.1 In normals, high levels of insulin (as in a response to a high-glycemic-index meal) would be expected to cause a release of growth hormone, which counterregulates insulin (reduces its effects). However, since chronic hyperinsulinemia results in a loss of insulin effectiveness in glucose metabolism, it may also result in a reduction in the effectiveness of insulin in stimulating growth hormone releas Continue reading >>

How Hgh And Igf-1 May Affect Diabetes

How Hgh And Igf-1 May Affect Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus, (sugar diabetes) is a disorder in which the body is unable to process carbohydrates (sugars and starches) properly. Most carbohydrates are converted into glucose by the body, which is the form of sugar the body uses. As the blood glucose level rises the pancreas is stimulated to secrete insulin. The hormone insulin then acts to reduce the sugar content in the blood by transporting the glucose from the bloodstream to the body's cells where it is used as fuel, or to the liver where it is stored until it is again needed as fuel. When the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or if the body cannot use the insulin that is produced diabetes is the result. Sugar concentrations build up in the blood as the glucose circulates through the body without being absorbed. The Types of Diabetes Type 1 This type of diabetes is brought about as a result of the pancreas not producing enough insulin. This type is frequently caused by an autoimmune response where the body's own immune system attacks and damages the pancreas. Type 2 This type is also called insulin resistant diabetes. With Type 2 diabetes the cells become resistant to the effects of insulin and so the glucose is not carried into the cells where it is needed but remains in the bloodstream. Obesity can contribute to this problem because the numerous fat cells displace the insulin-receptor cells. Insulin Resistance Increases With Aging Aging causes the cells of the body to begin to lose their ability to properly utilize the insulin that the pancreas produces. This process usually makes itself known in those over 35 years of age. As aging progresses the less efficient the cells become at utilizing the insulin in the blood and so the result is a bloodstream that contains high levels of both glucose and insul Continue reading >>

Insulin-like Growth Factor (igf): What You Should Know

Insulin-like Growth Factor (igf): What You Should Know

What is insulin-like growth factor (IGF)? IGF is a hormone that your body makes naturally. It used to be known as somatomedin. IGF, which comes mainly from the liver, acts a lot like insulin. IGF helps to control growth hormone secretion in the pituitary gland. IGF works with growth hormones to promote growth and development of bone and tissue. These hormones also affect how your body metabolizes sugar, or glucose. IGF and insulin can work together to rapidly reduce the level of glucose in your blood. If you have diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use it properly. You need insulin to process glucose for energy. Insulin helps to distribute glucose to cells throughout your body while reducing glucose in your blood. Read more: The best diabetes iPhone and Android apps of 2015 » In a 2010 study, lower IGF levels were associated with diabetes. Those findings were for people under age 65 who didn’t have cardiovascular disease. The researchers adjusted for a variety of other factors, including serum cholesterol, lifestyle, and body mass index. Researchers couldn’t make the IGF-diabetes association in people over age 65. Low levels of IGF may be linked to the increased secretion of growth hormones in people with type 1 diabetes. Growth hormone concentrations in people with diabetes are 2 to 3 times higher than in people who don’t have diabetes. Abnormal levels of IGF and growth hormones may also play a role in the complications of diabetes. A link appears to exist between obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer risk. Some studies indicate a connection between these diseases and higher levels of IGF, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers. A simple blood test can determine how much IGF you have in your blood. Doctors may also order this test w Continue reading >>

More in diabetes