diabetestalk.net

Identifying Diabetes

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency.[1] Three different types of diabetic coma are identified: Severe low blood sugar in a diabetic person Diabetic ketoacidosis (usually type 1) advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of a severely increased blood sugar level, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (usually type 2) in which an extremely high blood sugar level and dehydration alone are sufficient to cause unconsciousness. In most medical contexts, the term diabetic coma refers to the diagnostical dilemma posed when a physician is confronted with an unconscious patient about whom nothing is known except that they have diabetes. An example might be a physician working in an emergency department who receives an unconscious patient wearing a medical identification tag saying DIABETIC. Paramedics may be called to rescue an unconscious person by friends who identify them as diabetic. Brief descriptions of the three major conditions are followed by a discussion of the diagnostic process used to distinguish among them, as well as a few other conditions which must be considered. An estimated 2 to 15 percent of diabetics will suffer from at least one episode of diabetic coma in their lifetimes as a result of severe hypoglycemia. Types[edit] Severe hypoglycemia[edit] People with type 1 diabetes mellitus who must take insulin in full replacement doses are most vulnerable to episodes of hypoglycemia. It is usually mild enough to reverse by eating or drinking carbohydrates, but blood glucose occasionally can fall fast enough and low enough to produce unconsciousness before hypoglycemia can be recognized and reversed. Hypoglycemia can be severe enough to cause un Continue reading >>

Sugar Crash

Sugar Crash

What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a condition that occurs when the amount of glucose in your blood is too high. Your body needs to utilise glucose to create energy to get you through your day. Managing diabetes is all about balancing your blood glucose level and ensuring it stays at a safe level. Hyperglycaemia (a high blood glucose level - usually above >180mg/dL) occurs when your body is unable to remove sugar from your blood and convert it into energy. People experiencing high blood sugar are at risk of having the symptoms shown opposite over time. Hypoglycaemia refers to a dangerously low blood glucose level – usually below 70mg/dL. Hypoglycaemia happens when your blood sugar is low. It is normally triggered in people with diabetes if meals are missed, by exercising too hard or taking too much insulin. When blood sugar is too low most people experience the early warning signs opposite. Treating hyperglycaemia depends on the type of diabetes you have and how you've been advised to manage your glucose levels. You should follow the advice of your doctor or specialist which may include increasing your medication (tablets or insulin) dosage, avoiding high-sugar foods and exercising more. If you or someone else shows these symptoms of hypoglycaemia the best thing is to eat food or have a drink that contains fast absorbing sugars, such as dextrose tablets or fruit juice. If things get more serious there can be a loss of consciousness - if this happens phone 999 straight away. No food or drink should ever be given to someone who is already unconscious. The key to prevention is monitoring your blood glucose levels regularly to understand the right balance of diet and insulin. Try to carry rapid acting carbohydrates like fruit juice, honey, glucose tablets, raisins or sweets wi Continue reading >>

Diabetes: A National Plan For Action. The Importance Of Early Diabetes Detection

Diabetes: A National Plan For Action. The Importance Of Early Diabetes Detection

Approximately 5 million of the 18 million people with diabetes in the U.S. do not know they have it.56 Early detection and treatment of diabetes is an important step toward keeping people with diabetes healthy. It can help to reduce the risk of serious complications such as premature heart disease and stroke, blindness, limb amputations, and kidney failure.57 Some of the important signs and symptoms of diabetes are shown in Table 2. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no signs or symptoms, but do have risk factors (see Table 1). For persons at increased risk or those experiencing these signs and symptoms, several tests are used to diagnose diabetes: A fasting plasma glucose test measures blood glucose after not eating for at least 8 hours. This test is used to detect diabetes (126 mg/dl and above) or pre-diabetes (between 100 mg/dl and 125 mg/dl).58 An oral glucose tolerance test measures blood glucose after not eating for at least 8 hours and 2 hours after drinking a glucose-containing beverage. This test is used to diagnose diabetes (200 mg/dl and above) or pre-diabetes (between 140 mg/dl and 199 mg/dl).59 In a random plasma glucose test, blood glucose is checked without regard to when food is consumed. Values of 200 mg/dl or greater in the presence of specific symptoms, such as increased urination or thirst and unexplained weight loss, indicate a diagnosis of diabetes.60 Positive test results should be confirmed by repeating the fasting plasma glucose test or the oral glucose tolerance test on a different day. Type 1 diabetes is typically detected much sooner after onset than type 2 disease because the symptoms are dramatic and the need for medical care is immediate and obvious. In contrast, the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be absent or so mild that th Continue reading >>

How To Detect Diabetes Symptoms

How To Detect Diabetes Symptoms

1 Recognize your risk for diabetes. Although doctors are not sure why some people develop diabetes, there are many different factors that can cause or contribute to diabetes.[5] Being aware of your potential risk for diabetes helps you recognize the signs and can ensure you get a timely diagnosis and treatment.[6] The following factors may increase your risk of type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes:[7] Family history Environmental factors, such as exposure to viral illness Presence of autoantibodies in the system, usually after a viral syndrome when the person is young Dietary factors, such as low vitamin D consumption or exposure to cow’s milk or cereals before the age of 4 months Geography, countries such as Finland and Sweden have higher rates of type 1 diabetes Weight, the more fat cells you have, the more resistant to insulin they become Sedentary lifestyle or inactivity, exercises helps control weight and insulin Race, certain groups such as Hispanics and African Americans are more prone to diabetes Age, your risk increases as you get older Polycystic ovary syndrome High blood pressure Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels Metabolic syndrome Gestational diabetes and giving birth to a baby over 9 pounds can also increase your risk for type 2 diabetes 2 Be aware of what doesn’t cause diabetes. Diabetes is a condition related to blood sugar, so some people might think it’s related to eating sugar. Eating sugar doesn’t cause diabetes — but if you are overweight then you can develop peripheral resistance to sugar; therefore, you have to cut down on the amount of refined sugars that you consume.[8] 3 Determine possible symptoms. Many symptoms of diabetes may not seem serious and aren’t necessarily specific to the disease, so it’s important to watc Continue reading >>

Different Strategies For Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm) To Improve Maternal And Infant Health

Different Strategies For Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (gdm) To Improve Maternal And Infant Health

What is the issue? We aimed to evaluate and compare different ways of diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We searched for all relevant studies in January 2017. Why is this important? Between seven and 24 pregnant women in every 100 develop GDM. GDM is when there is an inability to process carbohydrates properly, which leads to high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia). GDM can result in increased risks of problems around the time of birth for the mother and her baby. Treatment can reduce these risks, and therefore diagnosing the condition accurately means that treatment can be given to improve the health of mothers and their babies. Different testing strategies aim to diagnose GDM. We wanted to compare the different strategies, to see how they affected the health of women and their infants, and to assess the cost of the strategies to the healthcare service. What evidence did we find? We found seven trials. A total of 1420 women were included, in settings in Turkey, Mexico, Nigeria, New Zealand, Canada and the USA. Across the trials, different testing approaches and criteria were evaluated as were different diagnostic tests including different oral glucose tolerance test loads; a glucose drink; a candy bar and food high in glucose. Women were given these items to eat/drink, and this was then followed by a blood test to measure blood sugar levels and questionnaires. In some tests, women were required to fast from the night before. The main outcomes we looked for were frequency of diagnosis, incidence of caesarean section, assisted birth and vaginal birth, and incidence of macrosomia in babies (larger than normal weight at birth). Other outcomes spanned a range, including any side effects of the tests, the mothers' preferences, and the health of the babies. There were Continue reading >>

Identifying And Managing The Complications Of Diabetes.

Identifying And Managing The Complications Of Diabetes.

Diabetes is a common chronic condition that, if not adequately controlled, can lead to acute metabolic complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in type 1 diabetes and hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HONK) in type 2 diabetes. The discovery of insulin and its use as a therapeutic agent in the management of type 1 diabetes in the early 1920s led to the apparent miraculous recovery of extremely sick patients with DKA, who were brought back from the brink of death (Bliss, 1982). Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

Recommended Tests For Identifying Prediabetes

Recommended Tests For Identifying Prediabetes

There are three recommended blood testing methods to identify or diagnose prediabetes: A1C, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour post 75 g oral glucose challenge. These are the same tests currently recommended to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. The A1C test offers advantages for patients and providers because it removes the burden of fasting and/or lengthy lab visits. Any of the following results will confirm a diagnosis of prediabetes: A1C 5.7%–6.4% or Fasting plasma glucose 100–125 mg/dL (impaired fasting glucose) or 2-hour post 75 g oral glucose challenge 140–199 mg/dL (impaired glucose tolerance) Although the future development of type 2 diabetes is possible when blood test results are below these ranges, the risk for progression becomes higher for individuals with these more elevated test results. Important Note: These different test options do not always identify the same patients. For example, some individuals may yield a normal fasting glucose test but a simultaneous A1C test in the prediabetes range. If the suspicion for prediabetes is high but the initial screening test is normal, it is reasonable to consider repeat testing in a shorter period of time (e.g., 1 year) or confirming the “normal” result with one of the other two screening test options. Regardless of screening method, identifying individuals before the transition to type 2 diabetes allows action, such as providing information and resources for prevention or performing more frequent retesting (e.g., every 1 to 3 years). 1 The Decision Pathway for Diabetes and Prediabetes can guide the interpretation of lab results. Prediabetes identifies an intermediate stage in the development of type 2 diabetes. It is important to intervene at this stage to prevent progression. Patients should be cou Continue reading >>

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

It's important for diabetes to be diagnosed early so treatment can be started as soon as possible. If you experience the symptoms of diabetes, visit your GP as soon as possible. They'll ask about your symptoms and may request blood and urine tests. Your urine sample will be tested for glucose. Urine doesn't normally contain glucose, but glucose can pass from the kidneys into your urine if you have diabetes. If your urine contains glucose, a specialised blood test known as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) can be used to determine whether you have diabetes. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test can be used to diagnose diabetes. It can also be used to show how well diabetes is being controlled. The HbA1c test gives your average blood glucose level over the previous two to three months. The results can indicate whether the measures you're taking to control your diabetes are working, by meeting agreed personal targets. If you've been diagnosed with diabetes, it's recommended that you have your HbA1c measured at least twice a year. However, you may need to have your HbA1c measured more frequently if: you've recently been diagnosed with diabetes your blood glucose remains too high your treatment plan has been changed The HbA1c test can be carried out at any time of day and doesn't require any special preparation, such as fasting. However, it's less reliable in certain situations, such as during pregnancy. The advantages associated with the HbA1c test make it the preferred method of assessing how well blood glucose levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes. HbA1c is also increasingly being used as a diagnostic test for type 2 diabetes, and as a screening test for people at high risk of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes in children The majority Continue reading >>

Best Tests Diabetes

Best Tests Diabetes

Plan for targeted testing: Goal: To create an environment in the practice in which all staff acknowledge and recognise the importance of identifying people with risk factors for diabetes. Are all team members familiar with the risk factors for diabetes and the best way to test people? If the answer is no, suggest ways of overcoming this. Do all members of the team have adequate knowledge of diabetes testing, and are they aware of the importance of diabetes detection? If the answer is no, suggest ways of overcoming this. For your practice patients, are there access issues/barriers that may be delaying their diabetes diagnosis? What might be some of the barriers that affect the practice patients? Does the practice provide a service which is acceptable to all cultural groups within the practice? Are there ways in which the practice could be more culturally acceptable? For each suggestion make someone responsible for implementing the change, and set a date for when this should be done by. The whole practice should agree on a date (maybe 4-6 weeks time) to reassess the process. Download Tool A in rich text format (.rtf) here Download Tool A in PDF format here Continue reading >>

Early Symptoms Of Diabetes

Early Symptoms Of Diabetes

How can you tell if you have diabetes? Most early symptoms are from higher-than-normal levels of glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood. The warning signs can be so mild that you don't notice them. That's especially true of type 2 diabetes. Some people don't find out they have it until they get problems from long-term damage caused by the disease. With type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually happen quickly, in a matter of days or a few weeks. They're much more severe, too. Both types of diabetes have some of the same telltale warning signs. Hunger and fatigue. Your body converts the food you eat into glucose that your cells use for energy. But your cells need insulin to bring the glucose in. If your body doesn't make enough or any insulin, or if your cells resist the insulin your body makes, the glucose can't get into them and you have no energy. This can make you more hungry and tired than usual. Peeing more often and being thirstier. The average person usually has to pee between four and seven times in 24 hours, but people with diabetes may go a lot more. Why? Normally your body reabsorbs glucose as it passes through your kidneys. But when diabetes pushes your blood sugar up, your kidneys may not be able to bring it all back in. This causes the body to make more urine, and that takes fluids. You'll have to go more often. You might pee out more, too. Because you're peeing so much, you can get very thirsty. When you drink more, you'll also pee more. Dry mouth and itchy skin. Because your body is using fluids to make pee, there's less moisture for other things. You could get dehydrated, and your mouth may feel dry. Dry skin can make you itchy. Blurred vision. Changing fluid levels in your body could make the lenses in your eyes swell up. They change shape and lose their a Continue reading >>

A Rule-based Prognostic Model For Type 1 Diabetes By Identifying And Synthesizing Baseline Profile Patterns

A Rule-based Prognostic Model For Type 1 Diabetes By Identifying And Synthesizing Baseline Profile Patterns

Abstract To identify the risk-predictive baseline profile patterns of demographic, genetic, immunologic, and metabolic markers and synthesize these patterns for risk prediction. RuleFit is used to identify the risk-predictive baseline profile patterns of demographic, immunologic, and metabolic markers, using 356 subjects who were randomized into the control arm of the prospective Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) study. A novel latent trait model is developed to synthesize these baseline profile patterns for disease risk prediction. The primary outcome was Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) onset. We identified ten baseline profile patterns that were significantly predictive to the disease onset. Using these ten baseline profile patterns, a risk prediction model was built based on the latent trait model, which produced superior prediction performance over existing risk score models for T1D. Our results demonstrated that the underlying disease progression process of T1D can be detected through some risk-predictive patterns of demographic, immunologic, and metabolic markers. A synthesis of these patterns provided accurate prediction of disease onset, leading to more cost-effective design of prevention trials of T1D in the future. Figures Citation: Lin Y, Qian X, Krischer J, Vehik K, Lee H-S, Huang S (2014) A Rule-Based Prognostic Model for Type 1 Diabetes by Identifying and Synthesizing Baseline Profile Patterns. PLoS ONE 9(6): e91095. Editor: Marta Letizia Hribal, University of Catanzaro Magna Graecia, Italy Received: August 6, 2013; Accepted: February 7, 2014; Published: June 13, 2014 This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes In Children And Teens: Signs And Symptoms

With more than a third of diabetes cases in the United States occurring in people over the age of 65, diabetes is often referred to as an age-related condition. But around 208,000 children and adolescents are estimated to have diabetes, and this number is increasing. Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of the condition among children and adolescents. A 2009 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed that type 1 diabetes prevalence stands at 1.93 in every 1,000 children and adolescents, while type 2 diabetes affects 0.24 in every 1,000. In 2014, Medical News Today reported that, based on a study published in JAMA, rates of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have increased significantly among American children and teenagers. The study found that incidence of type 1 diabetes in children aged up to 9 years increased by 21 percent between 2001 and 2009, while incidence of type 2 diabetes among youths aged 10-19 years rose by 30.5 percent. The researchers note: "The increases in prevalence reported herein are important because such youth with diabetes will enter adulthood with several years of disease duration, difficulty in treatment, an increased risk of early complications and increased frequency of diabetes during reproductive years, which may further increase diabetes in the next generation." Contents of this article: Here are some key points about diabetes in children. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are both increasing in the youth of America Often, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children develop over just a few weeks If type 1 diabetes is not spotted, the child can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) What is diabetes in children? Type 1 diabetes in children, previously called juve Continue reading >>

Identifying Diabetes Distress May Help Direct Healthcare Resources

Identifying Diabetes Distress May Help Direct Healthcare Resources

medwireNews: Researchers find that routinely asking patients with type 1 diabetes to complete the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS)-2 may direct more healthcare resources to those who need them and help to improve outcomes. The team included the sole two questions from the DDS-2 in a brief assessment given to patients every time they attend routine diabetes consultations. They found that the median score among 138 assessed patients fell significantly from 3.0 to 2.5 over 180 days of follow-up, and that change in DDS-2 score significantly correlated with the change in glycated hemoglobin, which fell from 8.2% to 7.8%. On closer examination the decrease in DDS-2 score was confined to patients with a high baseline score of at least 3.0. These patients had significantly more healthcare contacts over a median of 464 days than patients with lower scores, accounted for by more emails and letters sent out and by more attended outpatient appointments. Presenting the results at the EASD annual meeting, Shahnal Shah (King’s College London, UK) stressed that screening for diabetes distress did not result in a rise in DDS-2 scores among patients with initially low scores, although she conceded that the reduction among those with high scores could be partly accounted for by a natural return of patients’ distress to average levels over time (regression to the mean). medwireNews is an independent medical news service provided by Springer Healthcare. © 2017 Springer Healthcare part of the Springer Nature group Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Overview Type 1 diabetes in children is a condition in which your child's body no longer produces an important hormone (insulin). Your child needs insulin to survive, so you'll have to replace the missing insulin. Type 1 diabetes in children used to be known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children can be overwhelming at first. Suddenly you and your child — depending on his or her age — must learn how to give injections, count carbohydrates and monitor blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes in children requires consistent care. But advances in blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have improved the daily management of the condition. Symptoms The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children usually develop quickly, over a period of weeks. These signs and symptoms include: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your child's bloodstream pulls fluid from tissues. As a result your child might be thirsty — and drink and urinate more than usual. A young, toilet-trained child might suddenly experience bed-wetting. Extreme hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your child's cells, your child's muscles and organs lack energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, your child may lose weight — sometimes rapidly. Without the energy sugar supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink. Unexplained weight loss is often the first sign of type 1 diabetes to be noticed in children. Fatigue. Lack of sugar in your child's cells might make him or her tired and lethargic. Irritability or behavior changes. In addition to mood problems, your child might suddenly have a decline in performance at school. Fruity-smelling breath. Bu Continue reading >>

More in diabetes