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Identify The Main Endocrine Organ That Is Associated With Diabetes Mellitus

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

I. Overview Two major controlling systems in the body : nervous and endocrine. Nervous system regulates the activity of muscle and glands by means of electrochemical impulses delivered by neurons. The endocrine system influences the metabolic activities of cells by means of hormones (chemical messengers). The endocrine glands are ductless glands and include pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, and thymus. Organs (Diagram) that contain endocrine tissue include the pancreas, gonads (testes and ovaries) and digestive organs (stomach and intestines, enteroendricine tissue). Pituitary secretions regulated by neuroendocrine gland, the hypothalamus. II. Hormones Hormones - chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body Two chemical classes: Diagram Amino acid based - protein, peptide, and catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) Steroids - most hormones synthesized from cholesterol (but some may be derived from linoleic acid and arachidonic acid) A. Hormone-Target Cell Specificity Hormone is received by a target cell and evokes a response Cell response is dependent upon protein receptors on the plasma membrane or receptors in the nucleus and if receptors present, will bind hormones complimentarily Extent of target-cell activation (response) by hormone-receptor interaction depends on.... blood levels of the hormone relative numbers of receptors for the specific hormone affinity for the hormone by receptor Regulation of cell receptors: Up regulation - increase in the number of receptors with increase in hormone concentration Down regulation - prolonged exposure, cells become desensitized and there is a loss of receptors B. Mechanism of Hormone Action A hormonal stimulus typica Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus (dm)

Diabetes Mellitus (dm)

Years of poorly controlled hyperglycemia lead to multiple, primarily vascular complications that affect small vessels (microvascular), large vessels (macrovascular), or both. (For additional detail, see Complications of Diabetes Mellitus.) Microvascular disease underlies 3 common and devastating manifestations of diabetes mellitus: Microvascular disease may also impair skin healing, so that even minor breaks in skin integrity can develop into deeper ulcers and easily become infected, particularly in the lower extremities. Intensive control of plasma glucose can prevent or delay many of these complications but may not reverse them once established. Macrovascular disease involves atherosclerosis of large vessels, which can lead to Immune dysfunction is another major complication and develops from the direct effects of hyperglycemia on cellular immunity. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections. Continue reading >>

The Endocrine System: The Pancreas & Diabetes

The Endocrine System: The Pancreas & Diabetes

Several months ago, we explored the anatomy and physiology of the pancreas in terms of its role in the digestive process. But the pancreas is one of a handful of organs in the body that functions in two distinct modes. It is not only an exocrine digestive organ, but it also functions as part of the endocrine system and, to a significant degree, controls the metabolism of sugar in the body and its use as a source of energy for every single cell and organ in the body. In this newsletter, we examine the endocrine functions of the pancreas. As an endocrine organ, the pancreas produces two sugar-regulating hormones: insulin and glucagon. After reviewing the functions of insulin and glucagon and the four cell types that comprise the endocrine pancreas, we'll examine in detail the main disease associated with the pancreas, diabetes mellitus. The pancreas functions in two modes. As mentioned above, the pancreas functions in two distinctly different modes. It is both an exocrine digestive organ that secretes digestive juices and enzymes into the duct of Wirsung that runs down the middle of the pancreas and empties into the duodenum at the head of the pancreas. But the pancreas is also an endocrine organ, producing insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin that flow directly into the bloodstream, eventually reaching virtually every cell in the body. Anatomy review We explored the anatomy and physiology of the pancreas in some detail in our newsletter focused on that topic, but a quick review would be appropriate before discussing the gland's endocrine function. Physically, the pancreas is located in the upper abdominal cavity, towards the back -- in the C curve of the duodenum. It is about 12 inches long and tapers from right to left. (Remember, anatomically speaking, left and right ar Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS— Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia. Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision. Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia. Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputations, and Charcot joints; and autonomic neuropathy causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and c Continue reading >>

Structure And Function Of The Endocrine System In Dogs

Structure And Function Of The Endocrine System In Dogs

Below is information about the structure and function of the canine endocrine system. We will tell you about the general structure of endocrine system, how it works in dogs, common diseases that affect the endocrine system and common diagnostic tests performed to evaluate the endocrine system in dogs. What Is the Endocrine System? The endocrine system is composed of several different types of glands and organs that produce the hormones of the dog’s body. A hormone is a chemical that is secreted by a gland in one area of the body and is carried by the bloodstream to other organs in the body, where it exerts some effect. Most hormones regulate the activity or structure of their target organs. The overall effect of the endocrine system is to regulate, coordinate and control many different bodily functions. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, part of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, kidneys, liver, ovaries and testes. Where Is the Endocrine System Located in Dogs? The endocrine system is scattered throughout the body as follows: The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is located on the base of the brain and is attached to the hypothalamus via a stalk-like structure. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, below the larynx (voice box). Two parathyroid glands are located in the neck, closely associated with the thyroid gland. Two adrenal glands are located in the abdominal cavity directly in front of the kidneys. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is located in the abdominal cavity. The pancreas is located in the forward part of the abdominal cavity, behind the liver and stomach. The liver is in the front of the abdomen, just behind the diaphragm and below t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Pathophysiology

Diabetes Pathophysiology

Blood glucose regulation (6) 1. When blood glucose levels rise above a set point, 2. the pancreas secretes insulin into the blood. 3. Insulin stimulates liver and muscle cells to make glycogen, dropping blood glucose levels. 4. When glucose levels drop below a set point, 5. the pancreas secretes glucagon into the blood. 6. Glucagon promotes the breakdown of glycogen and the release of glucose into the blood. (The pancreas signals distant cells to regulate levels in the blood = endocrine function.) Insulin and Glucagon (Regulation) (10) 1. High blood glucose 2. Beta cells 3. Insulin 4. Glucose enters cell 5. Blood glucose lowered 6. Low blood glucose 7. Alpha cells 8. Glucagon 9. Liver releases glucose from glycogen 10. Blood glucose raised What is the manifestations (symptoms) of Type 1? (10) 1. Extreme thirst 2. Frequent urination 3. Drowsiness, lethargy 4. Sugar in urine 5. Sudden vision change 6. Increased appetite 7. Sudden weight loss 8. Fruity, sweet, or wine like odor on breath 9. Heavy, laboured breathing 10. Stupor, unconsciousness DKA Processes (5) 1. sympathetic nervous system response: additional glucose converted from glycogen 2. Glycogen depleted; body burns fat & protein for energy 3. fat metabolisms produce acidic substances called ketone bodies which accumulate in blood and urine and lead to metabolic acidosis 4. protein metabolism results in loss of lean muscle mass and negative nitrogen balance 5. high osmotic pressure created by excess glucose leads to osmotic diuresis (polyuria leads to dehydration and fluid and electrolyte deficits) HHNS Warning Signs (9) 1. Plasma glucose lvl over 600mg/dl 2. Dry, parched mouth 3. Extreme thirst may gradually subside 4. Warm, dry skin (no sweat) 5. High fever 6. Sleepiness or confusion 7. Loss of vision 8. Halluci Continue reading >>

Ch. 17

Ch. 17

Sort You are "shadowing" an endocrinologist who is examining a patient complaining of weakness, weight loss, and heat intolerance. The doctor points out the patient's obvious exophthalmos and asks for your diagnosis. What would you speculate is the patient's problem? hyper secretion of thyroid hormone Continue reading >>

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

1. What is the difference between endocrine glands and exocrine glands?1 Endocrine glands are glands whose secretions (called hormones) are collected by the blood and reach tissues through circulation. The hypophysis (pituitary gland) and the adrenal glands are examples of endocrine glands. Exocrine glands are a glands whose secretions are released externally through ducts (into the skin, the intestinal lumen, the mouth, etc.). The sebaceous glands and the salivary glands are examples of exocrine glands. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: exocrine glands 2. What are the components of the endocrine system?1 The endocrine system is composed of the endocrine glands and the hormones they secrete. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: endocrine glands 3. What is the histological nature of glands? How are they formed?1 Glands are epithelial tissue. They are made of epithelium that during the embryonic development invaginated into other tissues during embryonic development.. In exocrine glands, the invagination contains preserved secretion ducts. In endocrine glands, the invagination is complete and there are no secretion ducts. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: gland formation 4. Why is the endocrine system considered one of the integrative systems of the body? What other physiological system also has this function? The endocrine system is considered to be of an integrative nature, since the hormones produced by endocrine glands are substances that act at a distance and many of them act in different organs of the body. therefore, endocrine glands receive information from certain regions of the body and can produce effects in other regions, providing functional integration for the body. In addition to the endocrine system, the other physiologi Continue reading >>

The Endocrine System, Problems And Diabetes Mellitus Ch. 48/50/49

The Endocrine System, Problems And Diabetes Mellitus Ch. 48/50/49

Sort Describe the common characteristics and functions of hormones Hormones exert their effects on target tissue. The specificity of hormone-target cell interaction is determined by receptors in a "lock-and-key" type of mechanism. The regulation of hormone levels in the blood depends on a highly specialized mechanism called feedback. With negative feedback, the gland responds by increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone based on feedback from various factors. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland integrate communication between nervous and endocrine systems. The thyroid gland Produces three hormones, thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin. T4 accounts for 90 % of the total hormones produced. T3 is much more potent, has greater metabolic effects. 20% of circulating T3 is secreted by thryoid gland, remainder is obtained by peripheral conversion of T4. Iodine is necessary to synthesize both. They affect metaboic rate, caloric requirements, oxygen consumption, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, growth and development, brain function, and other nervous system activities. 99% of these hormone are bound to plasma proteins only the "free" hormones are biologically active.When thyroid hormone levels are low the hypothalamus releases thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH), which in turn cause the anterior pituitary to release (TSH) which in turn make the thyroid gland produce more hormones. Calcitonin is a hormone produced by C cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland in response to high circulating calcium levels. The adrenal glands The adrenal glands are small, paired, highly vascularized glands located on the upper portion of each kidney. The adrenal gland is composed of the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medulla Secretes the cat Continue reading >>

Ssr 14-3p: Titles Ii And Xvi: Evaluating Endocrine Disorders Other Than Diabetes Mellitus

Ssr 14-3p: Titles Ii And Xvi: Evaluating Endocrine Disorders Other Than Diabetes Mellitus

On April 8, 2011, we published final rules in the Federal Register in which we removed the listings for evaluating endocrine disorders in adults and in children from the Listing of Impairments (listings) because they no longer accurately identified people who are disabled.[2] [3] When we published the final rules, we stated in the preamble that we would provide more detailed information about specific endocrine disorders, the types of impairments and limitations that result from these disorders, and how we evaluate endocrine disorders in disability claims. We are publishing this SSR to provide the policy guidance we said we would provide in the preamble of the final rules. Policy Interpretation General Endocrine glands produce hormones responsible for controlling various physiological functions such as metabolism, blood glucose levels, digestion, electrolyte balance, water balance, and sexual function. The major glands in the endocrine system are pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, and gonads (testes and ovaries). The glands release hormones into the bloodstream where they travel to targeted organs. When an endocrine gland produces either too much of a hormone (hyperfunction) or too little of a hormone (hypofunction), the hormonal imbalance can cause an endocrine disorder, resulting in complications affecting various parts of the body. Although many endocrine disorders usually require lifelong treatment, medical advances in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders have resulted in better management of these disorders in adults and children. Types of Endocrine Disorders other than DM and Their Treatments Pituitary gland disorders. The pituitary gland, sometimes called the “master gland” of the endocrine system, controls the functions of all Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Alternative names for diabetes mellitus Diabetes; type 2 diabetes; type 1 diabetes; sugar diabetes; T2DM, T1DM; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; IDDM; juvenile-onset diabetes What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone insulin, resulting in high levels of sugar in the bloodstream. There are many different types of diabetes; the most common are type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which are covered in this article. Gestational diabetes occurs during the second half of pregnancy and is covered in a separate article. Diabetes mellitus is linked with an increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, poor blood circulation to the legs and damage to the eyes, feet and kidneys. Early diagnosis and strict control of blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels can help to prevent or delay these complications associated with diabetes. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle (regular exercise, not smoking and eating healthily) is important in reducing the risk of developing diabetes. What causes diabetes mellitus? Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells within the pancreas in response to the intake of food. The role of insulin is to lower blood sugar (glucose) levels by allowing cells in the muscle, liver and fat to take up sugar from the bloodstream that has been absorbed from food, and store it away as energy. In type 1 diabetes (or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), the insulin-producing cells are destroyed and the body is not able to produce insulin naturally. This means that sugar is not stored away but is constantly released from energy stores giving rise to high sugar levels in the blood. This in turn causes dehydration and thirst (because the high glucose ‘spills over’ into the urine and pulls wat Continue reading >>

Glands Of The Human Endocrine System

Glands Of The Human Endocrine System

This page is a simple summary of the locations of the main endocrine glands in the human body and the hormones secreted by these glands. Locations in the body of the main Endocrine Glands: Hormones secreted by the main Endocrine Glands: Endocrine Gland Hormone(s) Secreted Function(s) of Hormones (2) Pituitary Known as the "Master Gland", this part of the brain consists of three lobes called "anterior", "interior" and "posterior". Posterior Oxytocin Stimulates utrine contraction and brest contraction for milk release. Posterior Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH), also known as "vasopressin" Stimulates re-absorption of water from kidney tubules. Hypo- causes Diabetes Insipidus (large amounts of urine produced). Anterior Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce: Corticosteriods: mineral corticoids glucocorticoids cortisol (natural anti-inflammatory) androgens, e.g. acdosterone Anterior Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Stimulates growth / development of Graafin follicles (= a mature follicle in the ovary prior to ovulation, containing a large fluid-filled cavity that distends the surface of the ovary) on approx. 28 day cycle. Melanin Stimulating Hormone (MSH) Anterior Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH) Works on the seminiferous tubules in the testes – to produce sperm – which take 21 days to mature. (If not ejaculated within 21 days, the sperm are re-absorbed back into the body.) Intermediate Intermedin Control of melanocyte production. (2) Pineal A pea-sized mass of nerve tissue attached by a stalk to the posterior wall of the third ventricle of the brain, deep between the cerebral hemispheres at the back of the skull. It functions as a gland, secreting the hormone melatonin - which regulates the pituitary gland and is associate Continue reading >>

Human Physiology/the Endocrine System

Human Physiology/the Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a control system of ductless glands that secrete hormones within specific organs. Hormones act as "messengers," and are carried by the bloodstream to different cells in the body, which interpret these messages and act on them. It seems like a far fetched idea that a small chemical can enter the bloodstream and cause an action at a distant location in the body. Yet this occurs in our bodies everyday of our lives. The ability to maintain homeostasis and respond to stimuli is largely due to hormones secreted within the body. Without hormones, you could not grow, maintain a constant temperature, produce offspring, or perform the basic actions and functions that are essential for life. The endocrine system provides an electrochemical connection from the hypothalamus of the brain to all the organs that control the body metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction. There are two types of hormones secreted in the endocrine system: Steroidal (or lipid based) and non-steroidal, (or protein based) hormones. The endocrine system regulates its hormones through negative feedback, except in very specific cases like childbirth. Increases in hormone activity decrease the production of that hormone. The immune system and other factors contribute as control factors also, altogether maintaining constant levels of hormones. Exocrine Glands are those which release their cellular secretions through a duct which empties to the outside or into the lumen (empty internal space) of an organ. These include certain sweat glands, salivary and pancreatic glands, and mammary glands. They are not considered a part of the endocrine system. Endocrine Glands are those glands which have no duct and release their secretions directly into the intercellular fluid or into the blo Continue reading >>

Endocrine Systems

Endocrine Systems

Sort What are the main divisions of the hypophysis? What are their functions? The hypophysis is divided into two portions: the adenohypophysis, or anterior hypophysis, and the neurohypophysis, or posterior hypophysis. In the adenohypophysis two hormones that act directly, the growth hormone (GH) and the prolactin, and four tropic hormones, i.e., hormones that regulate other endocrine glands, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are produced. The neurohypohysis stores and releases two hormones produced in the hypothalamus, oxytocin and the antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin). What is the relation between the hypothalamus and the hypophysis? The hypothalamus is a part of the brain situated just above the hypophysis. The hypothalamus gets peripheral and central neural impulses that trigger response of its neurosecretory cells. The axons of these cells go down to the adenohypophysis to regulate the hipophyseal secretions by means of negative feedback. When the plasma levels of adenohypophyseal hormones are too high the hypothalamus detects this information and commands the interruption of the production of the hormone. When the blood level of an adenohypophyseal hormone is low the hypothalamus stimulates the secretion of the hormone. The hypothalamic cells produce the hormones released by the neurohypophysis. These hormones are transported by their axons to the hypophysis and then released in the circulation. What are their respective functions? GH, also known as somatotropic hormone (STH), acts upon bones, cartilages and muscles promoting the growth of these tissues. Prolactin is the hormone that in women stimulates the production and secretion of milk b Continue reading >>

Metabolic Syndrome In Endocrine System

Metabolic Syndrome In Endocrine System

Vanita Pudata* and Jhansi Konduru Department of Biochemistry, Dr. L. Bullayya College, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India Citation: Vanita P, Jhansi K (2011) Metabolic Syndrome in Endocrine System. J Diabetes Metab 2:163. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000163 Copyright: © 2011 Vanita P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Keywords Systemic inflammatory response syndrome; Highly active antiretroviral therapy; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Parent-only; Obstructive sleep apnea; High levels of bad cholesterol; Low levels of good cholesterol; Cardiovascular diseases; Hormone replacement therapy Introduction Endocrine system produces different hormones and controls the important body function & development, cell regulation & metabolism. A hormone imbalance in endocrine system leads to metabolic syndromes like cardio-metabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Raven’s syndrome which leads to diabetes, Obesity, (Figure 1) pancreatic disorders, etc. [1]. Metabolic syndrome is not only risk factor for diabetes but also for cardiovascular diseases [2]. Recent research studies shows that the deficiency of vitamin D causes metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, stroke, cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, (Figure 1) gout, and asthma and coronary artery disorders [3]. Osteoporosis is also frequently seen metabolic syndrome, which decreases the bone formation and number of cells in bone, increases the risk of bone fractures [4]. Metals like zinc, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, Continue reading >>

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