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Identify The Main Endocrine Organ That Is Associated With Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS— Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia. Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision. Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia. Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputations, and Charcot joints; and autonomic neuropathy causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and c Continue reading >>

114 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas

114 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the location and structure of the pancreas, and the morphology and function of the pancreatic islets Compare and contrast the functions of insulin and glucagon The pancreas is a long, slender organ, most of which is located posterior to the bottom half of the stomach (Figure 1). Although it is primarily an exocrine gland, secreting a variety of digestive enzymes, the pancreas has an endocrine function. Its pancreatic islets—clusters of cells formerly known as the islets of Langerhans—secrete the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Figure 1. Pancreas. The pancreatic exocrine function involves the acinar cells secreting digestive enzymes that are transported into the small intestine by the pancreatic duct. Its endocrine function involves the secretion of insulin (produced by beta cells) and glucagon (produced by alpha cells) within the pancreatic islets. These two hormones regulate the rate of glucose metabolism in the body. The micrograph reveals pancreatic islets. LM × 760. (Micrograph provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012) View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. View the University of Michigan WebScope at to explore the tissue sample in greater detail. Cells and Secretions of the Pancreatic Islets The pancreatic islets each contain four varieties of cells: The alpha cell produces the hormone glucagon and makes up approximately 20 percent of each islet. Glucagon plays an important role in blood glucose regulation; low blood glucose levels stimulate its release. The beta cell produces the hormone insulin and makes up approximately 75 percent of each islet. Elevated Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Diabetes Mellitus On Endocrine And Reproductive Function.

The Effect Of Diabetes Mellitus On Endocrine And Reproductive Function.

Abstract The adverse effects of diabetes on the circulatory, visual, renal, and peripheral nervous system are commonly recognized and have been extensively studied. The effects of decreased insulin secretion or resistance to insulin action on endocrine glands have not been as carefully documented. Both clinical and animal research have demonstrated that diabetes mellitus is commonly associated with altered thyroid, adrenal and gonadal function. Some of these changes are reversed with insulin replacement therapy, but endocrine function is not always restored to normal even with rigorous glycemic control. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes exhibit basal and stimulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion, while patients with good metabolic control still present with diurnal and exercise-induced GH hypersecretion. In contrast, diabetes suppresses GH secretion in the rat. It is unclear why GH secretion is altered, but clinical and experimental evidence exists for diabetes-associated changes in GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin release as well as for changes in the pituitary response to these hypothalamic hormones. The thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, are usually suppressed in both humans and experimental animals with diabetes. This effect of diabetes appears to involve changes in hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) secretion as well as changes in pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) release and direct effects at the level of the thyroid gland. Adrenal cortical function is often enhanced in diabetes, most likely due to alterations in glucocorticoid feedback responses. There is much conflicting data on adrenal medullary function in diabetes; responses to stress and exercise, however, are often abnormal. Finally, male and female reproductive function is often disrupted Continue reading >>

Structure And Function Of The Endocrine System In Dogs

Structure And Function Of The Endocrine System In Dogs

Below is information about the structure and function of the canine endocrine system. We will tell you about the general structure of endocrine system, how it works in dogs, common diseases that affect the endocrine system and common diagnostic tests performed to evaluate the endocrine system in dogs. What Is the Endocrine System? The endocrine system is composed of several different types of glands and organs that produce the hormones of the dog’s body. A hormone is a chemical that is secreted by a gland in one area of the body and is carried by the bloodstream to other organs in the body, where it exerts some effect. Most hormones regulate the activity or structure of their target organs. The overall effect of the endocrine system is to regulate, coordinate and control many different bodily functions. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, part of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, kidneys, liver, ovaries and testes. Where Is the Endocrine System Located in Dogs? The endocrine system is scattered throughout the body as follows: The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is located on the base of the brain and is attached to the hypothalamus via a stalk-like structure. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, below the larynx (voice box). Two parathyroid glands are located in the neck, closely associated with the thyroid gland. Two adrenal glands are located in the abdominal cavity directly in front of the kidneys. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is located in the abdominal cavity. The pancreas is located in the forward part of the abdominal cavity, behind the liver and stomach. The liver is in the front of the abdomen, just behind the diaphragm and below t Continue reading >>

The Endocrine System, Problems And Diabetes Mellitus Ch. 48/50/49

The Endocrine System, Problems And Diabetes Mellitus Ch. 48/50/49

Sort Describe the common characteristics and functions of hormones Hormones exert their effects on target tissue. The specificity of hormone-target cell interaction is determined by receptors in a "lock-and-key" type of mechanism. The regulation of hormone levels in the blood depends on a highly specialized mechanism called feedback. With negative feedback, the gland responds by increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone based on feedback from various factors. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland integrate communication between nervous and endocrine systems. The thyroid gland Produces three hormones, thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin. T4 accounts for 90 % of the total hormones produced. T3 is much more potent, has greater metabolic effects. 20% of circulating T3 is secreted by thryoid gland, remainder is obtained by peripheral conversion of T4. Iodine is necessary to synthesize both. They affect metaboic rate, caloric requirements, oxygen consumption, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, growth and development, brain function, and other nervous system activities. 99% of these hormone are bound to plasma proteins only the "free" hormones are biologically active.When thyroid hormone levels are low the hypothalamus releases thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH), which in turn cause the anterior pituitary to release (TSH) which in turn make the thyroid gland produce more hormones. Calcitonin is a hormone produced by C cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland in response to high circulating calcium levels. The adrenal glands The adrenal glands are small, paired, highly vascularized glands located on the upper portion of each kidney. The adrenal gland is composed of the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medulla Secretes the cat Continue reading >>

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

I. Overview Two major controlling systems in the body : nervous and endocrine. Nervous system regulates the activity of muscle and glands by means of electrochemical impulses delivered by neurons. The endocrine system influences the metabolic activities of cells by means of hormones (chemical messengers). The endocrine glands are ductless glands and include pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, and thymus. Organs (Diagram) that contain endocrine tissue include the pancreas, gonads (testes and ovaries) and digestive organs (stomach and intestines, enteroendricine tissue). Pituitary secretions regulated by neuroendocrine gland, the hypothalamus. II. Hormones Hormones - chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body Two chemical classes: Diagram Amino acid based - protein, peptide, and catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) Steroids - most hormones synthesized from cholesterol (but some may be derived from linoleic acid and arachidonic acid) A. Hormone-Target Cell Specificity Hormone is received by a target cell and evokes a response Cell response is dependent upon protein receptors on the plasma membrane or receptors in the nucleus and if receptors present, will bind hormones complimentarily Extent of target-cell activation (response) by hormone-receptor interaction depends on.... blood levels of the hormone relative numbers of receptors for the specific hormone affinity for the hormone by receptor Regulation of cell receptors: Up regulation - increase in the number of receptors with increase in hormone concentration Down regulation - prolonged exposure, cells become desensitized and there is a loss of receptors B. Mechanism of Hormone Action A hormonal stimulus typica Continue reading >>

What Is An Endocrinologist?

What Is An Endocrinologist?

Endocrinology is a complex study of the various hormones and their actions and disorders in the body. Glands are organs that make hormones. These are substances that help to control activities in the body and have several effects on the metabolism, reproduction, food absorption and utilization, growth and development etc. Hormones also control the way an organism responds to their surroundings and help by providing adequate energy for various functions. The glands that make up the endocrine system include the pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries and testes. Who is an endocrinologist? An endocrinologist is a specially trained doctor who has a basic training in Internal Medicine as well. Some disorders like low thyroid hormone production or hypothyroidism deals only with an endocrine organ and an endocrinologist alone may detect, diagnose and manage such patients. Yet other disorders may have endocrine as well and other origins like infertility and may need a deeper understanding of medicine on the part of the endocrinologist to identify and work in collaboration with another specialist (a gynaecologist in cases of infertility). What do endocrinologists do? Endocrinologists have the training to diagnose and treat hormone imbalances and problems by helping to restore the normal balance of hormones in the body. The common diseases and disorders of the endocrine system that endocrinologists deal with include diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders. Diabetes mellitus This is one of the most common conditions seen by endocrinologists. This results due to inadequate insulin hormone secreted by the pancreas leading to excess blood sugar that damages various organs. Endocrinologists treat diabetes with diet and blood sugar red Continue reading >>

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a unique and essential part of normal body function. Where the nervous system handles functions that happen quickly, like breathing and body movement, the endocrine system handles body functions that happen much slower, such as the growth of cells, organs, and metabolism. Endocrine system keeps the body's hormone and secretion levels in balance. Since there is a whole series of organs and glands that must work in tandem to maintain healthy hormone and secretion levels, when one of them doesn't function the way it's supposed to function, it puts a heavy strain on the rest of the body. This is what happens when the Pancreas stops producing Insulin and a person gets Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where some other part of the body's immune system attacks pancreatic cells, preventing them from producing insulin. Any one of these delicate systems can be the culprit in pushing the body's system out of balance. Taking insulin as a treatment for Type 1 diabetes is just part of the solution to this disorder. If one of the glands or organs is still stressed due to overworking or not getting what it needs, daily insulin levels will fluctuate, making it harder to control Type 1 diabetes. The goal for the person with Type 1 diabetes is to take control of their disorder and maintaining healthy glucose levels. But to understand the delicate balance of the endocrine system and how the diabetic can achieve this goal, it helps to explore the function of each organ and gland. Glands included in the endocrine system include the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pineal body and reproductive glands which include the ovaries and the testes. Each one of these systems has a function to help the body stay in ba Continue reading >>

Islets Of Langerhans

Islets Of Langerhans

Islets of Langerhans, also called islands of Langerhans, irregularly shaped patches of endocrine tissue located within the pancreas of most vertebrates. They are named for the German physician Paul Langerhans, who first described them in 1869. The normal human pancreas contains about 1,000,000 islets. The islets consist of four distinct cell types, of which three (alpha, beta, and delta cells) produce important hormones; the fourth component (C cells) has no known function. The most common islet cell, the beta cell, produces insulin, the major hormone in the regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Insulin is crucial in several metabolic processes: it promotes the uptake and metabolism of glucose by the body’s cells; it prevents release of glucose by the liver; it causes muscle cells to take up amino acids, the basic components of protein; and it inhibits the breakdown and release of fats. The release of insulin from the beta cells can be triggered by growth hormone (somatotropin) or by glucagon, but the most important stimulator of insulin release is glucose; when the blood glucose level increases—as it does after a meal—insulin is released to counter it. The inability of the islet cells to make insulin or the failure to produce amounts sufficient to control blood glucose level are the causes of diabetes mellitus. The alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans produce an opposing hormone, glucagon, which releases glucose from the liver and fatty acids from fat tissue. In turn, glucose and free fatty acids favour insulin release and inhibit glucagon release. The delta cells produce somatostatin, a strong inhibitor of somatotropin, insulin, and glucagon; its role in metabolic regulation is not yet clear. Somatostatin is also produced by the hypothalamu Continue reading >>

Endocrine Gland

Endocrine Gland

Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs. Major endocrine organs[edit] Further information: List of human endocrine organs and actions Pituitary gland[edit] Endocrine glands in the human head and neck and their hormones Main article: Pituitary gland The pituitary gland hangs from the base of the brain by a stalk and is enclosed by bone. It consists of a hormone-producing glandular portion (anterior pituitary) and a neural portion (posterior pituitary), which is an extension of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary and creates two hormones that it exports to the posterior pituitary for storage and later release. Four of the six anterior pituitary hormones are tropic hormones that regulate the function of other endocrine organs. Most anterior pituitary hormones exhibit a diurnal rhythm of release, which is subject to modification by stimuli influencing the hypothalamus. Somatotropic hormone or Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone that stimulates growth of all body tissues but especially skeletal muscle and bone. It may act directly, or indirectly via insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). GH mobilizes fats, stimulates protein synthesis, and inhibits glucose uptake and metabolism. Secretion is regulated by growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH), or somatostatin. Hypersecretion causes gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults; hypos Continue reading >>

Human Physiology/the Endocrine System

Human Physiology/the Endocrine System

The endocrine system is a control system of ductless glands that secrete hormones within specific organs. Hormones act as "messengers," and are carried by the bloodstream to different cells in the body, which interpret these messages and act on them. It seems like a far fetched idea that a small chemical can enter the bloodstream and cause an action at a distant location in the body. Yet this occurs in our bodies everyday of our lives. The ability to maintain homeostasis and respond to stimuli is largely due to hormones secreted within the body. Without hormones, you could not grow, maintain a constant temperature, produce offspring, or perform the basic actions and functions that are essential for life. The endocrine system provides an electrochemical connection from the hypothalamus of the brain to all the organs that control the body metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction. There are two types of hormones secreted in the endocrine system: Steroidal (or lipid based) and non-steroidal, (or protein based) hormones. The endocrine system regulates its hormones through negative feedback, except in very specific cases like childbirth. Increases in hormone activity decrease the production of that hormone. The immune system and other factors contribute as control factors also, altogether maintaining constant levels of hormones. Exocrine Glands are those which release their cellular secretions through a duct which empties to the outside or into the lumen (empty internal space) of an organ. These include certain sweat glands, salivary and pancreatic glands, and mammary glands. They are not considered a part of the endocrine system. Endocrine Glands are those glands which have no duct and release their secretions directly into the intercellular fluid or into the blo Continue reading >>

Medical Terminology For Cancer

Medical Terminology For Cancer

Contents Functions of the Endocrine System About Hormones The Pituitary Gland The Thyroid gland The Parathyroids The Pancreas The Adrenal Glands The Gonads Roots, suffixes, and prefixes Cancer Focus Related Abbreviations and Acronyms Further Resources The Endocrine system (along with the nervous system) controls and regulates the complex activities of the body. The Endocrine system regulates the activities of the body by secreting complex chemical substances (hormones) into the blood stream. These secretions come from a variety of glands which control various organs of the body. The key functions are: To regulate the metabolic functions of the body. To regulate the rate of chemical reactions in various cells. To influence the ability of substances to transport themselves through cell membranes. This is known as the "master gland" because it exerts control over all of the other glands of the endocrine system. Despite its importance the pituitary gland is no larger than a small pea. The Pituitary gland is made up of two separate glands: the Anterior lobe which is an outgrowth of the pharynx, and the Posterior lobe which is an outgrowth of the brain composed of neural (nerve) tissue. The Anterior Lobe of the pituitary plays the 'master' role secreting six major hormones that affect most of the body, including the other Endocrine glands: ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic hormone) stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete its hormones. hGH (Human growth hormone) also known as somatotrophic hormone is responsible for the growth of long bones, muscles and viscera. TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) influences the structure of the thyroid and causes it to secrete thyroid hormone. FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates female egg production or male sperm production. PRL (Prolactin Continue reading >>

Endocrine Systems

Endocrine Systems

Sort What are the main divisions of the hypophysis? What are their functions? The hypophysis is divided into two portions: the adenohypophysis, or anterior hypophysis, and the neurohypophysis, or posterior hypophysis. In the adenohypophysis two hormones that act directly, the growth hormone (GH) and the prolactin, and four tropic hormones, i.e., hormones that regulate other endocrine glands, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are produced. The neurohypohysis stores and releases two hormones produced in the hypothalamus, oxytocin and the antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin). What is the relation between the hypothalamus and the hypophysis? The hypothalamus is a part of the brain situated just above the hypophysis. The hypothalamus gets peripheral and central neural impulses that trigger response of its neurosecretory cells. The axons of these cells go down to the adenohypophysis to regulate the hipophyseal secretions by means of negative feedback. When the plasma levels of adenohypophyseal hormones are too high the hypothalamus detects this information and commands the interruption of the production of the hormone. When the blood level of an adenohypophyseal hormone is low the hypothalamus stimulates the secretion of the hormone. The hypothalamic cells produce the hormones released by the neurohypophysis. These hormones are transported by their axons to the hypophysis and then released in the circulation. What are their respective functions? GH, also known as somatotropic hormone (STH), acts upon bones, cartilages and muscles promoting the growth of these tissues. Prolactin is the hormone that in women stimulates the production and secretion of milk b Continue reading >>

Other Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Other Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

In most cases of diabetes, referred to as type 1 and type 2, no specific cause can be identified. This is referred to as primary or idiopathic diabetes. A small minority of cases, estimated at about 2%, arise as the consequence of some other well-defined disease or predisposing factor such as pancreatitis or steroid excess. This is called 'secondary diabetes'. Secondary diabetes can be sub-divided into single-gene disorders affecting insulin secretion or resistance, damage to the exocrine pancreas, other endocrine disease, drug-induced diabetes, uncommon manifestations of autoimmune diabetes, and genetic syndromes associated with diabetes. Gestational diabetes (diabetes arising for the first time in pregnancy) has a diagnostic category all to itself, but is included in this section for convenience. Secondary diabetes is often (but not always) associated with a relatively mild metabolic disturbance, but may nonetheless result in typical long-term complications such as retinopathy. Although it is relatively uncommon, the possibility of secondary diabetes should always be considered, since it may be a pointer to other disease, often requires a different approach to therapy, and is sometimes reversible. Background The common denominator of all the forms of diabetes discussed here is that something sets them apart from type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Since type 2 diabetes is hard to define, this implies that for most forms of diabetes in this category there is a pointer to a different pathophysiological explanation! The current WHO classification of diabetes, adopted and regularly updated by the American Diabetes Association, identifies four main categories of diabetes, and secondary diabetes is clssified under 'other specific types' (see figures). The common categories of secon Continue reading >>

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

Tweet The endocrine system consists of a number of different glands which secrete hormones that dictate how cells and organs behave. The hormones produced by the endocrine system help the body to regulate growth, sexual function, mood and metabolism. The role of the endocrine system The endocrine system is responsible for regulating many of the body's processes. The list below provides a selection of the roles of glands in the endocrine system: Pancreas – regulates blood glucose levels Adrenal gland – increases blood glucose levels and speeds up heart rate Thyroid gland - helps to regulate our metabolism Pituitary gland – stimulates growth Pineal gland – helps to regulate our sleep patterns Ovaries – promote development of female sex characteristics Testes – promote development of male sex characteristics The endocrine system and energy metabolism Metabolism encompasses all the chemical reactions which enable the body to sustain life. Energy metabolism is one of these processes and is vital for life. The body is able to use fat, protein and carbohydrate to provide energy. The pancreas plays an important part in energy metabolism by secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon which respectively make glucose and fatty acids available for cells to use for energy. The endocrine system and diabetes Diabetes affects how the body regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin helps to reduce levels of blood glucose whereas glucagon's role is to increase blood glucose levels. In people without diabetes, insulin and glucagon work together to keep blood glucose levels balanced. In diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin or doesn't respond properly to insulin causing an imbalance between the effects of insulin and glucagon. In type 1 diabetes, the body isn't Continue reading >>

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