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Ica Medical Abbreviation Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis And Screening

Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis And Screening

Based on etiology, diabetes is classified as type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, latent autoimmune diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of youth, and miscellaneous causes. The diagnosis is based on measurement of A1C level, fasting or random blood glucose level, or oral glucose tolerance testing. Although there are conflicting guidelines, most agree that patients with hypertension or hyperlipidemia should be screened for diabetes. Diabetes risk calculators have a high negative predictive value and help define patients who are unlikely to have diabetes. Tests that may help establish the type of diabetes or the continued need for insulin include those reflective of beta cell function, such as C peptide levels, and markers of immune-mediated beta cell destruction (e.g., autoantibodies to islet cells, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, tyrosine phosphatase [IA-2α and IA-2β]). Antibody testing is limited by availability, cost, and predictive value. Prevention, timely diagnosis, and treatment are important in patients with diabetes mellitus. Many of the complications associated with diabetes, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death, can be delayed or prevented with appropriate treatment of elevated blood pressure, lipids, and blood glucose.1–4 In 1997, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) introduced an etiologically based classification system and diagnostic criteria for diabetes,5 which were updated in 2010.1 Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90 to 95 percent of all persons with diabetes in the United States, and its prevalence is increasing in adults worldwide.6 With the rise in childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents.6 Clinical recommendati Continue reading >>

Rds Standard Abbreviations

Rds Standard Abbreviations

The following list of standard abbreviations may be used without further definition within the text (not the abstract) of your manuscript considered for publication in the RDS. See information for manuscript preparation for further details on the use of abbreviations within abstracts. For a printable version of this list use the 'Print page' link at the end of this page or download the PDF version. Å: angstrom (10-10 m) Ab: antibody Ag: antigen ADP: adenosine diphosphate ADPase: adenosine diphosphatase AIDS: acquired immunodeficiancy syndrome AMP: adenosine monophosphate APC: antigen presenting cell ATP: adenosine triphosphate ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase BMI: body mass index bp: base pair(s) BSA: bovine serum albumin °C: degrees Celsius cAMP: cyclic adenosine monophosphate cal: calorie(s) CD: cluster of differentiation (in combination with numbers, CD1, CD4 etc.) cDNA: complementary DNA CFA: complete Freund's adjuvant Ci: curie(s) CI: confidence interval CNS: central nervous system CoA: coenzyme A Con A: concanavalin A cpm: counts per minute cRNA: complementary RNA CSF: colony-stimulating factor CTLA: cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen Δ: delta (change in) Da: dalton(s) DEAE: diethylaminoethyl DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid DNase: deoxyribonuclease DNP: dinitrophenyl dpm: disintegrations per minute DTT: dithiothreitol EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EGF: epidermal growth factor EGTA: ethyleneglycol-bis (β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISPOT: enzyme-linked immunospot °F: degrees Fahrenheit FAGS: flourescence-activated cell sorter (TM of Becton Dickinson and Co.) Fas: FS7-associated cell surface antigen FBS: fetal bovine serum Fc: crystallizable fr Continue reading >>

Pediatric Islet Autoantibody Panel (ica, Gada, Ia-2a, Iaa And Znt8a)

Pediatric Islet Autoantibody Panel (ica, Gada, Ia-2a, Iaa And Znt8a)

Home Test Menu Test Directory: P Pediatric Islet Autoantibody Panel (ICA, GADA, IA-2A, IAA and ZnT8A) Pediatric Islet Autoantibody Panel (ICA, GADA, IA-2A, IAA and ZnT8A) Indirect immunofluorescence (ICA), radioimmunoassay (IAA, IA-2A), enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ZnT8A, GADA) Bi-Weekly (ICA, IA-2A, GADA, ZnT8) and Monthly (IAA) Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes: The presence of islet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA), insulinoma-2-associated autoantibodies (IA-2A), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and/or zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A) in the serum of patients who have been biochemically diagnosed with diabetes mellitus indicates the presence of autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (aka type 1A diabetes mellitus). It is advised that blood for IAA testing be drawn before insulin therapy is initiated. For the IAA result to be valid, the patient must not be insulin treated for more than one week. Prediction of Type 1 Diabetes: The presence of ICA, GADA, IA-2A, IAA and/or ZnT8A in the serum of an asymptomatic individual places the subject at increased risk for the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Continue reading >>

Stroke With Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis

Stroke With Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis

Stroke With Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis Copyright 2001 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Applicable FARS/DFARS Restrictions Apply to Government Use.2001 Arch Neurol. 2001;58(4):605-609. doi:10.1001/archneur.58.4.605 Background Stroke patterns in patients with different degrees of carotid stenosis have not been systematically studied. Objective To determine first-ever stroke subtypes in nonselected patients with extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, based on a primary care hospital stroke registry. Methods One hundred seventy-three patients who experienced their first-ever stroke and who had 50% or greater (North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial method) ipsilateral extracranial ICA stenosis, corresponding to 6.5% of 2649 patients with anterior circulation stroke included in the Lausanne Stroke Registry, were studied. All these patients underwent Doppler ultrasonography, carotid angiography (conventional or magnetic resonance angiography), neuroimaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging), and other investigations from the standard protocol of the Lausanne Stroke Registry. Results We found the following types of infarct in the middle cerebral artery territory: anterior pial in 54 (31%) of the patients; subcortical, 34 (20%); posterior pial, 32 (19%); large hemispheral, 20 (12%); and border zone, 17 (10%). There were multiple pial in 14 (8%) and multiple deep infarcts in 2 (1%) of the patients. Moderate (50%-69%) ICA stenosis was significantly associated with large hemispheral infarcts and a normal contralateral ICA (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). Seventy percent to 89% of ICA stenosis was associated with prior transient ischemic attacks (P = .02). After adjusting for cardioembolism, border zone inf Continue reading >>

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults

Definition, Prevalence, β-Cell Function, and Treatment Abstract Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a disorder in which, despite the presence of islet antibodies at diagnosis of diabetes, the progression of autoimmune β-cell failure is slow. LADA patients are therefore not insulin requiring, at least during the first 6 months after diagnosis of diabetes. Among patients with phenotypic type 2 diabetes, LADA occurs in 10% of individuals older than 35 years and in 25% below that age. Prospective studies of β-cell function show that LADA patients with multiple islet antibodies develop β-cell failure within 5 years, whereas those with only GAD antibodies (GADAs) or only islet cell antibodies (ICAs) mostly develop β-cell failure after 5 years. Even though it may take up to 12 years until β-cell failure occurs in some patients, impairments in the β-cell response to intravenous glucose and glucagon can be detected at diagnosis of diabetes. Consequently, LADA is not a latent disease; therefore, autoimmune diabetes in adults with slowly progressive β-cell failure might be a more adequate concept. In agreement with proved impaired β-cell function at diagnosis of diabetes, insulin is the treatment of choice. In 1986, Groop et al. (1) reported a subgroup of type 2 diabetic patients who, despite having islet autoantibodies, showed preserved β-cell function. The type of diabetes in these patients was referred to as latent type 1 diabetes, showing clearly different features from classic type 1 and classic type 2 diabetes. Later, Tuomi et al. (2) and Zimmet et al. (3) launched the eponym LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) for this slowly progressive form of autoimmune diabetes initially managed with diet and oral hypoglycemic agents before becoming insulin Continue reading >>

Carotid Artery Stenosis

Carotid Artery Stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis (CAS), atherosclerotic narrowing of the extracranial carotid arteries, is clinically significant because CAS is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, which affects more than 600,000 American adults each year. Ischemic stroke accounts for the vast majority of strokes, and atherothrombosis of large arteries including the carotids cause about 15% of all ischemic strokes. 1 The definition of hemodynamically significant CAS varies from study to study ranging in degree of stenosis from 50% to 70% and greater. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force considers CAS of 60% to 99% to be clinically relevant. 2 Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a measurement of the intimal and medial layers of the carotid artery walls, is used to detect early atherosclerotic disease.Increased CIMT is associated with risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, but whether its use results in measurable health benefits remains unclear. 3 The risk factors for CAS are similar to those for atherosclerosis in other vascular beds: advanced age, tobacco smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity. The prevalence of CAS is slightly higher in men than women. 4 Hypertension is a strong risk factor for CAS. In the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program study, systolic blood pressure greater than 160 mm Hg was the strongest independent predictor of CAS. 5 The Framingham Heart Study showed twice the risk for CAS of 25% or greater for every 20 mm Hg elevation in systolic blood pressure. 6 Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to have significant CAS. 7,8 Current smokers are more likely to have significant CAS compared with former smokers and the degree of stenosis is associated with the number of cigarettes smoked over time. 6,9 The association between Continue reading >>

Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series

Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series

Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series Department of Neurology, Neurology Clinic, Mure County Clinical Emergency Hospital, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Trgu Mure, Marinescu Gh. Street 50, 540136 Mure County, Romania Received 28 June 2013; Accepted 18 August 2013 Academic Editors: A.Mamelak and A. K.Petridis Copyright 2013 Zoltn Bajk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Patent bifurcation was observed in 10 cases of CCAO in which the anterograde flow in the ICA was maintained from the external carotid artery with reversed flow. In two of the cases, the occluded CCA was hypoplastic. The aetiology of CCAO in the majority of cases was the atherosclerosis (15 cases). The male/female ratio was higher in the patients with occluded distal vessels, and the short-term outcome was poorer. Only two cases from this series underwent revascularisation surgery. Spontaneous recanalisation was observed in one case. Conclusions. The most frequent cause of CCAO was atherosclerosis. The outcome is improved in the cases with patent distal vessels, and spontaneous recanalisation is possible. Treatment methods have not been Continue reading >>

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adults

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adults

Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes mellitus type 1 that occurs in adulthood, often with a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes diagnosed in juveniles.[3] Adults with LADA may initially be diagnosed incorrectly as having type 2 diabetes based on their age, particularly if they have risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as a strong family history or obesity. The diagnosis is typically based on the finding of hyperglycemia together with the clinical impression that islet failure rather than insulin resistance is the main cause; detection of a low C-peptide and raised antibodies against the islets of Langerhans support the diagnosis. It can only be treated with the usual oral treatments for type 2 diabetes for a certain period of time,[4][5] after which insulin treatment is usually necessary, as well as long-term monitoring for complications. The concept of LADA was first introduced in 1993,[6] though The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus does not recognize the term, instead including it under the standard definition of diabetes mellitus type 1.[7] Signs and symptoms[edit] The symptoms of latent autoimmune diabetes of adults are similar to those of other forms of diabetes: polydipsia (excessive thirst and drinking), polyuria (excessive urination), and often blurred vision.[8] Compared to juvenile type 1 diabetes, the symptoms develop comparatively slowly, over a period of at least six months.[9] Diagnosis[edit] It is estimated that more than 50% of persons diagnosed as having non-obesity-related type 2 diabetes may actually have LADA. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA), islet cell autoantibody (ICA), insulinoma-associated (IA-2) autoantibody, and zinc transporter autoantibody (ZnT8) t Continue reading >>

Ica | Definition Of Ica By Medical Dictionary

Ica | Definition Of Ica By Medical Dictionary

ICA | definition of ICA by Medical dictionary Antibodies formed against insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, or protein tyrosine phosphatase-like molecules. They are serum markers for type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Children whose parents have type 1 DM and who have these markers present in their serum have a high risk of developing type 1 DM. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us , add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content . For the sale of ICA Eiendom, Pangea Property Partners has served as financial advisor, Advokatfirmaet Haavind has served as legal advisor, and Handelsbanken Capital Markets has served as debt financial advisor. ICA Real Estate divests ICA Eiendom Norge valued at SEK2.2bn Sidewinder's application proxy support for the Citrix ICA Protocol, like our support for other key Internet protocols including HTTP, DNS and SMTP mail, is driven by the success of ICA within the general Internet community, and requests from our enterprise customers. Secure Computing Builds First Comprehensive Application-Level Firewall Support for Citrix ICA Protocol A global network of materials vendors is ready to deliver filler materials in volume for use in the production of CuproBraze heat exchangers," says Anthony Lea, Vice President of the ICA. Continue reading >>

Diabetes-related Autoantibodies

Diabetes-related Autoantibodies

On This Site Elsewhere On The Web Ask a Laboratory Scientist Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS). Click on the Contact a Scientist button below to be re-directed to the ASCLS site to complete a request form. If your question relates to this web site and not to a specific lab test, please submit it via our Contact Us page instead. Thank you. Continue reading >>

Disease Progression And Search For Monogenic Diabetes Among Children With New Onset Type 1 Diabetes Negative For Ica, Gad- And Ia-2 Antibodies

Disease Progression And Search For Monogenic Diabetes Among Children With New Onset Type 1 Diabetes Negative For Ica, Gad- And Ia-2 Antibodies

Disease progression and search for monogenic diabetes among children with new onset type 1 diabetes negative for ICA, GAD- and IA-2 Antibodies Hvidre Study Group on Childhood Diabetes Prksen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2010 To investigate disease progression the first 12 months after diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes negative (AAB negative) for pancreatic autoantibodies [islet cell autoantibodies(ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 antibodies (IA-2A)]. Furthermore the study aimed at determining whether mutations in KCNJ11, ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF4A or INS are common in AAB negative diabetes. In 261 newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes, we measured residual -cell function, ICA, GADA, and IA-2A at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. The genes KCNJ11, ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF4A and INS were sequenced in subjects AAB negative at diagnosis. We expressed recombinant K-ATP channels in Xenopus oocytes to analyse the functional effects of an ABCC8 mutation. Twenty-four patients (9.1%) tested AAB negative after one month. Patients, who were AAB-negative throughout the 12-month period, had higher residual -cell function (P = 0.002), lower blood glucose (P = 0.004), received less insulin (P = 0.05) and had lower HbA1c (P = 0.02) 12 months after diagnosis. One patient had a heterozygous mutation leading to the substitution of arginine at residue 1530 of SUR1 (ABCC8) by cysteine. Functional analyses of recombinant K-ATP channels showed that R1530C markedly reduced the sensitivity of the K-ATP channel to inhibition by MgATP. Morover, the channel was highly sensitive to sulphonylureas. However, there was no effect of sulfonylurea treatment after four weeks on 1.0-1.2 mg/kg/24 h glibenclamide. GAD, IA-2A, and ICA negative Continue reading >>

Clinical Applications Of Diabetes Antibody Testing

Clinical Applications Of Diabetes Antibody Testing

Context: Autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, insulin, and zinc transporter-8 are characteristic of type 1 diabetes. They are detectable before clinical onset and define the subgroup of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Autoantibody assays are increasingly available to clinicians. This article reviews the prognostic significance of autoantibodies and considers the utility of diabetes antibody testing in routine clinical practice. Evidence Acquisition: The medical literature to May 2009 was reviewed for key articles and consensus statements covering use of islet autoantibody testing for prediction and classification of diabetes and implications for therapy. Evidence Synthesis: Sensitive and specific glutamate decarboxylase and islet antigen-2 antibody assays are widely available, although to insulin autoantibody assays remain variable. Islet autoantibodies appear early in life, and testing for multiple antibodies identifies unaffected individuals at very high risk of type 1 diabetes with high sensitivity. This is important for research, but currently no intervention prevents or delays diabetes, and evidence of benefit from awareness of risk is weak. In non-insulin-treated diabetes, patients with autoantibodies progress to insulin requirement more rapidly, but evidence that testing benefits the individual patient is limited. Antibody testing is useful in classifying diabetes of other types. Conclusions: Islet autoantibody testing allows prediction of type 1 diabetes and definition of the latent autoimmune diabetes in adults subgroup of non-insulin-treated patients. Although useful for research, until therapies modulating the disease process become available, the benefit to individual patients is generally questionable. With a few e Continue reading >>

Diabetes Terms

Diabetes Terms

Common Diabetes Daily Forum Acronyms and Abbreviations A1c – Blood test which measures average glucose level over roughly the past 3 months A&E – Accident & Emergency department ADA – American Diabetes Association ADAG – A1c-Derived Average Glucose ADE – Adverse Drug Event AHA – American Heart Association ALA – Alpha Lipoic Acid AMA American Medical Association APMA – American Podiatric Medical Association APRN – Advanced Practice Registered Nurse AST – Alternate Site Testing BG – Blood Glucose Level BGM – Blood Glucose Monitor or Meter BMI – Body Mass Index BMR – Basal Metabolic Rate BP – Blood Pressure BG – Blood Glucose Level (we don’t use the term blood sugar or bs) BTW – By the Way BUN – Blood Urea Nitrogen CBT – Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CCU – Critical Care Unit CDA – Canadian Diabetes Association CDC – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States) CDE – Certified Diabetes Educator CGMS – Continuous Glucose Monitoring System CHF – Congestive Heart Failure CKD – Chronic Kidney Disease COPD – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease CR – Controlled Release CRP – C-Reactive Protein CVD – Cardiovascular Disease D – Diabetes DAFNE – Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating DCCT – Diabetes Control and Complications Trial DD – Diabetes Daily (This site) DE – Diabetes Educator DIA – Duration of Insulin Action DKA – Diabetic Ketoacidosis DM – Diabetes Mellitus DP – Dawn Phenomenon DPN – Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy DSN – Diabetes Specialist Nurse DUK – Diabetes United Kingdom DVT – Deep Vein Thrombosis DX – Diagnosis or Diagnosed eAG – estimated Average Glucose EMG – Electromyogram EMR – Electronic Medical Record EMT – Emergency Medical Technician Endo – Endocrinolog Continue reading >>

Islet Autoantibodies And Type 1 Diabetes: Does The Evidence Support Screening?

Islet Autoantibodies And Type 1 Diabetes: Does The Evidence Support Screening?

Type 1 diabetes (T1D)3 is a chronic progressive autoimmune disorder with complex polygenic susceptibility, usually associated with certain HLA alleles (IDDM1 locus). Environmental factors, which are poorly defined, also contribute to the pathogenesis. T1D is characterized by lymphocyte infiltration into the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, leading to inflammation and selective destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells, resulting in hyperglycemia (1). Patients with T1D fail to produce insulin and are dependent on exogenous insulin to maintain life. Although it is considerably less common than type 2 diabetes, the worldwide prevalence of T1D is increasing by approximately 3% per annum. The incidence varies widely among countries. In Americans under the age of 20 years, the prevalence of T1D rose by 23% between 2001 and 2009, and >30 000 people are diagnosed annually in the US with T1D. Progression to T1D is typically marked by the presence of islet-specific autoantibodies in the serum. In humans, autoantibodies are present months to years before disease onset, and a similar trend is seen in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of autoimmune diabetes (2). The rate of T1D development varies among individuals, possibly due to non-HLA genetic factors and/or environmental factors beyond the initial trigger. Most of the current information on the pathogenesis of T1D from the initial triggers to the final effector stages of β-cell destruction has been derived from animal models that mimic the human disease (3). T lymphocytes are central determinants for β-cell destruction in T1D. Nevertheless, autoantibodies and B lymphocytes are components of some autoimmune diseases and may contribute to the pathogenesis of T1D. Multiple studies have documented the role of autoan Continue reading >>

Do Stroke Etiologies Differ Between Mca And Ica Disease?

Do Stroke Etiologies Differ Between Mca And Ica Disease?

Do Stroke Etiologies Differ Between MCA and ICA Disease? Louis R. Caplan, MD reviewing Lee PH et al. Neurology 2004 Apr 27 In this Korean study, the authors retrospectively compared stroke risk factors, infarction patterns, and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) scores in 112 ischemic stroke patients with ... In this Korean study, the authors retrospectively compared stroke risk factors, infarction patterns, and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) scores in 112 ischemic stroke patients with isolated middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis and in 71 ischemic stroke patients with isolated internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (all with >50% stenosis). The ICA group was slightly older, included more men, and had larger, more superficial, and more territorial infarcts than the MCA group. The MCA group more often had deep, striato-capsular infarcts. The ICA group had a higher average NIHSS score than the MCA group (7.1 vs. 3.9, respectively). Although intracranial occlusive disease often has been attributed to hypertension, this and other studies show comparable (or higher) hypertension rates among patients with neck artery disease, and intracranial disease frequency is not elevated in hypertensive white people. Small studies have suggested that neurologic deficit severity and infarct location and size differ between MCA and ICA disease (Neurology 1985; 35:975; J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1998; 7:344; Ann Neurol 1979; 5:152; Stroke 1984; 15:237; and Stroke 1985; 16:282). MCA plaques and intimal-medial hypertrophy often block lenticulostriate penetrators, leading to deep, striato-capsular infarcts that mimic lacunes caused by intrinsic disease of these same penetrating arteries. In the current study, internal border-zone infarcts were also more common in the MCA than the ICA group. Both internal bor Continue reading >>

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