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Human Mixed Insulin

Insulin: How To Give A Mixed Dose

Insulin: How To Give A Mixed Dose

Many people with diabetes need to take insulin to keep their blood glucose in a good range. This can be scary for some people, especially for the first time. The truth is that insulin shots are not painful because the needles are short and thin and the insulin shots are placed into fatty tissue below the skin. This is called a subcutaneous (sub-kyu-TAY-nee-us) injection. In some cases, the doctor prescribes a mixed dose of insulin. This means taking more than one type of insulin at the same time. A mixed dose allows you to have the benefits of both short-acting insulin along with a longer acting insulin — without having to give 2 separate shots. Usually, one of the insulins will be cloudy and the other clear. Some insulins cannot be mixed in the same syringe. For instance, never mix Lantus or Levemir with any other solution. Be sure to check with your doctor, pharmacist, or diabetes educator before mixing. These instructions explain how to mix two different types of insulin into one shot. If you are giving or getting just one type of insulin, refer to the patient education sheet Insulin: How to Give a Shot. What You Will Need Bottles of insulin Alcohol swab, or cotton ball moistened with alcohol Syringe with needle (You will need a prescription to buy syringes from a pharmacy. Check with your pharmacist to be sure the syringe size you are using is correct for your total dose of insulin.) Hard plastic or metal container with a screw-on or tightly-secured lid Parts of a Syringe and Needle You will use a syringe and needle to give the shot. The parts are labeled below. Wash the work area (where you will set the insulin and syringe) well with soap and water. Wash your hands. Check the drug labels to be sure they are what your doctor prescribed. Check the expiration date o Continue reading >>

Insulin Treatment For Diabetes

Insulin Treatment For Diabetes

People with type 1 diabetes are unable to produce enough insulin to regulate the glucose (sugar) levels within their blood, so they need to take insulin to manage their diabetes. Some people with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (diabetes that develops during pregnancy) may also need insulin to control their blood sugar levels. There are a variety of types of insulin and ways to give it, including injections, pens and pumps. Your doctor and diabetes educator can recommend the most suitable type of insulin and delivery device for you. Types of insulin There are different types of insulin available to manage diabetes. These days, most types of insulin are synthetic (created in a laboratory), but there are some that are extracted from the pancreas of animals. Types of insulin vary, according to: how quickly they take effect; how long their effect lasts; and when they reach their peak, in terms of ability to lower blood-glucose levels. Ultra-short-acting insulin Ultra-short-acting (also called very-short-acting or rapid-acting) insulin starts to work about 15 minutes after being injected, peaks after about 1-2 hours, and lasts for about 4-5 hours. This type of insulin is injected immediately before meal times and is also used in insulin pumps. Types of ultra-short-acting insulin include: insulin glulisine (brand name Apidra); insulin lispro (Humalog); and insulin aspart (NovoRapid). These are all synthetic copies (analogues) of human insulin and are clear in appearance. Short-acting insulin Short-acting insulin (insulin neutral) starts to work about half an hour after being injected, peaks from between 3 and 5 hours, and lasts for about 6-8 hours. Short-acting insulin is given 20-30 minutes before a meal. It is clear in appearance. Types of short-acting neutral insu Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Types Of Insulin For Diabetes Treatment

Many forms of insulin treat diabetes. They're grouped by how fast they start to work and how long their effects last. The types of insulin include: Rapid-acting Short-acting Intermediate-acting Long-acting Pre-mixed What Type of Insulin Is Best for My Diabetes? Your doctor will work with you to prescribe the type of insulin that's best for you and your diabetes. Making that choice will depend on many things, including: How you respond to insulin. (How long it takes the body to absorb it and how long it remains active varies from person to person.) Lifestyle choices. The type of food you eat, how much alcohol you drink, or how much exercise you get will all affect how your body uses insulin. Your willingness to give yourself multiple injections per day Your age Your goals for managing your blood sugar Afrezza, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin, is FDA-approved for use before meals for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The drug peaks in your blood in about 15-20 minutes and it clears your body in 2-3 hours. It must be used along with long-acting insulin in people with type 1 diabetes. The chart below lists the types of injectable insulin with details about onset (the length of time before insulin reaches the bloodstream and begins to lower blood sugar), peak (the time period when it best lowers blood sugar) and duration (how long insulin continues to work). These three things may vary. The final column offers some insight into the "coverage" provided by the different insulin types in relation to mealtime. Type of Insulin & Brand Names Onset Peak Duration Role in Blood Sugar Management Rapid-Acting Lispro (Humalog) 15-30 min. 30-90 min 3-5 hours Rapid-acting insulin covers insulin needs for meals eaten at the same time as the injection. This type of insulin is often used with Continue reading >>

Comparison Of Humalog Mix 50 With Human Insulin Mix 30 In Type 2 Diabetes Patients During Ramadan.

Comparison Of Humalog Mix 50 With Human Insulin Mix 30 In Type 2 Diabetes Patients During Ramadan.

Int J Clin Pract. 2010 Jul;64(8):1095-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02347.x. Epub 2010 Mar 10. Comparison of Humalog Mix 50 with human insulin Mix 30 in type 2 diabetes patients during Ramadan. Jeffrey Kelson Diabetes Centre, Central Middlesex Hospital, London, UK. To compare hypoglycaemic events, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and changes in body weight in Muslim patients with Type 2 diabetes receiving Humalog Mix 50 and human Mixtard 30 twice daily during Ramadan fasting. Data were collected from Muslim patients with Type 2 diabetes attending primary care practices in North-West London, who were on Mixtard 30 insulin twice daily before Ramadan. Group 1 had their evening insulin changed to Humalog Mix 50 (n = 26) 2 weeks before Ramadan, i.e. taking Mixtard 30 at predawn meal and Humalog Mix 50 at the sunset meal during Ramadan. As the major proportion of the daily caloric intake was consumed at the sunset meal, the rationale of switching the evening dose from human Mixtard 30 to Humalog Mix 50 was to provide more rapid-acting insulin that has shorter time of onset and peak time for the large evening meal to improve the postprandial glucose control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia. Group 2 continued on Mixtard 30 twice daily (n = 26). All patients received structured education about how to identify and manage hypoglycaemia during Ramadan. Group 1 had a mean HbA1c reduction of 0.48% (p = 0.0001) before and after Ramadan, whereas group 2 had a mean HbA1c increase of 0.28% (p = 0.007). Group 1 was associated with a small reduction of 0.04 (p = 0.81) in the mean number of hypoglycaemic events during Ramadan compared with before Ramadan, whereas group 2 was associated with an increase of 0.15 (p = 0.43), although these differences between the groups were not st Continue reading >>

Glucodynamics And Pharmacokinetics Of 70/30 Vs. 50/50 Nph/regular Insulin Mixtures After Subcutaneous Injection

Glucodynamics And Pharmacokinetics Of 70/30 Vs. 50/50 Nph/regular Insulin Mixtures After Subcutaneous Injection

Optimal insulin therapy for many patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes requires the use of combinations of short- and intermediate-acting insulin preparations. A significant number of patients experience difficulties with mixing intermediate- and short-acting insulin preparations because of an inability to mix insulin preparations in correct ratios (1,2) or confusion between the different types of insulins (3,4,5). The fixed ratio of 70% NPH to 30% regular (70/30) insulin preparation does not fulfill the needs of many of these patients because of significant postprandial blood glucose excursions. A premix insulin preparation, such as 50% NPH to 50% regular (50/50) insulin, could benefit those individuals with postprandial hyperglycemia. To investigate differences in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties between 50/50 and 70/30 premix insulins, we performed a randomized single-dose two-period crossover study using a 12-h euglycemic clamp technique (7) in healthy subjects after double-blinded subcutaneous injections of each insulin preparation. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Pittsburgh. Written informed consent was obtained before initiation of screening procedures. All subjects had a fasting blood glucose ≤108 mg/dl at screening, did not ingest alcohol or caffeine-containing beverages for 48 h before receiving study medication, and refrained from exercise for 24 h before the study. In a double-blind crossover study, single subcutaneous doses (0.2 units/kg) of 50/50 or 70/30 insulin were administered to 12 healthy male subjects. Glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured at baseline, every 10 min for 1 h, and every 15 min for 11 h after injection. Baseline euglycemia was maintained with a variable-rate Continue reading >>

Insulin, Human Regular And Human Nph Mixture Information From Drugs.com

Insulin, Human Regular And Human Nph Mixture Information From Drugs.com

Please read both sides of this leaflet carefully before using this product. Novolin Prefilled syringe is for single person use only. See Important Notes section. ANY CHANGE OF INSULIN SHOULD BE MADE CAUTIOUSLY AND ONLY UNDER MEDICAL SUPERVISION. CHANGES IN PURITY, STRENGTH, BRAND (MANUFACTURER), TYPE (REGULAR, NPH, LENTE ETC.), SPECIES (BEEF, PORK, BEEF-PORK, HUMAN) AND/OR METHOD OF MANUFACTURE (RECOMBINANT DNA VERSUS ANIMAL-SOURCE INSULIN) MAY RESULT IN THE NEED FOR A CHANGE IN DOSAGE. SPECIAL CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN WHEN THE TRANSFER IS FROM A STANDARD BEEF OR MIXED SPECIES INSULIN TO A PURIFIED PORK OR HUMAN INSULIN. IF A DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT IS NEEDED, IT WILL USUALLY BECOME APPARENT EITHER IN THE FIRST FEW DAYS OR OVER A PERIOD OF SEVERAL WEEKS, ANY CHANGE IN TREATMENT SHOULD BE CAREFULLY MONITORED. PLEASE READ THE SECTIONS "INSULIN REACTION AND SHOCK" AND "DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS AND COMA" FOR SYMPTOMS OF HYPOGLYCEMIA (LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE) AND HYPERGLYCEMIA (HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE). Your physician has explained that you have diabetes and that your treatment involves injections of insulin or insulin therapy combined with an oral antidiabetic medicine. Insulin is normally produced by the pancreas, a gland that lies behind the stomach. Without insulin, glucose (a simple sugar made from digested food) is trapped in the bloodstream and cannot enter the cells of the body. Some patients who don't make enough of their own insulin, or who cannot use the insulin they do make properly, must take insulin by injection in order to control their blood glucose levels. Each case of diabetes is different and requires direct and continued medical supervision. Your physician has told you the type, strength and amount of insulin you should use and the time(s) at which you should inject it, and has Continue reading >>

Split-mixed Insulin Regimen With Human Ultralente Before Supper And Nph (isophane) Before Breakfast In Children And Adolescents With Iddm.

Split-mixed Insulin Regimen With Human Ultralente Before Supper And Nph (isophane) Before Breakfast In Children And Adolescents With Iddm.

Split-mixed insulin regimen with human ultralente before supper and NPH (isophane) before breakfast in children and adolescents with IDDM. Department of Pediatrics, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA. OBJECTIVE: Fasting hyperglycemia is common in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) treated with twice-daily subcutaneous insulin regimens. We postulated that substituting human ultralente insulin for the presupper dose of intermediate-acting insulin would improve overnight glycemic control in children and adolescents with IDDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This 6-mo double-blind crossover study compared a conventional insulin regimen, a mixture of human NPH and regular given before both breakfast and supper (NPH), with a novel twice-daily regimen in which human ultralente replaced NPH before the evening meal (ultralente). This study was comprised of 20 children and adolescents (mean age and duration of IDDM 11.3 +/- 2.9 and 2.4 +/- 1.3 yr, respectively) from the Youth Clinic of the Joslin Diabetes Center, all of whom regularly performed self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and had been treated exclusively with human insulin (mean daily dose 0.75 +/- 0.22 U/kg). Subjects performed SMBG on a prescribed schedule with a glucose meter with an electronic memory, and recorded results of blood glucose measurements, insulin dosages, and episodes of hypoglycemia. Monthly measurements were obtained for height, weight, and HbA1, and mean daily insulin dosages and average blood glucose level before breakfast, lunch, supper, bedtime snack, and between 0200 and 0300 were calculated. Nonfasting serum lipids were measured at entry, crossover, and the end of the study. RESULTS: After 3 mo, mean HbA, did not differ significantly (9.1 +/- 1.7 vs. 9.5 +/- 1.4%, NPH and Continue reading >>

Human Insulin

Human Insulin

Tweet Human insulin is the name which describes synthetic insulin which is laboratory grown to mimic the insulin in humans. Human insulin was developed through the 1960s and 1970s and approved for pharmaceutical use in 1982. Before human insulin was developed animal insulin, usually a purified form of porcine (pork) insulin, was used. How is human insulin produced? Human insulin is laboratory created by growing insulin proteins within E-coli bacteria (Escherichia coli). What types of human insulin are available? Human insulin is available in two forms, a short acting (regular) form and an intermediate acting (NPH) form. NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is a suspension meaning that the insulin vial should be rolled or repeatedly turned upside down to ensure the solution is uniformly cloudy. Some examples of human insulin: Regular (short acting): Humulin S, Actrapid, Insuman Rapid NPH (intermediate acting): Humulin I, Insuman basal, Insulatard Premixed human insulins: Humulin M2, M3 and M5, Insuman Comb 15, 25 and 50 What are premixed human insulins? Premixed insulins consist of a mix of regular and NPH insulin. The premixed insulins are available in a number of different ratios of mixing. For example Humulin M3 is a mix of 30% short acting to 70% intermediate whereas Humulin M5 is made up of 50% of both short and intermediate acting. In recent years there has been a trend to replace human insulins with newer premixed analogue insulins. How quickly do human insulins act? Short acting (regular) insulin starts to act from about 30 minutes after injecting, with their peak action occurring between 2 and 3 hours after injecting. The duration is up to 10 hours. Intermediate acting (NPH) insulin takes about 2 to 4 hours to start acting, h Continue reading >>

Human Insulin

Human Insulin

Synthetic human insulin is identical to your own. However, relative to the rapid-acting insulin analogs, regular human insulin has several undesirable features. Synthetic human insulin is identical in structure to your own natural insulin. But when it is injected under the skin it doesn’t work as well as natural insulin. This is because injected human insulin clumps together and takes a long time to get absorbed. The activity of this synthetic human insulin is not well synchronized with your body’s needs. In this section, you will find information about: Fast-acting injected insulin Relative to the rapid-acting insulin analogs, Regular human insulin has undesirable features, such as a delayed onset of action, and variable peak and duration of action when it is injected under the skin. Because of this, fewer and fewer medical providers are prescribing Regular insulin. The delayed onset of action is the reason you have to inject the insulin and wait before eating. And the variable duration of action predisposes to low blood sugars long after the meal is over. REGULAR INSULIN IS LESS PREDICTABLE THAN RAPID-ACTING ANALOG VERSIONS when injected under the skin. Long-acting injected insulin NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) is a longer-acting human insulin that is used to cover blood sugar between meals, and to satisfy your overnight insulin requirement. A fish protein, protamine, has been added to the Regular human insulin to delay its absorption. This long acting insulin is a cloudy suspension that needs to be remixed thoroughly before each injection. Because NPH is a suspension of different sized crystals, it has a very unpredictable absorption rate and action. This results in more frequent low and high blood sugars. The use of NPH has declined with the availability of o Continue reading >>

Types Of Insulin

Types Of Insulin

Insulin analogs are now replacing human insulin in the US. Insulins are categorized by differences in onset, peak, duration, concentration, and route of delivery. Human Insulin and Insulin Analogs are available for insulin replacement therapy. Insulins also are classified by the timing of their action in your body – specifically, how quickly they start to act, when they have a maximal effect and how long they act.Insulin analogs have been developed because human insulins have limitations when injected under the skin. In high concentrations, such as in a vial or cartridge, human (and also animal insulin) clumps together. This clumping causes slow and unpredictable absorption from the subcutaneous tissue and a dose-dependent duration of action (i.e. the larger dose, the longer the effect or duration). In contrast, insulin analogs have a more predictable duration of action. The rapid acting insulin analogs work more quickly, and the long acting insulin analogs last longer and have a more even, “peakless” effect. Background Insulin has been available since 1925. It was initially extracted from beef and pork pancreases. In the early 1980’s, technology became available to produce human insulin synthetically. Synthetic human insulin has replaced beef and pork insulin in the US. And now, insulin analogs are replacing human insulin. Characteristics of Insulin Insulins are categorized by differences in: Onset (how quickly they act) Peak (how long it takes to achieve maximum impact) Duration (how long they last before they wear off) Concentration (Insulins sold in the U.S. have a concentration of 100 units per ml or U100. In other countries, additional concentrations are available. Note: If you purchase insulin abroad, be sure it is U100.) Route of delivery (whether they a Continue reading >>

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Two Types Of Insulin: Human And Analog

Glucose is a type of sugar from food that the body uses for energy. The level of glucose in the bloodstream usually rises after a meal. To be efficiently utilized by the body, glucose in the bloodstream needs to enter the body’s cells. If glucose is unable to enter the cells, blood glucose levels rise leading to hyperglycemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages nerves, blood vessels and vital organs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. The beta cells release more insulin whenever there is a rise in blood glucose levels. Insulin enables glucose to enter the cells, thereby restoring normal blood glucose levels and allowing efficient glucose metabolism. People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin because the disease has destroyed the beta cells of their pancreas. People with type 2 diabetes can produce insulin but their body does not respond well to it, a condition known as insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in pregnant women with gestational diabetes because the placenta (organ that connects the fetus to the mother’s blood supply) produces insulin-blocking hormones. Insulin therapy replaces or supplements the body’s own insulin, thereby restoring normal or near-normal blood sugar levels. It is one of the cornerstones of diabetes management, providing intensive blood glucose control crucial in preventing diabetes-related complications. Why is insulin injected into the fat under the skin rather than taken as a pill? Because insulin taken in pill form would be broken down by digestive enzymes and rendered ineffective. The first generation of man-made insulin is called “human insulin.” Developed through the 1960s and 1970s and approved for pharmaceutical use in 1982, human insulin is the name given to synthet Continue reading >>

Pre-mixed Insulin

Pre-mixed Insulin

Pre-mixed insulin requires only one injection. Pre-mixed insulin may be right for you if you're older, have vision trouble, or are just starting insulin therapy. Pre-mixed insulins are usually prescribed for patients needing a simple insulin treatment plan, and sliding scale therapy. You may be in this category if you: Have diminished vision or trouble with dexterity Are just starting insulin therapy NPH insulin may be mixed with both rapid-acting insulin analogs and fast-acting human Regular insulin. These mixtures include various combinations: In the United States, rapid-acting insulin, Lyspro (humalog) is mixed with NPH in a 50:50 (50% NPH and 50% insulin Lyspro) and 75:25 (75% NPH and 25% insulin Lyspro) ratio. Insulin/Aspart (Novolog) combinations also are available as 70:30 mixtures (70% NPH, 30% insulin aspart). The traditional NPH ratio of Regular pre-mixed insulin 70:30 (70% NPH, 30% Regular) is still available. These insulins are available as vials, and as insulin pens. The disadvantage is that NPH, which has a relatively unpredictable action, is the only long-acting insulin that can be used. Also, when the doses in a mixture is increased or decreased, the amount both of the short acting insulin and long-acting insulin changes, which increases the risk of both high and low blood sugars. Mixtures also don’t allow a separate correction to be made for high blood sugars. (You may wonder why there are NO pre-mixed insulins using Lantus and detemir. This is because insulin glargine (Lantus®) and detemir (Levemir®) cannot be mixed in the same syringe with other insulins!) Pre-mixed insulins are usually prescribed for patients needing a simple insulin treatment plan, and sliding scale therapy. You may be in this category if you: Are older, with regular meal and ac Continue reading >>

Combination Insulins

Combination Insulins

Rapid-Acting Analogues Short-Acting Insulins Intermediate-Acting Insulins Long-Acting Insulins Combination Insulins Novolin® 70/30 - Humulin® 70/30 Novolog® Mix 70/30 Humalog® Mix 75/25 SOLIQUA™ 100/33 (insulin glargine and lixisenatide injection) XULTOPHY® 100/3.6 (insulin degludec and liraglutide injection) --® Onset: 30-60 min Peak: 2-12 hours Duration: 18 - 24 hours Solution: Cloudy Comments: Mixture of 70% NPH, Human Insulin Isophane Suspension and 30% Regular, Human Insulin Injection. Recommended interval between dosing and meal initiation: 30 minutes. Mixing You should not attempt to change the ratio of this product by adding additional NPH or Regular insulin to the vial. If the physician has prescribed insulin mixed in a proportion other than 70% NPH and 30% Regular, you should use the separate insulin formulations (e.g. NPH and Regular insulin ) in the amounts recommended by the physician. All Unopened Novolin 70/30: • Keep all unopened Novolin 70/30 in the refrigerator between 36° to 46°F (2° to 8°C). • Do not freeze. Do not use Novolin 70/30 if it has been frozen. • If refrigeration is not possible, the unopened vial may be kept at room temperature for up to 6 weeks (42 days), as long as it is kept at or below 77°F (25°C). • Keep unopened Novolin 70/30 in the carton to protect from light. Novolin 70/30 in use: Vials • Keep at room temperature below 77°F (25°C) for up to 6 weeks (42 days). • Keep vials away from direct heat or light. • Throw away an opened vial after 6 weeks (42 days) of use, even if there is insulin left in the vial. • Unopened vials can be used until the expiration date on the Novolin 70/30 label, if the medicine has been stored in a refrigerator. Note: double mouse click to return to the top of the page Onset Continue reading >>

What Is Premixed Insulin?

What Is Premixed Insulin?

Insulin that comes in pre-mixed formulations combines insulins that have different onsets (how quickly they begin to work) and durations (how long the effects last) to best manage the blood glucose levels of the individual. Rapid-acting insulins work well for the increase in blood glucose that occurs right after meals, while longer-acting insulins help maintain blood glucose levels between meals and overnight. Many patients like pre-mixed insulins as they help reduce the number of injections needed per day, however they are not convenient for intensive insulin regimens. A person with diabetes may need to change their insulin regimen if they experience changes in their physical activity, weight gain or loss, increased stress, illness, or a change in diet. Changes like these should be discussed with a healthcare professional. Always check with your healthcare professional about any potential drug interactions before starting treatment and report any side effects you experience. Some of the long-acting insulins available in the US include: Humalog Mix 50/50 is a mix of 50% of a rapid-acting insulin (insulin lispro) and an intermediate-acting insulin (insulin lispro protamine suspension) used to treat adults with diabetes for the control of blood sugar. The rapid-acting insulin goes to work quickly in about 15 to 30 minutes, stimulating the cells to absorb glucose for their energy needs, while the intermediate acting insulin reaches its peak effect 2 to 4 hours after injection and continues working for up to 22 hours.* In addition to stimulating the absorption of glucose, insulin promotes the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver, stops the liver from producing more glucose, and promotes the conversion of excess glucose into fat. Humalog Mix 50/50 is avail Continue reading >>

Insulin Regimens

Insulin Regimens

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Type 1 Diabetes article more useful, or one of our other health articles. The appropriate insulin regimen for each patient with diabetes will depend on their type of diabetes and their individual needs and circumstances. Regimens which attempt to improve glycaemic control will require more active involvement of the patient, both with the number of injections and with the need for close self-monitoring of blood glucose. See the separate Diabetes Education and Self-management Programmes article. Insulin regimens should be tailored to the individual, taking into account the patient's type of diabetes, previous control, age, dexterity, eyesight, and personal and cultural preferences. Insulin is usually injected into the upper arms, thighs, buttocks or abdomen. The absorption may be increased if the limb is used in strenuous exercise after the injection. Lipodystrophy can be minimised by using different injection sites in rotation. Local allergic reactions may occur but are rare.[1] Effective patient education for people using insulin treatment is essential, including 'sick day' guidance. See also the separate Diabetes and Intercurrent Illness article. Insulin Passports and patient information booklets should be offered to patients receiving insulin.[2] Insulins are classified according to their duration of action.[3] Short-acting insulins Short-acting (soluble) insulin is usually injected 15 to 30 minutes before meals. Soluble insulin is also the most appropriate form of insulin for use in diabetic emergencies - eg, diabetic ketoacidosis and at the time of Continue reading >>

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