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Health Department Services

Health Department Services

Type 2 Diabetes About 1 in 10 Americans have diabetes and 90% to 95% of them have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes most often develops in people over age 45, but more and more children, teens, and young adults are also developing it. Causes: Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into the cells in your body for use as energy. If you have type 2 diabetes, cells don’t respond normally to insulin; this is called insulin resistance. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually your pancreas can’t keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and can cause other serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease. Symptoms & Risk Factors: Type 2 diabetes symptoms(often develop over several years and can go on for a long time without being noticed (sometimes there aren’t any noticeable symptoms at all). Because symptoms can be hard to spot, it’s important to know the risk factors(for type 2 diabetes and to see your doctor to get your blood sugar tested if you have any of them. Getting Tested: A simple blood test(let you know if you have diabetes. If you’ve gotten your blood sugar tested at a health fair or pharmacy, follow up at a clinic or doctor’s office to make sure the results are accurate. Why is it important for people with diabetes to be physically active? Physical activity can help you control your blood glucose, weight, and blood pressure, as well as raise your “good” cholesterol and lower your “bad” cholesterol. It can also help prevent heart and blood flow problems, reducing your risk of heart disease and nerve damage, which are often problems for people with Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

There are three common types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which the body makes no insulin or so little insulin that the body cannot change blood sugar into energy. Type 1 diabetes usually develops during childhood or adolescence, before a woman gets pregnant. Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the body makes too little insulin or cannot use the insulin it makes to change blood sugar into energy. Type 2 diabetes often occurs after childbearing age, although it is becoming more common for childbearing-aged women to develop type 2 diabetes. In a woman with preexisting diabetes (which includes type 1 and type 2), blood sugar that remains high can trigger or worsen certain health problems. Click here for more information. Gestational Diabetes is a type of diabetes that is first diagnosed in a pregnant woman. Out of every 100 pregnant women in the U.S. two to ten will have gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy, but if it does not go away, it is known as type 2 diabetes. Many women who have gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes later. Click here for more information about the risk factors for and complications of gestational diabetes. Learn more about diabetes and pregnancy from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Diabetes Association. Continue reading >>

Prediabetes

Prediabetes

Prediabetes You’re at risk for developing prediabetes if you: Are overweight Are 45 years or older Have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes Are physically active less than 3 times a week Have ever had gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or given birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds Are African American, Hispanic/Latino American, American Indian, or Alaska Native (some Pacific Islanders and Asian Americans are also at higher risk) You can prevent or reverse prediabetes with simple, proven lifestyle changes such as losing weight if you’re overweight, eating healthier, and getting regular physical activity. The CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program can help you make healthy changes that have lasting results. Type 2 Diabetes You’re at risk for developing type 2 diabetes if you: Have prediabetes Are overweight Are 45 years or older Have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes Are physically active less than 3 times a week Have ever had gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or given birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds Are African American, Hispanic/Latino American, American Indian, or Alaska Native (some Pacific Islanders and Asian Americans are also at higher risk) You can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes with simple, proven lifestyle changes such as losing weight if you’re overweight, eating healthier, and getting regular physical activity. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an immune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake). Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as clear as for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Known risk factors include: Family history: Having a parent, brother, or sister with type 1 diabetes. Age: You can get type 1 diabetes at any age, but Continue reading >>

Diabetes Quick Facts

Diabetes Quick Facts

The Big Picture More than 30 million people in the United States have diabetes, and 1 in 4 of them don’t know they have it. More than 84 million US adults—over a third—have prediabetes, and 90% of them don’t know they have it. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States (and may be underreported). Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes; type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5%. In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than tripled as the American population has aged and become more overweight or obese. Risk You’re at risk for developing prediabetes or type 2 diabetes if you: Are overweight Are age 45 or older Have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes Are physically active less than 3 times a week Have ever had gestational diabetes (diabetes while pregnant) or given birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and some Asian Americans are at higher risk for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. American Indians/Alaska Natives are twice as likely as whites to have diabetes. During their lifetime, half of all Hispanic men and women and non-Hispanic black women are predicted to develop diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an immune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake). Known risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Family history (having a parent, brother, sister with type 1 diabetes) Age (it’s more likely to develop in children, teens, and young adults) In the United States, whites are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes than African Americans and Hispanic/Latino Americans. You’re at risk for developing gestational diabetes (diabetes w Continue reading >>

Diabetes Basics

Diabetes Basics

A person has diabetes when their blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is too high. The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is when your body does not make insulin. It is usually diagnosed in young adults and children. People with this type of diabetes must take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes is when a person’s body does not use or make insulin well. It is usually diagnosed in middle aged and older people. Gestational diabetes develops in some women during pregnancy. About one out of every eleven Americans has diabetes. It can cause blindness, heart disease, kidney failure and lower-extremity amputations. In the United States, it is the seventh leading cause of death. Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst, increased urination, increased hunger, fatigue, blurred vision, numbness or tingling in the feet or hands, sores that do not heal and unexplained weight loss. If you think you think you may have diabetes, you should contact your healthcare provider for follow up and possible testing. It is possible to live well with diabetes with proper blood sugar monitoring and control. Our caregivers under the supervision of our Care Managers can assist clients managing diabetes through medication administration, glucose testing and other services. If you want to read more about diabetes and how to manage it, the following websites are excellent resources: For information about Care Management services, contact our Care Coordinator, Jenni Paddock at 414.963.2600. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Prevention

Diabetes Prevention

Prediabetes is identified when your blood sugar level is higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is a serious health condition that increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. 9 out of 10 people with prediabetes don't know they have it. Half of all Americans aged 65 years and older have prediabetes. Without lifestyle changes to improve their health, 15% to 30% of people with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years. There are many factors that increase diabetes risk. In general people are at risk if they are: 45 years of age or older Overweight Have a parent with diabetes Family background is African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander Developed diabetes while pregnant (gestational diabetes), or gave birth to a baby weighing 9 pounds or more Physically active less than three times a week Those at high risk for diabetes are urged to: Lose 5%-7% of their weight if they are overweight. That's 10-14 pounds for a 200-pound person Get at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity five days a week Eat a variety of foods that are low in fat and reduce the number of calories eater per day by controlling portion size How can type 2 diabetes be prevented? Research shows that modest weight loss and regular physical activity can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes by up to 58% in people with prediabetes. Modest weight loss means 5% to 7% of body weight, which is 10 to 14 pounds for a 200-pound person. Getting at least 150 minutes each week of physical activity, such as brisk walking, also is important. The lifestyle change program offered through the National Diabetes Prevention Program—l Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

November Is American Diabetes Month

November Is American Diabetes Month

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body is unable to properly process blood sugar levels due to an inability to either produce or use insulin properly. There are more than 30 million Americans living with diabetes, and 7.2 million of those individuals are undiagnosed. There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes. With type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin, and as a result, individuals living with type 1 diabetes require insulin injections in order to survive. Type 2 diabetes. This is the most common type of diabetes. With type 2 diabetes, the body is unable to produce or use insulin properly. Those living with prediabetes are at an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Approximately 84.1 million adults ages 18 years or older have prediabetes, and 90% of those individuals do not know they have it. Gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes can occur in women during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. While there is no cure for diabetes, it can be managed with the proper medication, by monitoring blood sugar levels, managing stress, and/or with lifestyle changes to diet and exercise. And for people living with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes can be prevented with weight loss, physical activity, and/or healthy eating. To learn more about diabetes, check out the following resources: References Diabetes Statistics. (2017, September). Retrieved from Facts about Type 2. (2015, October 27). Retrieved from Living with Type 1 Diabetes. (2016, November 21). Retrieved from Managing Diabetes. (2016, November). Retrieved from Preventing Type 2 Diabetes. (2016, November). Retrieved from What is Diabetes? (2016, November). Retrieved from Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body Continue reading >>

Getting Tested

Getting Tested

You’ll need to get your blood sugar tested to find out for sure if you have prediabetes or type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes. Testing is simple, and results are usually available quickly. Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, and Prediabetes Your doctor will have you take one or more of the following blood tests to confirm the diagnosis: A1C Test This measures your average blood sugar level over the past 2 or 3 months. An A1C below 5.7% is normal, between 5.7 and 6.4% indicates you have prediabetes, and 6.5% or higher indicates you have diabetes. Fasting Blood Sugar Test This measures your blood sugar after an overnight fast (not eating). A fasting blood sugar level of 99 mg/dL or lower is normal, 100 to 125 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes, and 126 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes. Glucose Tolerance Test This measures your blood sugar before and after you drink a liquid that contains glucose. You’ll fast (not eat) overnight before the test and have your blood drawn to determine your fasting blood sugar level. Then you’ll drink the liquid and have your blood sugar level checked 1 hour, 2 hours, and possibly 3 hours afterward. At 2 hours, a blood sugar level of 140 mg/dL or lower is considered normal, 140 to 199 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes, and 200 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes. Random Blood Sugar Test This measures your blood sugar at the time you’re tested. You can take this test at any time and don’t need to fast (not eat) first. A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes. Result* A1C Test Fasting Blood Sugar Test Glucose Tolerance Test Random Blood Sugar Test Normal Below 5.7% 99 mg/dL or below 140 mg/dL or below Prediabetes 5.7 – 6.4% 100 – 125 mg/dL 140 – 199 mg/dL Diabetes 6.5% or Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease marked by higher-than-normal levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is caused by the body’s inability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that acts to move glucose out of the blood and into cells to be used as energy. There are two types of diabetes: • Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disease in which the body does not produce the hormone insulin. There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes, which represents 5% of diabetes cases. • Type 2 diabetes is the most common form, representing about 95% of all diabetes cases. It usually begins with insulin resistance, where the body does not use insulin properly. At first, the pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But over time, the pancreas loses its ability to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar at normal levels. Type 2 diabetes is preventable. Prediabetes, also referred to as impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. People with prediabetes have a much higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, as well as an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Without intervention efforts, up to 30 percent of people with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within five years5, and up to 70 percent will develop diabetes within their lifetime6. A 2016 study by UCLA found 13 million adults (46 percent of all adults in California) to have prediabetes or undiagnosed diabetes. An additional 2.5 million adults have diagnosed diabetes. Altogether, 15.5 million adults (55 percent of all California adults) have prediabetes or diabetes.7 Liquid sugar is a unique driver of today’s skyrocketing type 2 diabetes and obes Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that is located near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When people have diabetes, their bodies either do not make enough insulin or cannot use insulin as well as they should. When this happens, glucose builds up in the blood. High blood sugar levels can lead to fatigue, excessive thirst and urination, more infections and slower healing, and can lead to heart disease, stroke, eye problems including blindness, nerve damage and loss of limbs, kidney problems, and gum disease leading to tooth loss. The three main types of diabetes: Prediabetes: In addition to these three types of diabetes more than 79 million Americans aged 20 years or older have a prediabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Unfortunately the development of prediabetes and its complications hits hard during the working years. Diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death, but people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications. Managing diabetes is possible with proper medical care, support, and motivation. Learning more about diabetes prevention and management is simple. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program from CDC and NIH, offers many evidenced based materials that are free for use by your company. NDEP Diabetes HealthSense provides more information regarding diabet Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

More than 30 million Americans have diabetes (about 1 in 10), and 90% to 95% of them have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes most often develops in people over age 45, but more and more children, teens, and young adults are also developing it. Causes Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into the cells in your body for use as energy. If you have type 2 diabetes, cells don’t respond normally to insulin; this is called insulin resistance. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually your pancreas can’t keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and can cause other serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease. Symptoms & Risk Factors Type 2 diabetes symptoms often develop over several years and can go on for a long time without being noticed (sometimes there aren’t any noticeable symptoms at all). Because symptoms can be hard to spot, it’s important to know the risk factors for type 2 diabetes and to see your doctor to get your blood sugar tested if you have any of them. Getting Tested A simple blood test will let you know if you have diabetes. If you’ve gotten your blood sugar tested at a health fair or pharmacy, follow up at a clinic or doctor’s office to make sure the results are accurate. Management Unlike many health conditions, diabetes is managed mostly by you, with support from your health care team (including your primary care doctor, foot doctor, dentist, eye doctor, registered dietitian nutritionist, diabetes educator, and pharmacist), family, and other important people in your life. Managing diabetes can be challenging, but everything you do to improve y Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas isn’t making insulin or is making very little. Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy. Without insulin, blood sugar can’t get into cells and builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2—about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be managed by following your doctor’s recommendations for living a healthy lifestyle, controlling your blood sugar, getting regular health checkups, and getting diabetes self-management education. Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills, or clamminess Irritability or impatience Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Hunger or nausea Blurred vision Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness If your child has type 1 diabetes, you’ll be involved in diabetes care on a day-to-day basis, from serving healthy foods to giving insulin injections to watching for and treating hypoglycemia (low blood sugar; see below). You’ll also need to stay in close contact with your child’s health care team; they will help you understand the treatment plan and how to help your child stay healthy. Much of the information that follows applies to children as well as adults, and you can also click here for comprehensive information about managing your child’s type 1 diabetes. Causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistak Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes

Types Of Diabetes

Prediabetes Prediabetes means your blood sugar is higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be considered diabetes. However, prediabetes is still serious and, for some, will progress to Type 2 Diabetes within 5 years. Prediabetes info graphic Risk factors for prediabetes include: Increasing age, especially after 45 years old Being overweight or obese Family history of diabetes Racial or Ethnic backgrounds of African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American or Pacific Islander Having Gestational Diabetes during pregnancy Given birth to a baby weighing nine pounds or more Being physically active less than 3 times weekly (Source: A person can have prediabetes and have no symptoms. Nine out of ten people have prediabetes and don’t know it. Take the “Prediabetes Screening Test” located in the “Diabetes Screening Tools” section to determine if you could have prediabetes. If you discover you may have prediabetes, schedule an appointment with your doctor right away. There are programs available to help you learn healthy lifestyle changes that can help you prevent or delay getting Type 2 diabetes. Check out more information on this program in the “Patient Education Opportunities” section. Type 1 Diabetes In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce any insulin, so cannot change sugar into energy for the body. Instead, the sugar builds up in the blood to dangerously high levels. Risk factors for Type 1 diabetes: Having a parent or sibling with Type 1 diabetes Genetics Age. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, including adulthood, but appears in peaks in children 4-7 years old and 10-14 years old. (Source: Symptoms of diabetes include: Urinating often Feeling very thirsty Feeling very hungry Being very tired Having blurry vision Losing weight Continue reading >>

Prevent Type 2 Diabetes In Kids

Prevent Type 2 Diabetes In Kids

There’s a growing type 2 diabetes problem in our young people. But parents can help turn the tide with healthy changes that are good for the whole family. Until recently, young children and teens almost never got type 2 diabetes, which is why it used to be called adult-onset diabetes. Now, about one-third of American youth are overweight, a problem closely related to the increase in kids with type 2 diabetes, some as young as 10 years old. Weight Matters People who are overweight—especially if they have excess belly fat—are more likely to have insulin resistance, kids included. Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into cells for use as energy. Because of heredity (traits inherited from family members) or lifestyle (eating too much and moving too little), cells can stop responding normally to insulin. That causes the pancreas to make more insulin to try to get cells to respond and take in blood sugar. As long as enough insulin is produced, blood sugar levels remain normal. This can go on for several years, but eventually the pancreas can’t keep up. Blood sugar starts to rise, first after meals and then all the time. Now the stage is set for type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance usually doesn’t have any symptoms, though some kids develop patches of thickened, dark, velvety skin called acanthosis nigricans, usually in body creases and folds such as the back of the neck or armpits. They may also have other conditions related to insulin resistance, including: Activity Matters Being physically active lowers the risk for type 2 diabetes because it helps the body use insulin better, decreasing insulin resistance. Physical activity improves health in lots of other Continue reading >>

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