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How Type 1 Diabetes Is Diagnosed

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis

Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose meter, cannot diagnose diabetes. Who should be tested for diabetes? Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care professionals to find prediabetes. Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Because type 1 diabetes can run in families, a study called TrialNet offers free testing to family members of people with the disease, even if they don’t have symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obese, and have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes1 Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes. If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage . If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests. Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also ca Continue reading >>

What Is The Best Way To Distinguish Type 1 And 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Best Way To Distinguish Type 1 And 2 Diabetes?

Onset of diabetes in childhood with ketoacidosis and insulin dependency has traditionally been sufficient to diagnose type 1 diabetes, while onset in older, obese patients with primary insulin resistance suggested type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes may be present in the same patient, making differentiation difficult. No diagnostic studies in the literature were identified that definitively demonstrate how to separate type 1 from type 2 diabetes. A patient’s age may suggest, but does not reliably distinguish, diabetes types. A study of 569 new-onset type 1 and type 2 diabetic children and adolescents showed that older age was only weakly associated with type 2 diagnosis (odds ratio [OR]= 1.4 for each 1-year increment in age; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–1.6).2 In fact, newly diagnosed 12-year-old children have an equal incidence of type 1 as type 2 diabetes. Likewise, adults with type 2 phenotype (no initial insulin requirement) can present with positive autoantibodies typically found in younger type 1 patients. Older patients who fit this profile have been classified as type 1.5 diabetes or latent autoimmune disease in adults (LADA).3 A history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) also does not reliably distinguish between types 1 and 2. A retrospective chart review gathered data on adults over 18 years of age who were admitted for DKA in a urban US hospital. Many patients with DKA were subsequently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Rates of type 2 diabetes in patients with DKA varied by race: 47% of Hispanics, 44% of African Americans, and 17% of Caucasians had type 2 diabetes.4 The overlapping presence of autoantibodies in both types of diabetes limits their use (TABLE). Autoantibodies do predict an earlier need for insulin. One pr Continue reading >>

The Complexity Of Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

The Complexity Of Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes

A type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosis can happen suddenly and unexpectedly. Many times, the disease is identified through symptoms that can appear as a cold or flu. While it represents a big life change, people with T1D can live long, full, happy lives. How is T1D diagnosed? T1D often initially presents itself as the flu or malaise, but physicians must be quick to spot the telltale signs of a possible T1D diagnosis and order additional tests. Fasting blood-glucose test Doctors will often recommend a fasting blood-glucose test when they suspect T1D may be present. This is a small sample blood test typically conducted in the morning after fasting overnight. The fasting helps give doctors a clear look at how the body manages blood-sugar levels without the impact of food intake. Oral glucose tolerance test The oral glucose test takes the fasting test one step further. After fasting and having an initial blood test, people drink a sugary drink and then have their blood sugar tested over the course of approximately two hours. This shows the benchmark sugar without outside influences and later measures how the body responds to carbohydrate (sugar) intake. Random blood-glucose test The quickest option for testing for T1D is a random glucose test. This test simply measures a patient’s current blood sugar regardless of when and what he or she ate most recently. On occasion, this will be the first test, and then doctors will elevate to tests noted above as needed. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test The most comprehensive test is the hemoglobin A1c test. This blood test shows the average blood-sugar level for the past two or three months. The honeymoon phase The onset of symptomatic diabetes doesn’t always happen all at once. During what is known as the “honeymoon phase,” people Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Tests And Diagnosis

Type 1 Diabetes Tests And Diagnosis

Essentially, it can be quite difficult to make a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Initially the symptoms of type 1 diabetes can be easily confused with those of a stomach virus. In fact, unless there is a significant history of type 1 diabetes in the family, many people can easily miss the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Often diagnosis occurs only after these symptoms have gotten bad enough to warrant medical attention. Diabetes Clinical Trials help medical researchers to better understand diabetes mellitus, and this knowledge allows them to develop better diagnostic tests and factors. When Are Most Cases of Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed? The exact factors which trigger the onset of type 1 diabetes are still unknown, and the symptoms tend to develop quite rapidly once the pancreas has stopped producing insulin. Medical researchers have a number of theories on what plays a role in the triggering of T1D, currently they are looking into environmental, viral, dietary, and chemical factors. Usually type 1 diabetes patients have been diagnosed within a short period of time after their symptoms manifested. Often times this is in a hospital or emergency room. In order for doctor’s to make the right diagnosis, they need to take a blood sample in order to measure the glucose levels of the patient’s blood. Diagnostic Tests for Diabetes There are a number of tests that doctors currently are using to diagnose type 1 diabetes in patients. Most of these tests are looking to measure the blood glucose levels in the patient with regards to when they last ate. The type of diagnostic test used on a patient fully depends on the particular situation and the doctor’s own preference. Confirmation of the presence of diabetes will usually be made with a second test done on a different day Continue reading >>

Newly Diagnosed: Doctors Answer Type 1 Diabetes Faqs

Newly Diagnosed: Doctors Answer Type 1 Diabetes Faqs

When your child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, it can feel like you have hundreds if not thousands of questions. The good news is that doctors have heard most of them before and can easily provide answers that will ease your mind. Here, doctors give the FAQs they hear most and share their responses. Q: What caused my child to get type 1 diabetes? A: “As a physician and type 1 diabetic myself, I understand the fears and concerns of parents for their newly-diagnosed children. Most people’s first question is what caused the diabetes in the first place. The truth is we don’t know for sure. Type 1 diabetes is considered an auto-immune disease where our immune system mistakenly begins attacking the insulin-producing (beta) cells of our pancreas. How could our immune system get so mixed up? One common theory is that the outer shell of a specific common cold virus looks very similar to the shell surrounding our beta cells in the pancreas. As our body eradicates this cold virus, our immune system may erroneously think our pancreatic beta cells must be more bad guys. From that time, it could take several weeks or even months before we begin developing the typical symptoms of diabetes. It wasn’t the basket of Halloween candy or the extra dessert — instead, it may have been a simple case of mistaken identity.” — Durant Abernethy, M.D., pediatrics physician at High Country Health Care in Frisco, Colo. Q: As a parent, did I do anything to cause the diabetes? A: “No! Parents can feel a lot of guilt if their child develops diabetes, and it’s important for you to realize and understand that you did not do anything to cause this disease. You are, however, one of the most important resources for helping prevent your children from developing some of the complications Continue reading >>

How Did You Know Your Child Had Type 1 Diabetes? Know The Symptoms (it Could Save A Life)

How Did You Know Your Child Had Type 1 Diabetes? Know The Symptoms (it Could Save A Life)

How Did You Know Your Child Had Type 1 Diabetes? Know The Symptoms (It Could Save a Life) By: Rachelle Stocum / Blog Parents of children with diabetes will hear this question asked a million times. And each time you tell your story the story gets shorter and shorter. You begin to leave out details. Details that may one day save another child’s life. I wrote this for a couple of reasons. The first reason was to document the details and help other families who are searching for answers to unexplained symptoms. The second reason was to really get my emotions off my chest, and reflect. December 30, 2016 is a day I will never forget. This date will now be forever know to us as Carter’s “dia-versary.” This was the day my seven year old son Carter was diagnosed with Type one Diabetes. I still tear up when I say or even write those words… my son was diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes. The week before Christmas my son Carter had so many complaints. He’s not a whiny kid by any means so this was unusual for him. He’s actually the most compliant child I know. When I ask him to do something he does it. So when he first complained of a stomach ache I thought he was coming down with the flu. It seems reasonable that a child would get sick in December. So I tried to wake him up but it was really hard. He was groggy and didn’t want to wake up. Once he was finally woke up I told him that I didn’t want him to eat anything until I was able to get grandma’s monitor and test his blood sugar. He drank some water but understood what I was asking of him. He didn’t complain or cry even though he was hungry. I knew that was bad because when I was pregnant with him I had gestational diabetes. My blood glucose only ran about 120 from what I can recall, and I knew normal was around Continue reading >>

Top Ten Tips For People Newly Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

Top Ten Tips For People Newly Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

Twitter summary: Top 10 tips for the newly diagnosed with t1 #diabetes – know that it will NOT hold you back Know that type 1 diabetes will NOT hold you back. Type 1 patients have climbed Mount Everest, completed Ironman Triathlons, and competed at the highest levels of professional sports. These include Charlie Kimball – the first driver with diabetes to win a race in the IZOD IndyCar Series, Missy Foy, the only runner with diabetes ever to qualify for Olympic Marathon Trials, Olympic cross-country skier Kris Freeman, ballerina Zippora Karz of the New York City Ballet, NFL quarterback Jay Cutler, NBA small forward Adam Morrison, PGA tour golfer Scott Verplank, LPGA golfers Michelle McGann and Kelli Kuehne, Olympic gold medalist Gary Hall, Jr, tennis legend Arthur Ashe, and many more! Think of glucose readings as information and every day as an experiment - A reading of 210 mg/dl or 45 mg/dl should never be thought of as a grade that reflects the quality of your diabetes management. Your glucose meter is your compass and is one of the best tools at your disposal to help manage the disease. Studies show that testing more often is associated with better diabetes control. Exercise is a critical tool at your disposal! It's important to find forms of exercise you enjoy, whether individually or in a group. Remember that people with diabetes tend to be at higher risk for heart disease and depression, and exercise can help with both (see studies that show how exercise has benefits for both heart disease and depression). Exercise also benefits your diabetes control immediately - even something as simple as five minutes of walking can lower your blood glucose quite dramatically. Many patients are fans of activity trackers (e.g., Fitbit, UP by Jawbone, Nike Fuelband, the Moves Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes and typically affects younger individuals. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before age 40, although there have been people diagnosed at an older age. In the United States, the peak age at diagnosis is around 14. Type 1 diabetes is associated with deficiency (or lack) of insulin. It is not known why, but the pancreatic islet cells quit producing insulin in the quantities needed to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Without sufficient insulin, the blood glucose rises to levels which can cause some of the common symptoms of hyperglycemia. These individuals seek medical help when these symptoms arise, but they often will experience weight loss developing over several days associated with the onset of their diabetes. The onset of these first symptoms may be fairly abrupt or more gradual. To learn more about type 1 diabetes basics, see our type 1 diabetes slideshow. It has been estimated that the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes developing is 3.7 to 20 per 100,000. More than 700,000 Americans have this type of diabetes. This is about 10% of all Americans diagnosed with diabetes; the other 90% have type 2 diabetes. What You Need to Know about Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes usually develops due to an autoimmune disorder. This is when the body's immune system behaves inappropriately and starts seeing one of its own tissues as foreign. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the islet cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are seen as the "enemy" by mistake. The body then creates antibodies to fight the "foreign" tissue and destroys the islet cells' ability to produce insulin. The lack of sufficient insulin thereby results in diabetes. It is unknown why this autoimmune diabetes develops. Most often Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Newly Diagnosed

Newly Diagnosed

If you are here at “First 30 Days” it most likely means you or someone your know and probably love, have been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Let us be the first to say, “We’re sorry,” but we are glad you have found your way here. On this page you’ll find the following: The Basic Basics – what you need to know now The Next Layer – information for beyond the initial diagnosis Teaching Type 1 to others – guides for anyone who needs to be in the know Personal stories – written about diagnosis plus additional support for parents The “Type1Day1” film project – what others wish they had known on their Day 1 Online community + support systems in the Beyond Type 1 community The Basic Basics A Type 1 diagnosis is overwhelming – some say like swimming with sharks. These Basic Basics are just that – the basics you need in the first few days of adjusting Type 1. There’s always more in depth information available, but for now, here are our selections for getting out of the hospital or doctor’s office. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They’re the ones that make insulin. Some people get a condition called secondary diabetes. It’s similar to type 1, except the immune system doesn’t destroy your beta cells. They’re wiped out by something else, like a disease or an injury to your pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps move sugar, or glucose, into your body's tissues. Cells use it as fuel. Damage to beta cells from type 1 diabetes throws the process off. Glucose doesn’t move into your cells because insulin isn’t there to do it. Instead it builds up in your blood and your cells starve. This causes high blood sugar, which can lead to: Dehydration. When there’s extra sugar in your blood, you pee more. That’s your body’s way of getting rid of it. A large amount of water goes out with that urine, causing your body to dry out. Weight loss. The glucose that goes out when you pee takes calories with it. That’s why many people with high blood sugar lose weight. Dehydration also plays a part. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If your body can't get enough glucose for fuel, it breaks down fat cells instead. This creates chemicals called ketones. Your liver releases the sugar it stores to help out. But your body can’t use it without insulin, so it builds up in your blood, along with the acidic ketones. This combination of extra glucose, dehydration, and acid buildup is known as "ketoacidosis" and can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Damage to your body. Over time, high glucose levels in your blood can harm the nerves and small blood vessels in your eyes, kidneys, and heart. They can also make you more likely to get hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attacks and strok Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Diagnostic tests include: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as pregnancy or an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use these tests: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time and may be confirmed by repeat testing. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. If you're diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also run blood tests to check for autoantibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes. These tests help your doctor distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when the diagnosis is uncertain. The presence of ketones — byproducts from the breakdown of fat — in your urine also suggests type 1 diab Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 1

Most of the young people we talked to spent some time in hospital while the diagnosis was being confirmed and their blood glucose levels stabilised. The normal glucose level in the blood ranges between 4 and 7 but many of the young people we talked to were admitted into hospital with very high levels above 20 or 30. The length of time spent in hospital varied from a few days to a couple of weeks. Many young people attended an A&E department as soon as their diabetes was diagnosed and were admitted to either a children's or an adult ward. Most of the young people we talked to said that their hospital stay was fine, that everybody had been really helpful and supportive and explained things to them clearly. Young people think that easy-to-understand explanations are really important at this stage. They remembered having to have lots of blood tests to find out their blood glucose levels before being given any insulin. Being put on an adult diabetes ward Sometimes, diabetes can lead to complications, and some young people were upset by seeing people with complications of diabetes having to have surgical treatment - one 18 year old woman recently diagnosed told us she would have preferred to be treated on a young people's ward. Communication with doctors and nurses Most young people thought that the nurses were great and that they did their best to make staying in hospital a positive experience. Some remember that hospital nurses started the teaching process of managing diabetes such as showing them how to do injections and finger pricking. Many praised nurses for their support, friendliness and patience, but a few said they had found it difficult to get nurses to communicate with them and didn't like having to ask questions to find things out. Several people felt that nurses Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms And Diagnosis

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease marked by high blood glucose (sugar) levels, called hyperglycemia. It’s considered an autoimmune disease, resulting from an immune system attack on the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin — a hormone that helps certain cells in the body absorb glucose. And without enough insulin, your blood glucose levels can rise to unhealthy levels, causing a range of health problems. Type 1 diabetes makes up only about 5 percent of all diabetes cases, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). By comparison, type 2 diabetes — which develops when cells cannot use insulin properly — makes up 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases. However, type 1 and 2 diabetes often share the same symptoms associated with hyperglycemia. Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms Possible symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: Excessive thirst or hunger Increased urination Unexplained weight loss Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, or loss of feeling in the feet Fatigue Dry, itchy skin Vision changes, including blurry eyesight Slow-healing sores and increased rate of infections Nausea, vomiting, and stomach pains (in cases where the disease develops quickly) Without insulin and the ability to use sugar for energy, the body may start breaking down fat as an alternate source of energy, resulting in high levels of ketones (toxic acids) in the blood. This condition, called diabetic ketoacidosis, may cause: Dry skin and mouth Inability to keep fluids down Stomach pain Shortness of breath Flushed face "Fruity" smell to breath Diabetes and Hypoglycemia People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin — usually by injection, or by using an insulin pump — to provide their cells with the necessary hormone. However, too much insulin can cause cells t Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. This buildup of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Most likely, it is an autoimmune disorder. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Continue reading >>

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