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How Type 1 Diabetes Can Be Controlled?

Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (called beta cells). Normally, the body's immune system fights off foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. But for unknown reasons, in people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks various cells in the body. This results in a complete deficiency of the insulin hormone. Some people develop a type of diabetes - called secondary diabetes -- which is similar to type 1 diabetes, but the beta cells are not destroyed by the immune system but by some other factor, such as cystic fibrosis or pancreatic surgery. Understanding Insulin Normally, the hormone insulin is always secreted by the pancreas in low amounts. When you eat a meal, food stimulates an increase in the amounts of insulin released from the pancreas. The amount that is released is proportional to the amount that is required by the size of that particular meal. So what does insulin do? Insulin's main role in the body is to help move certain nutrients -- especially a sugar called glucose -- into the cells of the body's tissues. Cells use sugars and other nutrients from meals as a source of energy to run a variety of important processes for the body. When glucose is moved into cells, the amount of sugar in the blood decreases. Normally that signals the beta cells in the pancreas to stop secreting insulin so that you don't develop low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). But the destruction of the beta cells that occurs with type 1 diabetes throws the entire process into disarray. In people with type 1 diabetes, glucose isn't moved into the cells because insulin is not available. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the body's cells starve for nutrients and othe Continue reading >>

4 Steps To Manage Your Diabetes For Life

4 Steps To Manage Your Diabetes For Life

This publication has been reviewed by NDEP for plain language principles. Learn more about our review process. Actions you can take The marks in this booklet show actions you can take to manage your diabetes. Help your health care team make a diabetes care plan that will work for you. Learn to make wise choices for your diabetes care each day. Step 1: Learn about diabetes. What is diabetes? There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes – Your body does not make insulin. This is a problem because you need insulin to take the sugar (glucose) from the foods you eat and turn it into energy for your body. You need to take insulin every day to live. Type 2 diabetes – Your body does not make or use insulin well. You may need to take pills or insulin to help control your diabetes. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational (jest-TAY-shun-al) diabetes – Some women get this kind of diabetes when they are pregnant. Most of the time, it goes away after the baby is born. But even if it goes away, these women and their children have a greater chance of getting diabetes later in life. You are the most important member of your health care team. You are the one who manages your diabetes day by day. Talk to your doctor about how you can best care for your diabetes to stay healthy. Some others who can help are: dentist diabetes doctor diabetes educator dietitian eye doctor foot doctor friends and family mental health counselor nurse nurse practitioner pharmacist social worker How to learn more about diabetes. Take classes to learn more about living with diabetes. To find a class, check with your health care team, hospital, or area health clinic. You can also search online. Join a support group — in-person or online — to get peer support with managing your Continue reading >>

How To Achieve Tight Type 1 Blood Glucose Control

How To Achieve Tight Type 1 Blood Glucose Control

When it comes to treating type 1 diabetes, keeping tight blood glucose control—that is, keeping your blood glucose levels as close to your goal range as possible—can prevent long-term diabetes complications such as eye damage, kidney damage, nerve damage, heart attacks, and strokes. But what exactly does having tight control (also known as intensive insulin therapy) mean in your daily life? Read on to find out about the basics of tight control. Tight control is considered an aggressive treatment. It started with a major study called the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, which ran from 1983 to 1993.1 The study included 1,441 people with type 1 diabetes. Researchers followed these participants for several years; they closely looked at intense therapy vs the standard diabetes therapy. What they found was that intense therapy limited long-term diabetes complications. Benefits of Having Tight Blood Glucose Control There are some immediate benefits as well as some long-term benefits of having tight control. Some short-term benefits are that you'll notice you have more energy and feel better overall. The long-term benefits of tight control are that it can help prevent macrovascular complications (eg, heart disease) and other diabetes-related complications, and it can reduce the risk of having a baby with birth defects (important if you're planning on having a baby). Risks of Having Tight Blood Glucose Control Although there are many benefits of achieving tight control, there are some risks, too. Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels) is one of the major risks when it comes to tight control. Any change to your daily routine can cause hypoglycemia, but tight control can make it more likely. Another risk of tight control is weight gain. However, if you follow your ex Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

KidsHealth / For Teens / Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated? en espaolDiabetes tipo 1: Cul es el tratamiento? Your teachers follow a lesson plan that outlines what you'll study each day. Your parents may have a plan to help you pay for college. And your weekend social plans determine whether you're seeing a movie, heading to a concert, or playing basketball at the gym. People with type 1 diabetes need to follow a different type of plan. A treatment plan, also called a diabetes management plan, helps people to manage their diabetes and stay healthy and active. Everyone's plan is different, based on a person's health needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team. The first thing to understand when it comes to treating diabetes is your blood glucose level, which is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose isa sugar that comes from the foods we eat and also is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of the body, and is carried to each cell through the blood. Glucose gets into the cells with the help of the hormone insulin . So how do blood glucose levels relate to type 1 diabetes? People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin. This means that glucose stays in the bloodstream and doesn't get into the cells, causing blood glucose levels to go too high. High blood sugar levels can make people with type 1 diabetes feel sick, so their treatment plan involves keeping their blood sugar levels within a healthy range, while making sure they grow and develop normally. To do that, people with type 1 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet and stick to a diabetes meal plan check their blood sugar levels several times a day Following the treatment plan can help a person stay healthy, but it's not a cure for diab Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas isn’t making insulin or is making very little. Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy. Without insulin, blood sugar can’t get into cells and builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2—about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be managed by following your doctor’s recommendations for living a healthy lifestyle, controlling your blood sugar, getting regular health checkups, and getting diabetes self-management education. Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills, or clamminess Irritability or impatience Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Hunger or nausea Blurred vision Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness If your child has type 1 diabetes, you’ll be involved in diabetes care on a day-to-day basis, from serving healthy foods to giving insulin injections to watching for and treating hypoglycemia (low blood sugar; see below). You’ll also need to stay in close contact with your child’s health care team; they will help you understand the treatment plan and how to help your child stay healthy. Much of the information that follows applies to children as well as adults, and you can also click here for comprehensive information about managing your child’s type 1 diabetes. Causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistak Continue reading >>

Tight Control Of Type 1 Diabetes: Recommendations For Patients

Tight Control Of Type 1 Diabetes: Recommendations For Patients

STEPHEN HAVAS, M.D., M.P.H., M.S., American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois THOMAS DONNER, M.D., University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Am Fam Physician. 2006 Sep 15;74(6):971-978. Patient information: See related handout on type 1 diabetes, written by the authors of this article. Tight control of blood glucose levels and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia) can substantially reduce the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications from type 1 diabetes. Physicians play an important role in helping patients make essential lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of these complications. Key recommendations that family physicians can give patients to optimize their outcomes include: take control of daily decisions regarding your health, focus on preventing and controlling risk factors for cardiovascular disease, tightly control your blood glucose level, be cognizant of potentially inaccurate blood glucose test results, use physiologic insulin replacement regimens, and learn how to manage and prevent hypoglycemia. Randomized clinical trials1–5 have demonstrated that tight control of blood glucose levels reduces the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes; this is not true for patients with type 2 diabetes. Although many patients with type 1 diabetes may benefit from tightly controlling their blood glucose levels,3 few do so.6 The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)4 showed that, compared with conventional therapy, intensive therapy significantly reduced the risk of retinopathy progression (4.7 versus 1.2 per 100 patient-years, number needed to treat [NNT] = three for 10 years) and clinical neuropathy (9.8 versus 3.1 per 100 patie Continue reading >>

A Day-to-day Guide For Managing Type 1 Diabetes

A Day-to-day Guide For Managing Type 1 Diabetes

Intro It’s normal to feel overwhelmed about managing type 1 diabetes, especially when life gets busy. After all, dealing with diabetes isn’t always convenient. While each day is different, adding some simple strategies into your daily routine can help you to stay on track and live well with type 1 diabetes. Morning Rise, shine, and check your blood sugar Check your blood sugar as soon as possible after you wake up. This will give you an idea of what your blood sugar was like overnight. You can correct it right away with food or insulin if you find that it’s too high or too low. You may also consider recording your blood sugar levels and other important information in a diabetes journal. This can help you can keep of track of how well your diabetes is controlled from day to day. Start your day with a healthy breakfast Eating well is an important part of managing type 1 diabetes. Start your day off right with a nutritious breakfast that follows your healthy eating plan. A healthy plan for type 1 diabetes typically includes foods from each food group, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats. Since you’re taking insulin, you should also include a moderate amount of healthy carbohydrates at each meal. This will prevent your blood sugar from dropping too low. Make sure to keep track of your carbs and match your intake with your insulin dosage, if needed. You can record this information in your diabetes journal. Some quick and easy breakfast ideas for people with type 1 diabetes include scrambled eggs, oatmeal with low-fat milk, or a fruit and yogurt parfait. Don’t forget to test your blood sugar before and after each meal, including breakfast. Take your medications Remember to take your insulin and any other medications. For busy Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Diagnostic tests include: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as pregnancy or an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use these tests: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time and may be confirmed by repeat testing. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. If you're diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also run blood tests to check for autoantibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes. These tests help your doctor distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when the diagnosis is uncertain. The presence of ketones — byproducts from the breakdown of fat — in your urine also suggests type 1 diab Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Whether you have type 1 diabetes, are a caregiver or loved one of a person with type 1 diabetes, or just want to learn more, the following page provides an overview of type 1 diabetes. New to type 1 diabetes? Check out "Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics," which answers some of the basic questions about type 1 diabetes: what is type 1 diabetes, what are its symptoms, how is it treated, and many more! Want to learn a bit more? See our “Helpful Links” page below, which provides links to diaTribe articles focused on type 1 diabetes. These pages provide helpful tips for living with type 1 diabetes, our patient-perspective column by Adam Brown, drug and device overviews, information about diabetes complications, and some extra pages we hope you’ll find useful! Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics What is the risk of developing type 1 diabetes if it runs in my family? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is disease in which the body can no longer produce insulin. Insulin is normally needed to convert sugar (also called glucose) and other food sources into energy for the body’s cells. It is believed that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot control blood sugar, and people can suffer from dangerously high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). To control their blood glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes take insulin injections. Before the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence (and it still is for patients with poor access to insulin). Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? Unfortunately, the genetic and environmental triggers for the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes are not well understood, althoug Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

Tight Control Of Type 1 Diabetes Saves Lives, But It's Tough

Tight Control Of Type 1 Diabetes Saves Lives, But It's Tough

Here's more evidence that for people with Type 1 diabetes, strict blood sugar control matters – in this case, it actually reduces the risk of early death. But another study reveals the grim reality: Those with the condition still die about a decade sooner than those without. As someone who has lived with Type 1 myself for over 40 years – I was diagnosed in 1973, at age 9 – I can tell you that keeping my blood sugars in control 24/7 is incredibly difficult. And that's despite having the knowledge on how to do it, as well as the health insurance that covers my test strips and insulin pump supplies. Many others with Type 1 diabetes don't, which helps explain the gap between what the studies say is best practice and what happens in real life. Back in 1993, the landmark Diabetes Control and Complications (DCCT) trial demonstrated what many in the field had believed but hadn't proven: If people with Type 1 diabetes strictly controlled their blood sugar levels shortly after being diagnosed they could often avoid the complications that high blood sugar can cause over time. People in the "intensive" treatment group for seven years had dramatically lower rates of eye, nerve and kidney damage. After that study ended, most of the original 1,441 participants have been followed in their regular lives, under the management of their personal physicians. And intensive control is now urged for everyone. The fear of not waking up in the morning because of low blood sugar is a constant in the life of those of us with Type 1 diabetes, and it's one of the main reasons we struggle to stay in control. The study published Tuesday in JAMA, the journal of the American Medical Association, shows that those people now have roughly the same level of blood sugar control, regardless of whether t Continue reading >>

Controlling Type 1 Diabetes

Controlling Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet In type 1 diabetes, the body produces very little insulin and so we have to try our best to perform the job of our pancreas. The task is not an easy one and sometimes control can slip up away from the best of us. This article serves as a guide to help you get your control back on track. Make things simpler - establish a routine Many of us who have struggled with our control at one time or another will likely be familiar with the feeling of being always one step behind our diabetes, such as needing to correct a series of highs and lows rather than being able to plan ahead so much. Making sense of our results is always going to be easier if there are fewer factors to consider, so to help make sense of your blood glucose results, try to keep to a regular routine as best as you can. Taking injections at the same times of day, where possible, is a good place to start. It is particularly important to take your long term insulin at the same time(s) each day. Test regularly None of us enjoy testing our blood but it is certainly a big help when it comes to getting our blood glucose levels under control. For example, you might find yourself asking questions about why you went hypo such as: Did I take too much insulin for lunch? Did I exercise harder than usual? Was I already low before the exercise? Did I have low sugar levels before lunch? Testing regularly helps to reduce the number of factors that could have played a part, and so makes understanding highs and lows easier to understand, and gives you the chance to better learn and avoid these highs and lows in future. Weigh out portions and check carbohydrate values Food portions can often be a source of misjudgement. You may have the same meal on two different days but get different results following from the meal if the Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 diabetes is complicated—and if you don’t manage it properly, there are complications, both short-term and long-term. “If you don’t manage it properly” is an important if statement: by carefully managing your blood glucose levels, you can stave off or prevent the short- and long-term complications. And if you’ve already developed diabetes complications, controlling your blood glucose levels can help you manage the symptoms and prevent further damage. Diabetes complications are all related to poor blood glucose control, so you must work carefully with your doctor and diabetes team to correctly manage your blood sugar (or your child’s blood sugar). Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose (blood sugar). It develops when there’s too much insulin—meaning that you’ve taken (or given your child) too much insulin or that you haven’t properly planned insulin around meals or exercise. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications (aspirin, for example, lowers the blood glucose level if you take a dose of more than 81mg) and alcohol (alcohol keeps the liver from releasing glucose). There are three levels of hypoglycemia, depending on how low the blood glucose level has dropped: mild, moderate, and severe. If you treat hypoglycemia when it’s in the mild or moderate stages, then you can prevent far more serious problems; severe hypoglycemia can cause a coma and even death (although very, very rarely). The signs and symptoms of low blood glucose are usually easy to recognize: Rapid heartbeat Sweating Paleness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech For more information about hypoglycemia and how to treat it, please read our article on hy Continue reading >>

What To Eat When You Have Type 1 Diabetes

What To Eat When You Have Type 1 Diabetes

It's important to eat a healthy diet when you have type 1 diabetes. That doesn't mean you can't enjoy tasty food, including some of your favorites. With type 1 diabetes, your body stops making insulin. So you take insulin every day either through shots or a pump. It’s also key to track your blood sugar levels. Insulin is only part of the picture. Diet and exercise also play important roles in helping keep your blood sugar levels stable. When you make healthy food choices and eat consistent amounts through the day, it can help control your sugars. It can also lower your chance of diabetes-related problems like heart disease, kidney disease, and nerve damage. Some experts used to think there was a "diabetes diet." They thought people with diabetes had to avoid all foods with sugars or stop eating certain other foods. But when you have type 1, you can eat the same healthy diet as everyone else. Follow some general guidelines: Eat less unhealthy fat. Cut back on the saturated fats you find in high-fat meats like bacon and regular ground beef, as well as full-fat dairy like whole milk and butter. Unhealthy fats raise your chance of heart disease. With diabetes, you face higher-than-average odds of getting heart disease. Make smart food choices to lower that risk. Get enough fiber. It may help control your blood sugar. You can get fiber from whole grains, beans, and fruits and vegetables. Try to get 25-30 grams a day. Those high-fiber foods are always better choices than low-fiber carbs such as refined 'white' grains and processed sugary foods. Carbohydrates are your body's main source of energy. You get them from many foods, like grains (pasta, bread, crackers, and cookies), fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and sugars. Carbs raise your blood sugar levels faster than Continue reading >>

Treating Type 1 Diabetes…without Insulin

Treating Type 1 Diabetes…without Insulin

For type 1 diabetes, insulin has long been the essential treatment method. Blood glucose monitoring, frequent insulin injections, even insulin pumps are used to help diabetics control their glucose levels and avoid dangerous spikes and dips in their blood sugar. But for some, being captive to the use of insulin may soon be a thing of the past. One patient, Erika Totten, who was part of a key phase III clinical trial at Penn's Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, received transplanted pancreatic islet cells and is no longer insulin-dependent. In fact, now seven years removed from her transplant, Erika doesn't need insulin at all. "The procedure gave me back my pre-diabetes life," said Totten in a recent Philadelphia Inquirer article. Investigators on the trial, including Ali Naji, MD, PhD, a professor of Surgery, and Michael R. Rickels, MD, MS, an associate professor of Medicine, both of the Type 1 Diabetes Unit at Penn, found that transplanting purified human pancreatic islet cells into type 1 diabetics can lead to nearly normal glycemic control and no longer being reliant on insulin. “This phase III clinical trial examined the longer term effects of islet cell transplantation, aiming to secure [U.S. Food and Drug Administration] approval of islet cells as a biological product for treating type 1 diabetes," Rickels said. Researchers from the multi-institutional study found that transplanted islets provide better glycemic control, improved hypoglycemia awareness, and durable protection against severe hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetics who have otherwise experienced significant glucose instability with other types of insulin delivery methods. Patients with this severe type 1 diabetes can experience such dangerous highs and lows that they can become disor Continue reading >>

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