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Validity And Reliability Of A Glucometer Against Industry Reference Standards

Validity And Reliability Of A Glucometer Against Industry Reference Standards

Validity and Reliability of a Glucometer Against Industry Reference Standards 1Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USA 2Department of Applied Health Science, Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL, USA Copyright 2014 Diabetes Technology Society This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. As an appealing alternative to reference glucose analyzers, portable glucometers are recommended for self-monitoring at home, in the field, and in research settings. The purpose was to characterize the accuracy and precision, and bias of glucometers in biomedical research. Fifteen young (20-36 years; mean = 24.5), moderately to highly active men (n = 10) and women (n = 5), defined by exercising 2 to 3 times a week for the past 6 months, were given an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after an overnight fast. Participants ingested 50, 75, or 150 grams of glucose over a 5-minute period. The glucometer was compared to a reference instrument. The glucometer had 39% of values within 15% of measurements made using the reference instrument ranging from 45.05 to 169.37 mg/dl. There was both a proportional (0.45 to 0.39) and small fixed (5.06 and 0.90 mg/dl) bias. Results of the present study suggest that the glucometer provided poor validity and reliability results compared to the results provided by the reference laboratory analyzer. The portable glucometers should be used for patient management, but not for diagnosis, treatment, or research purposes. Keywords: accuracy, bias, oral glucose tolerance test, reproducibility Portable glucose analyzers or glucometers are recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for self-monitoring at home, in the field, or in clinical settings. 1 The Food and Drug Administration requires that t Continue reading >>

How To Test Blood Sugar | Accu-chek

How To Test Blood Sugar | Accu-chek

The steps are similar for many meters, and generally look like this: Wash and dry your handsusing warm water may help the blood flow.1 Turn on the meter and prepare a test strip as outlined in your owner's booklet. Many Accu-Chek meters turn on automatically when a strip is inserted. Choose your spotdon't check from the same finger all the time. Using the side of the fingertip may be less painful than the pads.1 Prepare the lancing device according to the user guide provided, then lance your fingertip or other approved site to get a drop of blood.2 Touch and hold the test strip opening to the drop until it has absorbed enough blood to begin the test. View your test result and take the proper steps if your blood sugar is high or low, based on your healthcare professionals' recommendations. Record the results in a logbook, hold them in the meter's memory or download to an app or computer so you can review and analyze them later. For meter-specific instructions on how to test your blood sugar levels, visit the Accu-Chek Support page for your meter. 1Joslin Diabetes Center. Tips for more pain-free blood glucose monitoring. Available at: . Accessed March 11, 2016. 2Talk with your healthcare professional before deciding if alternate site testing is right for you. Continue reading >>

Build A Glucose Meter Answered

Build A Glucose Meter Answered

I am all for trying to build something from scratch but why are you trying to reinvent the wheel? This is one of those things where medical supply companies have spent millions in research and development to create and manufacture a relatively inexpensive medical grade approved for human use device that would be difficult to reproduce as a DIY thing. The chemical detection process was outlined in that link and I'm sure you can do some basic experiments to replicate that but it would be hard pressed to develop an accurate blood glucose meter that some manufacturers or health plans give away for free. Reply 6 years ago I am then not sure what you are trying to do. Your article gives you everything you want to know about the three electrode sensor with permeable membrane to get the some kind of analog voltage reading. Some circuitry is required to convert analog to a digital value which the arduino can do. The problem is if you can build a sensor accurate enough or rip one out from an existing device to build your own backend glucose meter. I am not saying it can't be done, but a complex medical device to give accurate and reliable readings like this takes a lot of resources to develop. Continue reading >>

Trend Report: High-tech Glucose Monitoring

Trend Report: High-tech Glucose Monitoring

If you got a free glucometer from your doctor, you may not have thought to check out your other options. But these days, you have a lot of exciting new choices -- not just glucometers, but other devices, apps, and web sites. These make glucose monitoring simpler, more effective, and a lot more convenient. Just like every other piece of tech in your life these days -- your TV, computer, DVD player, e-book reader, and fitness tracker -- glucose meters are going wireless, or at least syncing data with web sites and apps. That can have a big benefit for your health. Here are some of the new things you can do with a glucometer. Share data with your doctor or anyone else you choose, like your spouse. You can give real-time updates on how your treatment is working. Since managing diabetes is all about tight control of your blood sugar, that's crucial. See a more complete picture of your health. When you're just looking at today's glucose readings, you're missing how it's trending overall. These devices and apps let you see glucose trends over weeks and months. Seeing your records in colorful graphs and charts makes it easier to understand -- and to figure out if you need to make changes. For instance, a graph can quickly show if your blood sugar tends to be high in the mornings. Then you can easily share that with your doctor to see if you need to change your treatment. Track food and more. Most devices and apps let you log the food you eat. In that same tracker, you can see how your carbs add up, and you can add notes about exercise, or insulin if you take it. With this kind of info, you can get a clearer sense of how your breakfast or afternoon run affect your blood sugar levels. Sync with an app, web site, or the cloud. Several new cutting-edge glucose monitors or other dev Continue reading >>

Choosing A Glucose Meter

Choosing A Glucose Meter

The blood glucose meter has been around now for more than three decades, helping people with diabetes monitor blood sugar, also known as blood glucose. A glucose meter will help you to keep track of your glucose levels and help your doctor determine which types of medications would be the most beneficial for you in managing your diabetes. Glucose Meters: Who Benefits? Although all people with diabetes can benefit from using a glucose meter, the American Diabetes Association recommends that you regularly monitor blood sugar if: You take diabetes pills or insulin. You are on an intensive insulin program. You are pregnant. You have a difficult time controlling your blood sugar levels. You have experienced extreme low blood sugar levels or ketones from high blood sugar levels. You have a low blood glucose level, but don't have the typical symptoms. Glucose Meters: Available Types There are various types of blood glucose meters: Traditional meters give you a one-time snapshot of your blood glucose. Most people use a traditional glucose meter. These can include data management software that allows you to keep track of your blood glucose levels over time. The information can be charted and graphed and will help you and your physician to spot patterns, possibly making changes to your therapy or diet. But this added technology can also increase the price of a glucose meter. A well-kept log in a notebook can do the same job. Continuous glucose monitors provide readings every few minutes, 24 hours per day. This type of monitor does not involve pricking your finger, but instead uses a hair-thin probe inserted just under the skin in the upper arm area. Depending on the model, the probe works continuously for up to 5 to 7 days and is then changed. It reads the glucose level in the fl Continue reading >>

Glucose Meter | Microchip Technology

Glucose Meter | Microchip Technology

Search for Microchip products by group and parametrics. This family of operational amplifiers provides input offset voltage correction for very low offset and offset drift, with a gain bandwidth product of 10 MHz. The new DSC6000 family is the industry's smallest MEMS MHz oscillator with the lowest power consumption over full frequency range of 2 KHz to 100 MHz. Advanced design techniques ensure reliable operation under extreme conditions while stripping away complexity and advancing ease-of-use, the GigEpack provides three key elements: Certified Products, free drivers and copy-ready evaluation boards, and Microchips free LANCheckdesign check service. Together, they ensure interoperability, rapid development and robust board design. Microchip's strong brand name and expertise in USB solutions is demonstrated yet again with the UTC2000. We deliver a simple and easy solution to implement the revolutionary USB-C connector in practically any consumer, industrial or automotive application. Microchip's PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/Programmer Microchip's PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/Programmer uses in-circuit debugging logic incorporated into each chip with Flash memory to provide a low-cost hardware debugger and programmer. In-circuit debugging offers low cost, minimum additional debug hardware and no expensive sockets or adapters. The HV9805 features a PFC boost converter with valley/ZCD switching that reduces system cost by lessening the thermal and optical design requirements. The linear post-regular provides True DC lighting with no flickering and the configurable to SEPIC technology supports lower LED string voltage. The MEC14XX family is one of the first to support both the Intel Corporations new Enhanced Serial Peripheral Interface (eSPI) and the existing Low Pin Cou Continue reading >>

(pdf) Arduino Based Blood Glucometer For High Precision Value

(pdf) Arduino Based Blood Glucometer For High Precision Value

School of Information Technology and Engineering I hereby declare that the project report entitled ARDUINO BASED BLOOD GLUCOMETER FOR HIGH PRECISION submitted by me to VIT University, Vellore in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of MS (Software Engineering) is a record of bonafide project work carried out by me under the guidance of Prof. M. Asha Jerlin. I further declare that the work reported in this project has not been submitted and will not be submitted, either in part or in full, for the award of any other degree or diploma in this institute or any Place: Vellore Signature of the Candidate School of Information Technology & Engineering [SITE] This is to certify that the project report entitled ARDUINO BASED BLOOD GLUCOMETER FOR HIGH PRECISION VALUE submitted by L. ALICE AUXILIA (13MSE0406) to VIT University, Vellore, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of M.S in Software Engineering is a record of bonafide work carried out by him/her under my guidance. The project fulfills the requirements as per the regulations of this Institute and in my opinion meets the necessary standards for submission. The contents of this report have not been submitted and will not be submitted either in part or in full, for the award of any other degree or diploma Assistant Professor (Senior) Head of Department INTERNAL GUIDE Department of Software and Systems Engineering The project work is satisfactory / unsatisfactory Prof. P.G. Shynu Prof. R. Seetha Prof. R. Vijay Anand Internal Examiner 1 Internal Examiner 2 Internal Examiner 3 I wish to express our heartfelt gratitude to Dr. G. Viswanathan, Chancellor, VIT University, Vellore for providing facilities for the Final year project. I am highly grateful to our Vice Presi Continue reading >>

Trouble Shooting Your Glucose Meter

Trouble Shooting Your Glucose Meter

When people with diabetes can control their blood sugar (glucose), they are more likely to stay healthy. People with diabetes can use a number of tools to help them better manage their diabetes. One of these tools is a home glucose meter. Glucose meters help people with diabetes check their blood sugar at home, school, work, and play. Other blood and urine tests reveal trends in diabetes management and help identify diabetes complications. We are going to discuss the glucose meter (glucometer) and how it can help you control your diabetes. The process of monitoring one's own blood glucose with a glucose meter is often referred to as self-monitoring of blood glucose or "SMBG." To test for glucose with a typical glucose meter, place a small sample of blood on a disposable "test strip" and place the strip in the meter. The test strips are coated with chemicals that combine with glucose in blood. The meter measures how much glucose is present. Meters do this in different ways. Some measure the amount of electricity that can pass through the sample. Others measure how much light reflects from it. The meter displays the glucose level as a number. Several new models can record and store a number of test results. Some models can connect to personal computers to store test results or print them out. At least 25 different meters are commercially available. They differ in several ways including: Alternate testing sites (for example, using the forearm instead of a finger) Cost of the test strips used (Insurance companies will often cover the cost of testing strips for certain meters.contact your insurance for the best coverage.) Newer meters often have features that make them easier to use than older models. Some meters allow you to get blood from places other than your fingertip Continue reading >>

Comparison Of Glucometers Used In Hospitals And In Outpatient Settings With The Laboratory Reference Method In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Mumbai

Comparison Of Glucometers Used In Hospitals And In Outpatient Settings With The Laboratory Reference Method In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Mumbai

Go to: Diabetes Mellitus is a non-communicable disease reaching epidemic proportions globally. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes show a direct relationship between the glycemic control and the risk of systemic complications. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) promotes self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to allow diabetic patients to achieve and maintain specific glycemic goals. ADA recommends that all insulin-treated patients perform SMBG to (a) achieve and maintain glycemic control, (b) prevent and detect hypoglycemia, (c) adjust changes in lifestyle. SMBG is also used in establishing the need for insulin therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus. With the introduction of glucometers, there has been an ongoing, competition-driven development in both meter and strip technology, which has allowed for greater accuracy and reliability of results. However, despite the advances in technology, there is significant variation among these monitoring devices, which has necessitated the development of performance guidelines by organizations such as the ADA[1,2] and the International Standardization Organization (ISO). The ISO guidelines recommend that the accuracy criteria for values <100 mg/dl to ±10 mg/dl and ±20% for values ≥100 mg/dl. However, the ADA recommends a ±5% variation for all values.[3,4] Glucometers which are available in hospital settings are different from the portable glucometers used by patients at home and are not available in the open market due to marketing policies. The methods used for the estimation of blood glucose levels are similar in both the hospital based and out-patient glucometers. However the hospital based glucometers are modified taking into consideration various other parameters such as pH, oxygenation, temperature, humidity, hematoc Continue reading >>

Why Do You Need To Code Your Blood Glucose Meter?

Why Do You Need To Code Your Blood Glucose Meter?

You need to code (or calibrate) your blood glucose meter to obtain an accurate reading of your glycemia. It’s the only way you can be sure the results are reliable. Blood glucose meter coding When talking about diabetes, it is impossible not to mention the use of blood glucose meters. A blood glucose meter is a small electronic device that enables you to monitor your blood glucose levels (blood sugar levels) at home by placing a drop of blood on a reactive strip and then inserting the strip into the device. If you must monitor your blood sugar levels, it is crucial that you use a device that is suited to you and easy to understand. One of the features that must be considered is the coding method. What is coding? Coding and calibration are synonyms that refer to an electronic adjustment made to a blood glucose meter to take into account the variation in reactive strip lots. It is a step that must be performed prior to the test in order to obtain reliable results. Coding a blood glucose meter is like adjusting a bathroom scale: if the arrow is not at zero when you weigh yourself, the weight obtained will not be accurate. Similarly, if your blood glucose meter is not properly coded, you will not get accurate results! How is coding done? The blood sugar level reading that you obtain with your blood glucose meter is the result of a chemical reaction that produces an electrical response, which is then converted into a blood glucose value by the device. Manufacturers assign code numbers to reactive strips. If the code associated with the strips is correct, the blood glucose meter will make the adjustments and give an accurate reading. However, if the code is incorrect, the reading will be skewed. What are the various coding methods? Manual coding. For coding purposes, some b Continue reading >>

9.2 Glucometer Use

9.2 Glucometer Use

People with diabetes require regular monitoring of their blood glucose to help them achieve as close to normal blood glucose levels as possible for as much of the time as possible. The benefits of maintaining a blood glucose level that is consistently within the range of 4-7 mmol/L will reduce the short-term, potentially life-threatening complications of hypoglycemia as well as the occurrence rate and severity of the long-term complications of hyperglycemia. Patients in the hospital setting are likely to have inconsistent blood glucose levels as they are affected by changes in diet and lifestyle, surgical procedures, and the stress of being in a hospital. The physician will prescribe how regularly the blood glucose should be monitored. In acute situations, a sliding-scale treatment for insulin will be individually prescribed per patient. The medication administration record (MAR) or sliding scale will provide directions for the amount of medication to be given based on the blood glucose reading. It is usually the responsibility of the nurse to perform blood glucose readings. As with any clinical procedure, ensure that you understand the patient’s condition, the reason for the test, and the possible outcomes of the procedure. Prior to performing a blood glucose test, ensure that you have read and understood the manufacturer’s instructions and your agency’s policy for the blood glucose monitoring machines (see Figure 9.1) used in your clinical setting, as these vary. It is also important that you determine the patient’s understanding of the procedure and the purpose for monitoring blood glucose level. Before you begin, you should also determine if there are any conditions present that could affect the reading. For example, is the patient fasting? Has the patient j Continue reading >>

Hackaday Prize Entry: A Universal Glucose Meter

Hackaday Prize Entry: A Universal Glucose Meter

Hackaday Prize Entry: A Universal Glucose Meter If you need an example of Gillettes razor blade business plan, dont look at razors; a five pack of the latest multi-blade, aloe-coated wonder shaver is still only about $20. Look a glucose meters. Glucose meters all do the same thing test blood glucose levels but are imminently proprietary, FDA regulated, and subsidized by health insurance. Its a perfect storm of vendor lock-in that would make King Gillette blush. For his Hackaday Prize entry, [Tom] is building what was, until now, only a dream. Its a universal glucometer that uses any test strip. The idea, of course, is to buy the cheapest test strip while giving the one-fingered salute to the companies who release more models of glucometers in a year than Apple does phones. As with any piece of consumer electronics, there are plenty of application guides published by the biggest semiconductor companies explaining to engineers how to use their part to build a device. After reviewing the literature from TI, Maxim, Freescale, and Microchip, and a few research articles on the same subject, [Tom] has a pretty good idea how to build a glucometer. The trick now is figuring out how to build an adapter for every make and model of test strip. This is more difficult than it sounds, because some test strips have two contacts, some have three, some have five, and all of them are proprietary. Calibration will be an issue, but if youre building a glucometer from scratch, thats not a very big problem. This is one of the most impressive projects weve seen in this years Hackaday Prize. No, it shouldnt be the only way a diabetic tracks their sugar levels, but diabetics shouldnt rely only on test strips anyway. If youre looking for a Hackaday Prize project that has the potential to upend a Continue reading >>

Glucometers Faq: What They Are And How They Work

Glucometers Faq: What They Are And How They Work

Glucometers FAQ: What They Are and How They Work Page 1:Glucometers FAQs - General Questions Dignifyed is an online resource devoted to reviewing technology and services aimed at preserving seniors' independence and quality of life. How many hours of hands-on testing and research did you perform for this review? We spent over 80 hours researching the best glucometers on the market. We started with 30 models and narrowed down our choices to the best 10 glucometers to do our hands-on evaluations and reviews. Because of the level of testing that would have been required and given that glucometers must meet specific FDA regulations for accuracy we did not test the accuracy of the glucometers we reviewed. Instead, we researched glucometers and evaluated them based on their design, features, cost and ease of use. You can read more about our evaluation and research process here . Glucometers provide readings by detecting the level of glucose in a person's blood. To get a reading, a person pricks the skin most commonly, a finger and applies the blood sample gained to a test strip inserted in the meter. The glucose in the blood reacts with the chemicals in the strip. Then, electrical currents pass through, determining the level of glucose in the sample and providing numerical results within seconds. Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Meters: These are the most basic and typical meters that utilize test strips and small blood samples. Meters and test strips are available over the counter in stores and online. Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs): This type of monitoring requires a sensor to be implanted under the skin to take readings every few minutes throughout the day and night. They require approval from and implantation by your medical doctor. Noninvasive Glucometers: These Continue reading >>

Glucometer Test Kit

Glucometer Test Kit

Background Diabetes mellitus effects an estimated 16 million people in the United States. An additional five million people have the disease and do not realize it. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that affects the pancreas's ability to produce or respond to insulin. The two major forms of diabetes are type I and type II. Both types of diabetes can have elevated blood sugar levels due to insufficiencies of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin is a key regulator of the body's metabolism. After meals, food is digested in the stomach and intestines. Carbohydrates are broken down into sugar molecules—of which glucose is one—and proteins are broken down into amino acids. Glucose and amino acids are absorbed directly into the bloodstream, and blood glucose levels rise. Normally, the rise in blood glucose levels signals important cells in the pancreas—called beta-cells—to secrete insulin, which pours into the bloodstream. Insulin then enables glucose and amino acids to enter cells in the body where, along with other hormones, it directs whether these nutrients will be burned for energy or stored for future use. As blood sugar falls to pre-meal levels, the pancreas reduces the production of insulin, and the body uses its stored energy until the next meal provides additional nutrients. In type I diabetes, the beta-cells in the pancreas that produce insulin are gradually destroyed; eventually insulin deficiency is absolute. Without insulin to move glucose into cells, blood sugar levels become excessively high, a condition known as hyperglycemia. Because the body cannot utilize the sugar, it spills over into the urine and is lost. Weakness, weight loss, and excessive hunger and thirst are among several indicators of this disease. Patients become depen Continue reading >>

How Do Glucometers Work?

How Do Glucometers Work?

Through a pinprick several times a day — but what if diabetics could tell their blood-sugar levels anytime, by glancing at a tattoo?… Monitoring blood sugar levels is a pain for the diabetic — both figuratively and literally. Several times a day, they prick a finger to obtain a blood droplet and apply it to a plastic strip that’s inserted in a glucometer — a hand-held device that tells them if their glucose level is high, low, or right on target. It’s usually the job of the pancreas to keep track of sugar levels and to secrete glucagon and insulin to keep them at 100 or so milligrams per deciliter of blood. But for diabetics — either because their pancreas doesn’t function properly or because their body can’t process the hormones it secretes — glucose testing is a do-it-yourself proposition. And a crucial one. Blood-sugar checks show if it’s time to inject a few units of insulin — or grab a lifesaving snack. That’s where the glucometer comes in. “Current glucometers use test strips containing glucose oxidase, an enzyme that reacts to glucose in the blood droplet, and an interface to an electrode inside the meter,” explains Michael Strano, the Charles and Hilda Roddey Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at MIT. “When the strip is inserted into the meter, the flux of the glucose reaction generates an electrical signal,” he says. “The glucometer is calibrated so the number appearing in its digital readout corresponds to the strength of the electrical current: The more glucose in the sample, the higher the number.” Periodic tests via glucometer play an important part in the diabetic’s treatment plan, but current models fall short in giving a true picture of glucose fluctuations in real time. “The complications of diabetes st Continue reading >>

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