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How To Explain Diabetes To A Patient

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Overview (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Overview (beyond The Basics)

INTRODUCTION Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disorder that disrupts the way your body uses glucose (sugar). All the cells in your body need sugar to work normally. Sugar gets into the cells with the help of a hormone called insulin. If there is not enough insulin or if the body stops responding to insulin, sugar builds up in the blood. This is what happens to people with diabetes mellitus. There are two different types of diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, the problem is that the pancreas (an organ in the abdomen) does not make enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the pancreas does not make enough insulin (figure 1), the body becomes resistant to normal or even high levels of insulin, or both. This causes high blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, which can cause problems if untreated. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, approximately 90 percent of all people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic medical condition that requires regular monitoring and treatment throughout your life. Treatment includes lifestyle changes, self-care measures, and sometimes medications. Fortunately, these treatments can keep blood sugar levels close to normal and minimize the risk of developing complications. THE IMPACT OF DIABETES Being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes can be a frightening and overwhelming experience, and you likely have questions about why it developed, what it means for your long-term health, and how it will affect your everyday life. For most people, the first few months after being diagnosed are filled with emotional highs and lows. If you have just been diagnosed with diabetes, you and your family should use this time to learn as much as possible so that caring for your diabetes (including testing your blood sugar, going Continue reading >>

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

This animation describes the metabolic disorder of type 2 diabetes and the role of glucose used by the cells of the body. It explains how food is broken down into nutrient molecules that are absorbed in the digestive tract for use by the body and the role of the pancreas and insulin. The symptoms of diabetes are explained as well as the damage caused by diabetes to body organs and blood vessels in terms of diabetic complications. This slide show describes the metabolic disorder of type 2 diabetes and the role of glucose used by the cells of the body. It explains how food is broken down into nutrient molecules that are absorbed in the digestive tract for use by the body and the role of the pancreas and insulin. The symptoms of diabetes are explained as well as the damage caused by diabetes to body organs and blood vessels in terms of diabetic complications. Jointly sponsored by the Annenberg Center for Health Sciences at Eisenhower and Prime Medic Inc. in collaboration with Postgraduate Institute for Medicine. This activity is supported by educational grants from: This website is part of The Animated Patient Series developed by Prime Medic Inc., to provide highly developed visual formats of learning for patients to improve their understanding, make informed decisions, and partner with their health care professionals for optimal outcomes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Information Symptoms, Causes And Prevention

Diabetes Information Symptoms, Causes And Prevention

The Risks of Treating Diabetes with Drugs Are FAR Worse than the Disease There is a staggering amount of misinformation on diabetes, a growing epidemic that afflicts more than 29 million people in the United States today. The sad truth is this: it could be your very OWN physician perpetuating this misinformation Most diabetics find themselves in a black hole of helplessness, clueless about how to reverse their condition. The bigger concern is that more than half of those with type 2 diabetes are NOT even aware they have diabetes and 90 percent of those who have a condition known as prediabetes arent aware of their circumstances, either. The latest diabetes statistics 1 echo an increase in diabetes cases, both diagnosed and undiagnosed. By some estimates, diabetes has increased more than 700 percent in the last 50 years! At least 29 million Americans are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and another 86 million are prediabetic . Whats hidden behind this medical smokescreen is that type 2 diabetes is completely preventable. The cure lies in a true understanding of the underlying cause (which is impaired insulin and leptin sensitivity) and implementing simple, inexpensive lifestyle adjustments that spell phenomenal benefits to your health. Also known as diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes is a chronic health condition traditionally characterized by elevated levels of glucose in your blood, often simply called high blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes dubbed juvenile onset diabetes is the relatively uncommon type, affecting only about 1 in 250 Americans. Occurring in individuals younger than age 20, it has no known cure. Whats most concerning about juvenile diabetes is that, these numbers have been going up steadily right along with type 2 diabetes: for non-Hispanic white youths ages Continue reading >>

Diabetes Self Management Patient Education Materials

Diabetes Self Management Patient Education Materials

Table of Contents Click on any of the links below to access helpful materials on managing all aspects of diabetes that can be printed and given to your patients . Introductory Information 1. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment (e.g., insulin) 2. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment (e.g., medications) 3. Women and Diabetes: Eating and weight, pregnancy, and heart disease 4. Men and Diabetes: Sexual Issues and employment concerns 5. Diabetes and Your Lifestyle: Exercise, traveling, employment, sexual issues, and special considerations for the elderly General Self-Care (e.g., Blood Glucose, Foot Care) Blood Glucose 6. Pass This Test: Testing blood glucose levels 7. Get off the Blood Glucose Rollercoaster: High/low blood sugar symptoms and treatment A. TOOL: Blood Sugar Monitoring Log (Oral Meds): Patient log to record levels B. TOOL: Blood Sugar Monitoring Log (Insulin Meds): Patient log to monitor levels Feet 8. Foot Care for People with Diabetes: Hygiene, inspection, and when to call your physician C. TOOL: Foot Care Log Patient log to record self-inspections and any problem areas D. TOOL: Injection Sites Patient log to help rotate injection sites Exercise E. TOOL: Planning Your Exercise: Guide to help patients design an exercise program F. TOOL: Physical Activity Log: Patient log to record physical activity 9. Exercise in Disguise Finding ways to exercise at home and outside of the gym 10. Exercising Like Your Life Depends on It: Health benefits to exercising 11. Hot Weather Exercise: Taking extra care when exercising in hot weather Nutrition/Health Diet/Weight Loss 12. Managing Type 2 Diabetes through Diet: Suggestions for balancing your diet 13. Losing Weight When You Have Diabetes: Weight loss be Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

So, diabetes is a very common disease. It affects nearly 10 percent of the population and more than 25 percent, or one in four people over the age of 65 have diabetes. But what exactly is diabetes mellitus? Let me start by going through a couple of scenarios. Now the first scenario I wanna talk about is that of Joe here. So let me bring in Joe. Now Joe is a 15 year old boy. Over the past few months Joe just really hasn't been feeling well. He says, you know it's hard to kind of put his finger on it, but he's in general been a little bit more tired and fatigued than usual. In fact, it's caused him to lose a little bit of weight and he's already kind of a skinny guy to begin with, so that's definitely something that's abnormal for him. And you know his mother's with him and his mother says you know "Joe's been, it's kinda been odd, "Joe's been carrying around this water bottle "with him everywhere for the past few months. "He seems to just be drinking "liters upon liters of water a day." And when asked about it Joe acknowledges this, he says "Yeah, I have been a little bit "more thirsty than usual." and because of this, he says, "You know, I've been going to bathroom, "I've been needing to urinate all the time." Now, let's contrast Joe to Bruce here. Now, Bruce is very different than Joe. Bruce is a 45 year old gentleman. And he's come in to the doctor for his annual physical and when he goes to the doctor he says, "You know doc, I've been feeling pretty good. "I mean, yeah, maybe I've packed on "a few extra pounds around the waist, "but in general I'm feeling pretty healthy." Now, say both Joe over here and Bruce are seeing the same family practice doctor. You know for Joe, he says "Yeah, I am worried "about this thirst and urination and the losing weight. "I think we sh Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). Here are some key points about diabetes. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels. In 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world had diabetes (Williams textbook of endocrinology). Type 1 Diabetes - the body does not produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. Type 2 Diabetes - the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. Gestational Diabetes - this type affects females during pregnancy. The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet. If you have Type 1 and follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, you can lead a normal life. Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose. They may also need to take oral medication, and/or insulin to control blood glucose levels. As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly. As smoking might have a serious effect on c Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases that lead to high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia), which is caused when the body does not make any or enough insulin, or does not use insulin well. Because diabetes is a relatively common condition, practicing dentists are likely to encounter it frequently. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the beta cells in the pancreas create little to no insulin, and accounts for 5% to 10% of all diabetes cases. In contrast, Type 2 diabetes accounts for 85% to 90% or more of diabetes cases and is one of the commonest chronic diseases, characterized by decreased response of target tissues to insulin, dysregulation of insulin production, or a combination of both. As with any patient, the dentist should review the patients medical history, take vital signs, and evaluate for oral signs and symptoms of inadequately controlled diabetes, which may be common. Oral manifestations of uncontrolled diabetes can include: xerostomia; burning sensation in the mouth; impaired/delayed wound healing; increased incidence and severity of infections; secondary infection with candidiasis; parotid salivary gland enlargement; gingivitis; and/or periodontitis. Although patients with diabetes usually recognize signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and self-intervene before changes in or loss of consciousness occurs, staff should be trained to recognize the signs and treat patients who have hypoglycemia. In such cases, a glucometer should be used to test patient blood glucose levels, and every dental office should have a protocol for managing hypoglycemia in both conscious and unconscious patients. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases that leads to high levels of blood glucose and is caused when the body does not make Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Explained

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Explained

Twitter Summary: DKA - a major complication of #diabetes – we describe what it is, symptoms, who’s at risk, prevention + treatment! One of the most notorious complications of diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. First described in the late 19th century, DKA represented something close to the ultimate diabetes emergency: In just 24 hours, people can experience an onset of severe symptoms, all leading to coma or death. But DKA also represents one of the great triumphs of the revolution in diabetes care over the last century. Before the discovery of insulin in 1920, DKA was almost invariably fatal, but the mortality rate for DKA dropped to below 30 percent within 10 years, and now fewer than 1 percent of those who develop DKA die from it, provided they get adequate care in time. Don’t skip over that last phrase, because it’s crucial: DKA is very treatable, but only as long as it’s diagnosed promptly and patients understand the risk. Table of Contents: What are the symptoms of DKA? Does DKA occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes? What Can Patients do to Prevent DKA? What is DKA? Insulin plays a critical role in the body’s functioning: it tells cells to absorb the glucose in the blood so that the body can use it for energy. When there’s no insulin to take that glucose out of the blood, high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) results. The body will also start burning fatty acids for energy, since it can’t get that energy from glucose. To make fatty acids usable for energy, the liver has to convert them into compounds known as ketones, and these ketones make the blood more acidic. DKA results when acid levels get too high in the blood. There are other issues too, as DKA also often leads to the overproduction and release of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Definition Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin. Description Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes serious health complications including renal (kidney) failure, heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Approximately 17 million Americans have diabetes. Unfortunately, as many as one-half are unaware they have it. Every cell in the human body needs energy in order to function. The body's primary energy source is glucose, a simple sugar resulting from the digestion of foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches). Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it. Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of cell and acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter. Some of the glucose can be converted to concentrated energy sources like glycogen or fatty acids and saved for later use. When there is not enough insulin produced or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key, glucose stays in the blood rather entering the cells. The body will attempt to dilute the high level of glucose in the blood, a condition called hyperglycemia, by drawing water out of the cells and into the bloodstream in an effort to dilute the sugar and excrete it in the urine. It is not unusual for p Continue reading >>

Teaching Injection Technique To People With Diabetes

Teaching Injection Technique To People With Diabetes

January 2017 For people with diabetes who take insulin or other injectable diabetes medications, the diabetes educator can teach evidence-based standardized methods to improve clinical outcomes. The diabetes educator can enhance and maximize:  Patient engagement in self-care management  An understanding of the action of the medication  The comfort of the injection  Safe and effective medication dosing including when and how to take  Site inspection and rotation to decrease absorption variability While discussions regarding insulin and other treatment algorithms to improve glycemic control is ongoing, the aim of this advisory is to outline best practices for subcutaneous injection technique that should be covered by diabetes educators when teaching patients how to inject diabetes medications. State laws regulate which healthcare professionals are authorized by their license to provide hands-on instruction for injection administration. As with any type of patient education, it is essential to individualize the educational needs assessment (determining what the patient already knows/does, as well as exploring fears and barriers to self-care) and to make accommodations for patient literacy and numeracy levels, cognitive and visual abilities, and other impairment issues. The educator should assess the patient’s skills and understanding by observing teach-back and having the patient describe an action plan. Recommended Topics:  Education about injection technique for delivery of insulin, including a review of hypoglycemia (causes, detection, treatment and prevention) as well as when to check blood glucose and individualized pre and post meal targets  Periodic review of injection technique and sites, especially when blood Continue reading >>

Explaining Diabetes To Your Patients

Explaining Diabetes To Your Patients

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes statistics. Accessed: March 1, 2011. Am I at risk for Type 2 diabetes? National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. NIDDK. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH Publication No 09 4805: 2008. American Diabetes Association. Common terms. Accessed: March 1, 2011. Chapman CF. Medical Dictionary for the Nonprofessional. Louisiana State University School of Medicine. Barron's Educational Series. New York, New York:1983. Campbell NA. Biology. Fourth Ed. Chapter 41 Chemical Signals in Animals. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Menlo Park California: 1996. Cellular metabolism. Dr. Saul's Biology in Motion. Accessed: November 12, 2010. Ayala JE. American Diabetes Association. Central glucagon-like peptide-1 mediated regulation of glucose fluxes. Accessed: December 29, 2010. American Diabetes Association. Symptoms. Accessed: March 1, 2011. American Diabetes Association. Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose). Accessed: March 1, 2011. American Diabetes Association. Checking your blood glucose. Accessed: March 1, 2011. American Diabetes Association. Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). Accessed: March 1, 2011. American Diabetes Association. Visiting your healthcare team. Accessed: March 1, 2011. The Defending Army, Journey Through the Mind and Body. Ed: Papanek PL. Time-Life Books. Alexandria, Virginia: 1994. American Diabetes Association. Blood glucose meters. Accessed: March 1, 2011. American Diabetes Association. A1C. Accessed: March 1, 2011. The content in the shaded area has been supplied by Novo Nordisk and access is restricted to health care professionals only. Novo Nordisk has no control over, and accepts no responsibility or liability for, any other content featured here and gives no representation or warrantly (express Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition that prevents the body from properly using energy from food. It occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin, or when the pancreas produces insulin, but it is resisted by the body. Diabetes explained in simple words Many people have heard of diabetes, but most people don't know exactly what diabetes really is. When we eat food, it is broken down in glucose or sugar. Even though many health experts harp on not having too much sugar in the diet, you do need some glucose to help regulate your metabolism and give you energy. During digestion, glucose moves through the body through the bloodstream to feed your cells. To be able to transfer the Blood sugar into the cells, your body needs insulin, which is made by the Pancreas and released into the bloodstream. The problem happens when you have too much blood sugar in your body compared to the amount of insulin your pancreas is providing. If you're body is not making enough insulin to keep up with the amount of sugar in your bloodstream, or if your body is having trouble making insulin, the glucose in the blood remains there and causes your blood sugar levels to elevate. If it continues, even after monitoring your diet, you will develop diabetes. Continue reading >>

Treating Psychological Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

Treating Psychological Insulin Resistance In Type 2 Diabetes

Highlights • Psychological insulin resistance (PIR) has been described for 2 decades. • Interventions to treat PIR have not been well described. • In our study, 28.4% had high PIR and 61.2% had a moderate degree of PIR. • PIR was treated with 4 intervention strategies by certified diabetes educators. • Strategies included teaching, demonstrations, return demonstrations, and managing expectations. Abstract The phenomenon of psychological insulin resistance (PIR) has been well documented for two decades, but interventions to treat PIR have not been well described. The aim of this study was to describe interventions used to treat psychological insulin resistance by certified diabetes educators (CDE’s). A secondary data analysis study using empirical data from a trial (N = 234) that included four CDEs providing counseling for psychological insulin resistance. Participants not currently using insulin completed the 10-item Barriers to Insulin Therapy measure. The four CDE interventionists documented their approach to addressing participants’ barriers to taking insulin using a standard form. Recommendations were collated and summarized. Strong PIR was shown by 28.4% of participants reporting that they “would not start insulin” and a moderate degree of PIR was shown by 61.2% who said they “would be upset, but would start insulin.” The CDE’s treated PIR with four primary interventions: 1) teaching and providing explanations, 2) demonstrations and sharing examples of success using insulin therapy, 3) return demonstrations, and 4) addressing feelings and positively managing expectations. This is the first study to describe in some detail potentially effective patient management strategies for PIR. A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of PIR in Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

Maybe a kid you know always eats a snack during a soccer game or goesto the school nurse before lunch to get a shot. If you have a friend or a classmate like this or this sounds just like you you're not alone. Thousands of kids all over the world do stuff like this every day because they have type 1 diabetes (say: dye-uh-BEE-tees). What is it? Let's find out. Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose (say: GLOO-kose), a sugar that is the body's main source of fuel. Your body needs glucose to keep running. Here's how it should work: Glucose from the food gets into your bloodstream. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin (say: IN-suh-lin). Insulin helps the glucose get into the body's cells. The pancreas is a long, flat gland in your belly that helps your body digest food. It also makes insulin. Insulin is kind of like a key that opens the doors to the cells of the body. It lets the glucose in. Then the glucose can move out of the blood and into the cells. But if someone has diabetes, the body either can't make insulin or the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should. The glucose can't get into the cells normally, so the blood sugar level gets too high. Lots of sugar in the blood makes people sick if they don't get treatment. The two major types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes (which used to be called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes), the pancreas can't make insulin. The body can still get glucose from food but the glucose can't get into the cells where it's needed. Glucose stays in the blood, which makes the blood sugar level very high and causes health problems. To fix the problem, someone with type 1 diabetes needs to take insulin through regular shots or an insulin pump . Type 2 diabetes is differen Continue reading >>

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding diabetes is the first step toward managing it. Learn what diabetes is and how it affects your body, what kind of diabetes you have, and how to manage your health. Understanding diabetes is the first step toward managing it. So what do you need to know? First, you need to know what diabetes is and how it affects your body. And you’ll need to know what kind of diabetes you have. Next you have to know how to maintain your health, treat your diabetes, know when your treatment is successful and what to do when it’s not. This section will take you through the answers to these first questions, and give you important information that will help you live a healthy life with diabetes. In this section you will learn: What is type 2 diabetes?: Information about how people develop type 2 diabetes and who gets type 2 diabetes How The Body Processes Sugar: Information about the natural control of blood sugar, and what is different when you have diabetes Continue reading >>

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