Are Stem Cells The Next Frontier For Diabetes Treatment?
Are Stem Cells the Next Frontier for diabetes treatment? Diabetes is a devastating disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The major forms of the disease are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system aberrantly destroys the insulin-producing beta cells (b-cells) of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes, the more common form, is characterized both by insulin resistance, a condition in which various tissues in the body no longer respond properly to insulin action, and by subsequent progressive decline in b-cell function to the point that the cells can no longer produce enough additional insulin to overcome the insulin resistance. Researchers are actively exploring cell replacement therapy as a potential strategy to treat type 1 diabetes, because patients with this disease have lost all or nearly all b-cell function. However, if a safe and cost-effective means for replenishing b-cells were developed, such a treatment strategy could also be useful for the larger population with type 2 diabetes. One of the major challenges of cell replacement therapy is the current insufficient supply of b-cells from human organ donors. This article focuses on stem cells as potential sources for deriving new b-cells. Diabetes: A Critical Health Issue for the 21st Century According to the International Diabetes Federation, diabetes currently affects 7% of the world's population nearly 250 million individuals worldwide. 1 This total is expected to rise to 380 million by 2025 as a result of aging populations, changing lifestyles, and a recent worldwide increase in obesity. Although projections for increases in diabetes prevalence suggest that the greatest percentage gains will occur in Asia and South America, 2 , 3 all nations will experience a rising disease Continue reading >>
Diabetes | Harvard Stem Cell Institute (hsci)
HOME / RESEARCH / DISEASE PROGRAMS / DIABETES PROGRAM / It stands to reason that only by understanding the root causes of diseases like diabetes can we hope to develop effective therapies. Modern biomedical research is best at finding treatments for diseases that have relatively simple causes and well-understood genetic risk factors. Unfortunately, type 1 diabetes (T1D) has very complex genetics, with many genes each making relatively small, poorly understood contributions to disease risk. Further, there are no animal models that accurately reflect the human disease. Thus, despite the expenditure of hundreds of millions of research dollars, no cures for T1D have been developed. T1D is particularly challenging to study in human patients. By the time a patient is diagnosed with T1D, also known as juvenile diabetes, the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells by the immune system is nearly complete. Because of this, there is no way to discover what it was that led the persons immune system to attack the beta cells in the first place. Even if it were possible to identify future T1D patients before the immune attack on beta cells began, disease onset and progression could not be studied in these individuals due to the inaccessibility of the pancreas where beta cells are found in a living person. Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) scientists are attempting an ambitious, long-term, and high-risk project to create the first animal model for T1D. Engineered mice will allow researchers to better understand the disease and increase the odds of developing effective therapies. Recent advances in stem cell biology have opened the door to new ways of studying T1D. Specifically, it is now possible to reprogram a skin cell from a T1D patient (or any other person) into a cell that c Continue reading >>
Diabetes | Canadian Stem Cell Foundation
Are there stem cell therapies available for type 1 diabetes? To our knowledge, no stem cell therapy has received Health Canada or U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of type 1 diabetes at this time. Patients who are researching their options may come across companies with Web sites or materials that say otherwise and offer fee-based stem cell treatments for curing this disease. Many of these claims are not supported by sound scientific evidence and patients considering these therapies are encouraged to review some of the links below before making crucial decisions about their treatment plan. For the latest developments read our blog entries here . More about stem cell clinical trials for diabetesclick here . (For printed version: How close are we? What do we know about type 1 diabetes? The insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are attacked and destroyed by the bodys immune system cells. A persons environment, genetics and the infections they are exposed to over their lifetime all play a role in triggering the attack on beta cells. When the beta cells are destroyed, the production of insulin drops and our cells can no longer take in the sugar glucose. When glucose is left circulating in the blood at very high levels the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart can be damaged. If type 1 diabetes is not diagnosed and treated in time with injections of insulin, a patient could fall into a life-threatening coma. Just a few teaspoonfuls of pancreatic islet cells can temporarily reverse type 1 diabetes. There is a shortage of donor pancreatic islet cells for treating patients with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an ideal candidate for a stem cell therapy because the disease can be traced to the loss of a single cell type the beta cell. St Continue reading >>
Can Stem Cells Help Diabetes?
Stem cell research was big news back when Christopher Reeve, the actor who played Superman in the 1970s and 1980s, became famous again in the 2000s for trying to get laws changed so that research with human embryonic stem cells could expand. After breaking his neck in a horse-riding accident, he used his fame to become an advocate for stem cell research funding. The big problem with this kind of research was that it typically required human embryos that had been donated to science after fertilization therapy for women who were trying to get pregnant. Because of the deep moral issue, I wanted to understand more. For one thing, what on earth was a stem cell? Why were scientists all over the world studying them with such excitement? Every cell in your body is programmed by the genes inside it to do a specific thing. Muscle cells cannot do what blood cells do. Blood cells cannot do what nerve cells do. But every living creature that grows from an egg begins as an embryo made up of a few cells. Every one of those cells has the ability to become whatever the creature will need. When these cells were discovered, they were christened stem cells because of this incredible power. Scientists looked at the stem cells in a mouse embryo and saw a future where they could grow new hearts and repair nerve damage so that people like Christopher Reeve could walk again. A new branch of medical science was born. However, the discovery of these cells brought with it more questions than answers. How did a stem cell learn what it would turn into? What turned the genetic code on and off? Could stem cells be safely grown in the laboratory? If researchers could figure out how to control stem cells, they could use them to make tissues, even replace organs and repair damaged nerves. But that kind Continue reading >>
Stem Cell Therapy For Diabetes Type 1 And Diabetes Type 2
New treatments and advances in research are giving new hope to people affected by Diabetes Type 1 and Diabetes Type 2. StemGenex Medical Group provides adult stem cell Diabetes therapies to help those with unmet clinical needs achieve optimum health and better quality of life. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for Diabetes Type 1 & Diabetes Type 2 may help patients who don’t respond to typical drug treatment, want to reduce their reliance on medication, or are looking to try stem cell therapy before starting drug treatment. To learn more about becoming a patient and receiving adult stem cell therapy through StemGenex Medical Group, please contact one of our Patient Advocates at (800) 609-7795. Below are some frequently asked questions about stem cell therapy for Diabetes Type 1 and Diabetes Type 2. Continue reading >>
Diabetes: How Could Stem Cells Help?
Diabetes is a common life-long condition and the number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes is increasing. The symptoms can be controlled but there is no cure. For many, diabetes means living with daily insulin injections and the possibility of long-term damage to their health. All the cells in your body need energy. This energy is carried around the body as sugar (glucose) in the blood. There are several types of diabetes. What they all have in common is a problem with regulating normal levels of sugar in the blood. Normally, blood sugar levels are controlled by the release of the hormone insulin. Insulin is made by cells in the pancreas called beta cells that are arranged into clusters together with other pancreas cells. These clusters are called islets of Langerhans. In one human pancreas there are roughly one million islets. Where is the pancreas?: located in the abdomen, next to the small intestine and stomach. The cells in the pancreas that make insulin (beta cells) are highlighted in red in this video by Dror Sever and Anne Grapin-Botton. Continue reading >>
Stories Of Hope: A Stem Cell Therapy For Diabetes
Home Stories of Hope: A Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes Stories of Hope: A Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes The last thing Maria Torres expected was to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. She exercised, ate well and kept her weight under control. There had to be some mistake. Maria asked her doctor to repeat the tests, but the results were the same. At 43, for reasons no one could fully explain, she had diabetes, and her life was going to change dramatically. It really scared me, says Maria. I thought I was going to die soon. That Maria doubted her diagnosis is no surprise. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, and she didnt fit the profile. Most likely, some undiscovered genetic component had made her susceptible to the disease. Regardless, she now had to rework her life to manage the diabetes. Her cells had developed a condition called insulin resistance. Though her pancreas was producing insulin, which tells cells to take in blood sugar, the cells were not cooperating. As a result, glucose was accumulating in her blood, putting her at risk for heart disease, nerve damage, eye issues and a host of other problems. To help her cells absorb glucose, she needs regular insulin injections. Maria injects the hormone five times a day and must often measure her blood sugar levels even more frequently. Faithfully following this regimen has kept her alive for 20 years, but insulin is not a cure. Even with the regular injections, she faces dramatic mood swings and more serious complications as glucose levels rise and fall. One of the most promising strategies to cure diabetes is to transplant beta cells, which sense blood sugar levels and produce insulin to reduce them. Patients with type 1 diabetes would benefit because new beta cells would replace the ones theyd lost t Continue reading >>
Nearly 400 million people worldwide are living with diabetes, and that number is expected to jump to almost 600 million by 2035, according to the International Diabetes Federation. For many people, diabetes can be controlled with diet, exercise and, often, insulin or other drugs. However, complications from diabetes can be serious and include kidney failure, nerve damage, vision loss, heart disease and a host of other health issues. In this section: What is diabetes? How is diabetes treated? How are we using stem cells to understand diabetes? What is the potential for stem cells to treat diabetes? At its most basic, diabetes is a condition in which the body cannot regulate or properly use sugar (called glucose) in the blood. The pancreas, which helps the small intestine digest food, has hundreds of thousands of cell clusters called islets of Langerhans where beta cells live. Beta cells produce insulin, which is released into the bloodstream when blood sugar levels reach a certain threshold. The insulin signals other cells in the body to take up sugar, the primary energy source for all the body’s cells. Type 1, also known as juvenile diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas. When the beta cells are damaged, they don’t produce insulin, or at least not enough insulin. Other cells never get the signal to take up sugar, so they don’t get the energy they need to function properly, and high sugar levels in the blood end up causing damage to the kidneys, eyes, nervous system and other organs. Type 2 diabetes, also called adult-onset diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, cells in the body become resistant to insulin. They don’t respond to the signals insulin sends out, so they don’t take up sugar from the blood. The beta c Continue reading >>
Stem Cells 'cure Diabetes'
What does the NHS Knowledge Service make of this study? "Stem cell transplants 'have freed patients with type 1 diabetes of daily insulin injections'" The Daily Telegraph has said. The news comes after research which allowed volunteers to go, on average, for two and a half years without using the multiple daily injections normally needed to manage their condition. The small study involved 23 patients with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes, a condition in which the immune system can rapidly destroy the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. These stem cell transplants apparently work by resetting the immune system so that the body stops attackingthe pancreas. The researchers themselves say that this treatment can only be used when the condition is caught early enough (within six weeks of diagnosis), before the pancreas has been irreversibly damaged andbefore anycomplications from very high blood sugar have developed. The study provides another avenue for research, but this treatment is still at a early stage of development and does come with some side effects and risks. Dr Iain Frame, research director of Diabetes UK, has emphasised that "this is not a cure for type 1 diabetes. This research was conducted by Dr Carlos EB Couri and colleagues from the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil along with Dr Richard K Burt from the Division of Immunotherapy, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago. The study was supported by a range of public and private organisations including the Brazilian Ministry of Health, Genzyme Corporation and Johnson & Johnson. The study was published in the peer-reviewed Journal of the American Medical Association. This was a prospective case series of 23 individuals who had received stem cell treatment to treat new onset cases of ty Continue reading >>
Combination Of Stem Cell And Drug Therapy Could Reverse Type 2 Diabetes
Stem cell research is heralding a new age of possiblemedical treatments as scientists use them to grow transplantable cells andorgans. Now, it appears those new treatments might include one fortype 2 diabetes. Existing research has already found avenues to treat type 1diabetes. This less-common, early-onset form of diabetes occurs when the body’simmune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas,often while fighting an infection elsewhere in the body. By using stem cells,doctors can grow new insulin-producing cells to replace those that the pancreashas lost. However, type 2 diabetes – which makes up 90 percent ofdiabetes cases worldwide – is harder to treat. It typically occurs in adults asa result of excess weight or hormonal imbalances. While people with type 2 diabetes do lose some of theirinsulin-producing cells, their primary problem is elsewhere. Their cells havebecome resistant to insulin. Although insulin is present in the body, the cellscan no longer use insulin to keep blood sugar levels in check. Simply regrowingthe missing insulin-producing cells is not enough to solve the problem. Now, in new research published in StemCell Reports, scientists may have found a way. Read More: Scientists Make Insulin-Producing Cells from Stem Cells to Cure Type 1 Diabetes » A Two-Pronged Approach To create a mouse model of type 2 diabetes, the researchersput mice on a high-fat, high-carb diet. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes soonfollowed. The mice became overweight, intolerant to glucose (blood sugar), andresistant to insulin. Their blood sugar levels skyrocketed. Next came the attempt to reverse the induced diabetic state.The research team cultured human embryonic stem cells and prepared them to besafely implanted into the diabetic mice. Once t Continue reading >>
Dri Biohub: Supply
Islet transplantation has clearlyshown the ability to restore natural insulin production and normalize blood sugar levels in people with type 1 diabetes. But, some hurdles remain before this cell replacement therapy can be offered more broadly to those who can benefit. Two notable ones are the complex challengesof the immune system and the shortage of insulin-producing cells available for transplant. Currently, islets used for transplantation come from the pancreases of deceased donors. With organ donation in the United States at critically low levels, there are clearly not enough cellsfor everyone. The DRI is developing several pioneeering strategies to create areliable supplyof insulin-producing cells. Scientists have discovered that different types ofcells within the non-insulin producing portion of the pancreas, which makes up 98 percent of the organ, have the ability to become insulin-producing cells. In particular, they have focused on a unique population of stem cells that remain intact after the autoimmune attack in a large percentage of patients. The DRI's Cell Supply team has been developing methods to stimulate these pancreatic stem cells to turn into insulin-producing cells with very promising results. Using a natrually occurring protein called bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7), DRI reseachers demonstrated that these stem cells within the non-endocrine tissue can become new islets when cultured in the lab. Their pioneering findings using this FDA-approved molecule were published in the journal Diabetes . In itself, the discovery could potentially open the door to transplanting multiple patients from a single donor pancreas, but the results have other promising implications. After observing that these stem cells remained in the pancreas after the onset of Continue reading >>
Stem Cells For The Treatment Of Type I Diabetes
Stem cell treatments are gaining momentum as a viable option for successfully slowing down -- or potentially halting -- the progression of type 1 diabetes. According to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), Type 1 diabetes affects as many as three million Americans. In addition, more than 15,000 children and young adults are newly diagnosed each year. This averages about 40 children per day. Currently, there is no cure for diabetes, although experts and researchers are working with this as a goal. As a type of autoimmune disease, diabetes is caused when the body’s immune system misinterprets the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, called islets, and destroys them. There is no definitive cause for diabetes, however it is believed that there are both genetic factors as well as environmental factors, such as viruses or allergens. Type 1 diabetes presents the risk for many other complications, including blindness, kidney disease, heart disease and stroke. Another possible long-term complication is neuropathy, or nerve damage, which may result in loss of feeling and even amputations. Stabilizing insulin levels is the key to managing diabetes. The standard treatment today focuses supplementing the body’s insulin, typically through injection (needles) or insulin pumps, which are worn outside the body. This requires the patient testing his/her blood sugar levels several times per day, and carefully maintaining blood insulin levels. While this is recognized as the best standard of care today, the goal is to find a way to help the body produce and/or regulate its own insulin levels. The latest scientific breakthroughs, which use stem cells to create the insulin-producing islets, are widely viewed as the most promising of treatments being used and further deve Continue reading >>
Uterine Stem Cells Used To Treat Diabetes
Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Uterine stem cells used to treat diabetes Controlling diabetes may someday involve mining stem cells from the lining of the uterus, researchers report in a new study. The team treated diabetes in mice by converting cells from the uterine lining into insulin-producing cells. This is a slide of insulin-producing cells. This is a slide of insulin-producing cells. Controlling diabetes may someday involve mining stem cells from the lining of the uterus, Yale School of Medicine researchers report in a new study published in the journal Molecular Therapy. The team treated diabetes in mice by converting cells from the uterine lining into insulin-producing cells. The endometrium or uterine lining, is a source of adult stem cells. These cells generate uterine tissue each month as part of the menstrual cycle. Like other stem cells, however, they can divide to form other kinds of cells. The Yale team's findings suggest that endometrial stem cells could be used to develop insulin-producing islet cells, which are found in the pancreas. These islet cells could then be used to advance the study of islet cell transplantation to treat people with diabetes. Led by Yale Professor Hugh S. Taylor, M.D., the researchers bathed endometrial stem cells in cultures containing special nutrients and growth factors. Responding to these substances, the endometrial stem cells adopted the characteristics of beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Over the course of a three-week incubation process, the endometrial stem cells took on the shape of beta cells and began to make proteins typically made by beta cells. Some of these cells also produced insulin. After a meal, the body breaks food down into components like th Continue reading >>
What Stem Cells Can Do Today Opens Doorways To Even More, Tomorrow…
Diabetes refers to a family of diseases where the body is unable to effectively produce or use insulin, the hormone required to convert food into energy. The cause of diabetes is not known, and so far there is no cure. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States today. According to the American Diabetes Association, "there are 23.6 million children and adults in the United States, or 7.8% of the population, who have diabetes. While an estimated 17.9 million have been diagnosed with diabetes, unfortunately, 5.7 million people (or nearly one quarter) are unaware that they have the disease." There are three main types of Diabetes: Type 1 - an auto-immune disease Type 2 - associated with hereditary and lifestyle risk factors Gestational Diabetes - occurring during pregnancy Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin and therefore necessitates daily injections of insulin. Because it most often develops in children, it is often referred to as "juvenile diabetes." The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) reports that as many as three million Americans may have type 1 diabetes and an average of 40 children each day (more than 15,000 per year) are diagnosed. There are clinical trials underway to treat diabetes with stem cells in general, as well as with cord blood stem cells specifically. Researchers at the University of Florida Health say they have found a way to expand certain preserved cord blood cells that could potentially serve as a long-term treatment for type 1 diabetes. The cells are called thymic regulatory T cells, or tTregs for short. They are a type of white blood cell that helps prevent autoimmune responses, which is when a person’s immune system attacks him- or herself. A clinical trial conducted Continue reading >>
Diabetes Type 1 - Stem Cells Treatment Clinic
Diabetes Type 1 Stem Cell Treatment Diabetes is currently one of the most widespread diseases, and its prevalence is rapidly growing around the world. It is a common life-long condition and the number of children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes is increasing. For many, this means living with daily insulin injections and the possibility of long-term health damage. What is type one diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from T cell autoimmunity mediated destruction of the vast majority of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, the development of new therapies to control T cell autoimmunity and to preserve the remaining β-cell function is of great significance in managing patients with type 1 diabetes. Those diagnosed with T1DM are relying on exogenous insulin. Adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown in many studies as potential cure for T1DM, which could not only address the need for β-cell replacement but also the regulation of the autoimmune response to cells which produce insulin. Mesenchymal stem cells are able to control T cell autoimmunity. In both forms of diabetes, unless treated, blood sugar will rise uncontrollably, and over time can lead to complications such as cardiovascular, liver and kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy), as well as circulatory problems that may require limb amputation, vision loss, blindness (diabetic retinopathy), and nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy). How is type one diabetes treated at the moment? People with type 1 diabetes must test their blood sugar levels several times a day and inject insulin when it is needed. Unfortunately, it can still be hard to keep the blood sugar level normal, even with regular injections. Over time, a high level can cause serious damage to the hear Continue reading >>
- Diabetes Type 2 - Stem cells treatment clinic
- Stem Cells Of Type 1 Diabetes Patients Transformed Into Insulin-Secreting Beta Cells; Research May Lead To New Therapy
- Improved pregnancy outcomes in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but substantial clinic-to-clinic variations: a prospective nationwide study