diabetestalk.net

How Much Diabetes Is Normal In Pregnancy

New Thresholds For Diagnosis Of Diabetes In Pregnancy

New Thresholds For Diagnosis Of Diabetes In Pregnancy

Share Midwives should diagnose women with gestational diabetes if they either have a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.6 mmol/litre or above, or a 2-hour plasma glucose level of 7.8 mmol/litre or above, according to NICE. Midwives should diagnose women with gestational diabetes if they either have a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.6 mmol/litre or above, or a 2-hour plasma glucose level of 7.8 mmol/litre or above, according to NICE. Updated guidelines on diabetes in pregnancy lower the fasting plasma glucose thresholds for diagnosis, and include new recommendations on self-management for women with type 1 diabetes. Around 35,000 women have either pre-existing or gestational diabetes each year in England and Wales. Nearly 90 per cent of the women who have diabetes during pregnancy, have gestational diabetes, which may or may not resolve after pregnancy. Rates have increased in recent years to due rising obesity rates among the general population, and increasing number of pregnancies among older women. Of the women with diabetes in pregnancy who do not have gestational diabetes, 7.5 per cent of women have type 1 diabetes, and the remainder have type 2 diabetes, both of which have also increased recently. Following a number of developments, such as new technologies and research on diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes, NICE has updated its guidelines on diabetes in pregnancy. Diagnosis Among the new recommendations are that a woman should be diagnosed with gestational diabetes if she has either a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.6 mmol/litre or above, or a 2-hour plasma glucose level of 7.8 mmol/litre or above. NICE says this could help tackle current variation in the number in the glucose levels used for diagnosing gestational diabetes, and may lead to an incr Continue reading >>

Normal Blood Sugars In Pregnancy

Normal Blood Sugars In Pregnancy

I have until now avoided discussing the issue of what normal blood sugars should be in pregnancy because it looked like gynecologists were being more aggressive with blood sugar control during pregnancy then other doctors. Blood sugar control is particularly important in pregnancy because a fetus that is exposed to continually high blood sugars will experience significant changes in the way that its genes express which will affect its blood sugar metabolism for the rest of its life. High blood sugar will also make babies very large, which poses problems when it is time for delivery, some life-threatening. Blood sugars are lower in pregnant women because there is a higher blood volume during pregnancy, but it is starting to look like the targets gynecologists have been recommending, which would have been excellent for non-diabetic women are considerably higher than normal. This was made clear by a new meta-study that analyzed a series of studies of the blood sugars of a wide range of normal pregnant women using Continuous Glucose Monitoring, home testing, and hospital lab results. It makes it clear that the current targets for pregnancy are probably too high. Here is the full text version of the meta-study: Patterns of Glycemia in Normal Pregnancy: Should the current therapeutic targets be challenged? Teri L. Hernandez, et al. Diabetes Care July 2011 vol. 34 no. 7 1660-1668. It concludes that the following appear to be truly normal blood sugars for pregnant women: AVERAGE BLOOD SUGARS IN NORMAL PREGNANT WOMEN Fasting: 70.9 ± 7.8 mg/dl (3.94 mmol/L ± .43) One Hour Post Meal: 108.9 ± 12.9 mg/dl (6.05 ± .72 mmol/L) Two Hours Post Meal: 99.3 ±10.2 mg/dl (5.52 ± .57 mmol/L ) A commentary published in this month's Diabetes Care gives more insight into the importance of t Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes and your unborn baby Diabetes is a condition in which the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too high. Glucose comes from the digestion of starchy foods, such as bread and rice. Insulin, a hormone produced by your pancreas, helps your body to use glucose for energy. Three types of diabetes can affect you when you're pregnant: type 2 diabetes – long-term conditions that women may have before they get pregnant (pre-existing diabetes) gestational diabetes – develops only in pregnancy and goes away after the baby is born The information on this page is for women who have pre-existing diabetes in pregnancy. Most women with diabetes have a healthy baby, but diabetes does give you a higher risk of some complications. If you already have diabetes If you already have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you may be at a higher risk of: having a large baby – which increases the risk of a difficult birth, having your labour induced, or a caesarean section People with type 1 diabetes may develop problems with their eyes (diabetic retinopathy) and their kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), or existing problems may get worse. If you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your baby may be at risk of: not developing normally and having congenital abnormalities, particularly heart and nervous system abnormalities being stillborn or dying soon after birth having health problems shortly after birth, such as heart and breathing problems, and needing hospital care developing obesity or diabetes later in life Reducing the risks if you have pre-existing diabetes The best way to reduce the risk to your own and your baby's health is to ensure your diabetes is controlled before you become pregnant. Ask your GP or diabetes specialist (diabetologist) for advice. You should be referred to a diabetic Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Sometimes pregnancy causes the blood sugar to rise in women who do not have diabetes. This is called gestational diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. For further information about diabetes, see separate leaflets called Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes. Sometimes pregnancy causes the blood sugar to rise in women who do not have diabetes. This is called gestational diabetes (see below). How does pregnancy affect diabetes? How does pregnancy affect diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Pregnancy makes the body need more insulin to control the levels of sugar (glucose) in the body. Therefore, women with diabetes usually need more treatments to control their blood sugar when t Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy

Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy

Tweet Blood glucose control is one of the most important factors during pregnancy. Tight blood glucose control, helps to ensure the best chance of a successful pregnancy. Diabetes control is important for people who have diabetes going into their pregnancy as well as people who develop diabetes during their pregnancy (gestational diabetes). What is gestational diabetes? It has been reported that on average 2% to 4% of women develop temporary diabetes also known as gestational diabetes. This happens because they are unable to produce an increased amount of insulin to overcome the resistance levels. In gestational diabetes there is not normally any show of external symptoms normally recognised as characteristic of the disease for example excessive thirst, tiredness and increased urination. Blood sugar control during pregnancy Good blood glucose control reduces the risks of complications developing for the mother and baby. The target HbA1c for mothers before and during pregnancy is 6.1% (or 43 mmol/mol). [91] People with diabetes before their pregnancy will be advised to keep excellent control of their blood sugar before and throughout the pregnancy. The first eight weeks of the pregnancy are a critical period and so it is highly recommended that strong control is achieved prior to becoming pregnant wherever possible. Mothers who develop gestational diabetes will be treated initially with diet and exercise but may be put onto oral hypoglycaemics (tablets) or insulin injections if blood sugar levels remain high. Diabetes management To help you to meet the challenging blood glucose targets, you will be expected to test your blood glucose before each meal and 1 hour after eating. People taking insulin for their diabetes will also need to test before bed each night. You will h Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes (gd)

Gestational Diabetes (gd)

What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes (GD) happens when you have too much sugar (glucose) in your blood during pregnancy. Your blood sugar levels can go up when your body isn’t producing enough of a hormone called insulin. Insulin helps: the cells in your body to get energy from blood sugar your body to store any blood sugar that isn’t needed During pregnancy, hormones make it harder for your body to use insulin efficiently. So your body has to make extra insulin, especially from mid-pregnancy onwards. If your body can't make enough extra insulin, your blood sugar levels will rise and you may develop GD. Having too much sugar in your blood can cause problems for you and your baby, so you’ll have extra care during your pregnancy. On average, GD affects one mum-to-be in 20. GD goes away after your baby is born, because it's a condition that's only caused by pregnancy. The other types of diabetes, which are not caused by pregnancy, are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Some women have diabetes, without realising it, before they become pregnant. If this happens to you, it will be diagnosed as GD during your pregnancy. What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes? You probably won't notice any symptoms if you have GD. That's why you'll be monitored by your midwife, and offered a test if she thinks you're at risk. GD symptoms are like normal pregnancy symptoms, and easy to miss. By the time you have clear symptoms, your blood sugar levels may be worryingly high (hyperglycaemia) . Symptoms of hyperglycaemia include: feeling more thirsty needing to wee more often than usual having a dry mouth feeling more tired getting recurring infections, such as thrush, and UTIs having blurred vision If you have any of these symptoms, tell your midwife or doctor straig Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition which is quite separate from the other types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. The term gestational refers to it occurring during pregnancy. For many women who are diagnosed, the diabetes will go away after their baby is born. However, there is a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes for women who have already had gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in up to 15% of all pregnancies and of these women: Type 2 diabetes can develop between 5-10 years after their baby is born More than 50% of women who had gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes Following the baby’s birth, a mother’s blood glucose level generally returns to normal What exactly is Diabetes? Diabetes occurs when a person’s body is either not making enough of the hormone insulin, or their body cannot effectively use the insulin they are making. Insulin is needed so that glucose in the bloodstream can move into the body’s cells and be used for energy. When a person has diabetes, there is too much glucose in their bloodstream and complications from this can arise. During pregnancy the placenta makes specific hormones, which are designed to support the baby’s growth and development. But these hormones can also create problems with the effectiveness of a mother’s insulin and impair its usefulness. This is what it means to become insulin-resistant. In the best of circumstances, a mother’s insulin level and her blood sugar level will stabilise and there is not an excess or deficiency in either one. But in gestational diabetes blood glucose is not being controlled by adequate insulin, so there needs to be either a drop in dietary glucose, an increase in insulin, or a combination of both. Who are at risk? Women who are over 30 years of age. Wo Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes (diabetes During Pregnancy)

Gestational Diabetes (diabetes During Pregnancy)

Definition of Diabetes During Pregnancy: Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that starts during pregnancy. When the pregnant woman has diabetes, her body is not able to consume the sugar (glucose) in her blood as well as it should. So the level of glucose in the blood becomes above normal. Gestational diabetes occurs in 4% of pregnant women. It is usually diagnosed in the fifth or sixth month of pregnancy (Between the 24th and 28th weeks). Generally, Females are cured from gestational diabetes after delivery. Causes of gestational diabetes: Almost all women have some degree of impaired glucose intolerance during pregnancy due to the hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. In this case, the level of glucose in the blood may be higher than normal, but not high enough to cause diabetes. During the last phase of the pregnancy (the third trimester), these hormonal changes place pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes. During pregnancy, increased levels of certain hormones made in the placenta (the organ that connects the baby by the umbilical cord to the uterus) help shifting nutrients from the mother to the growing fetus. The placenta produces hormones to prevent developing low blood sugar. They stop the actions of insulin. Over the course of the pregnancy, these hormones produce impaired glucose intolerance, which increase the level of glucose in the blood. In order to decrease this level, the body makes more insulin to shuttle glucose into cells. Usually the mother's pancreas can produce more insulin (about three times the normal amount) to overcome the effect of the pregnancy hormones on glucose levels. When the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to do it, the glucose levels will raise and cause gestational diabetes. Risk factors for Diabetes Dur Continue reading >>

Understanding Gestational Diabetes

Understanding Gestational Diabetes

Introduction Approximately 3 to 5 percent of all pregnant women in the United States are diagnosed as having gestational diabetes. These women and their families have many questions about this disorder. Some of the most frequently asked questions are: What is gestational diabetes and how did I get it? How does it differ from other kinds of diabetes? Will it hurt my baby? Will my baby have diabetes? What can I do to control gestational diabetes? Will I need a special diet? Will gestational diabetes change the way or the time my baby is delivered? Will I have diabetes in the future? This brochure will address these and many other questions about diet, exercise, measurement of blood sugar levels, and general medical and obstetric care of women with gestational diabetes. It must be emphasized that these are general guidelines and only your health care professional(s) can tailor a program specific to your needs. You should feel free to discuss any concerns you have with your doctor or other health care provider, as no one knows more about you and the condition of your pregnancy. What is gestational diabetes and what causes it? Diabetes (actual name is diabetes mellitus) of any kind is a disorder that prevents the body from using food properly. Normally, the body gets its major source of energy from glucose, a simple sugar that comes from foods high in simple carbohydrates (e.g., table sugar or other sweeteners such as honey, molasses, jams, and jellies, soft drinks, and cookies), or from the breakdown of complex carbohydrates such as starches (e.g., bread, potatoes, and pasta). After sugars and starches are digested in the stomach, they enter the blood stream in the form of glucose. The glucose in the blood stream becomes a potential source of energy for the entire body, sim Continue reading >>

Mothers' High Normal Blood Sugar Levels Place Infants At Risk For Birth Problems

Mothers' High Normal Blood Sugar Levels Place Infants At Risk For Birth Problems

Pregnant women with blood sugar levels in the higher range of normal — but not high enough to be considered diabetes — are more likely than women with lower blood sugar levels to give birth to babies at risk for many of the same problems seen in babies born to women with diabetes during pregnancy, according to a study funded in large part by the National Institutes of Health. These problems included a greater likelihood for Caesarean delivery and an abnormally large body size at birth. Infants born to women with higher blood sugar levels were also at risk for shoulder dystocia, a condition occurring during birth, in which an infant’s shoulder becomes lodged inside the mother's body, effectively halting the birth process. The study authors declined to make recommendations for acceptable blood sugar levels for pregnant women. The researchers were unable to identify a precise level where an elevation in blood sugar increased the risk for any of the outcomes observed in the study. Rather, the chances for the outcomes were observed to increase gradually, corresponding with increases in the women’s blood sugar levels. It is well known that high blood sugar levels characteristic of the diabetes that occurs during pregnancy present risks for expectant mothers and the infants born to them. The current study is the first to document that higher blood sugar levels, not high enough to be considered diabetes, also convey these increased risks. Furthermore, when the researchers mathematically adjusted for other potential causes of these risks — such as older maternal age, obesity, and high blood pressure — the increased risks due to higher blood sugar levels were still present. "These important new findings highlight the risks of elevated blood sugar levels during pregnan Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

What Is Gestational Diabetes? Gestational diabetes sometimes develops when a woman is pregnant. It’s when the blood glucose level (blood sugar level) of the mother goes too high during pregnancy. Having an elevated blood glucose level during pregnancy can cause problems for your baby—if it’s left untreated. Fortunately, doctors are vigilant about checking for gestational diabetes so that it can be identified and effectively managed. A pro-active treatment plan helps you have a good pregnancy and protects the health of your baby. Gestational Diabetes Symptoms Gestational diabetes doesn’t often cause noticeable symptoms for the mother. Other types of diabetes (eg, type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes) do cause symptoms such as increased thirst, but that is hardly ever noticed in gestational diabetes. Because there aren’t often symptoms, it’s very important to be tested for a high blood glucose level when you’re pregnant. (Your doctor will most likely test you for gestational diabetes sometime between the 24th and 28th week. You can learn more about the diagnostic process here.) Then your doctor will know if you need to be treated for gestational diabetes. Gestational Diabetes Causes and Risk Factors Gestational diabetes develops when your body isn’t able to produce enough of the hormone insulin during pregnancy. Insulin is necessary to transport glucose—what your body uses for energy—into the cells. Without enough insulin, you can build up too much glucose in your blood, leading to a higher-than-normal blood glucose level and perhaps gestational diabetes. The elevated blood glucose level in gestational diabetes is caused by hormones released by the placenta during pregnancy. The placenta produces a hormone called the human placental lactogen (HPL), also Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Levels For Pregnant Women With Diabetes

Blood Sugar Levels For Pregnant Women With Diabetes

Whether you had diabetes before you got pregnant or you developed diabetes during your pregnancy, you'll need to keep a close eye on your blood sugar levels. Tight control will help you avoid complications and long-term health problems for both you and your baby. You're eating differently because your body needs more energy to help your baby grow and be healthy. And your changing hormones affect how your body makes and uses insulin. In the later parts of your pregnancy, you may become more insulin resistant, so blood sugar builds up to higher levels. How often should you check your blood sugar? Pre-existing diabetes: Before and after meals and before bedtime If you are pregnant and have type 1 diabetes, your doctor might sometimes ask you to check your blood sugar in the middle of the night, around 3 a.m. You should check your fasting urine ketones every day, too. For every type of diabetes, if you're pregant you need to see your doctor at least once a month, perhaps as often as once a week. Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level During Pregnancy, What's Normal?

Blood Sugar Level During Pregnancy, What's Normal?

The form of diabetes which develops during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes. This condition has become predominant in the recent pastaccording to the 2009 article in American Family Physician. For instance, in the United States alone, it affects around 5% to 9% of all the pregnant women. Pregnancy aggravates the preexisting type 2 and type 1 diabetes. During pregnancy the sugar level may tend to be high sometimes, posing problems to the mother and the infant as well. However, concerning the sugar level during pregnancy, what's normal? Blood sugar control is one of the most essential factors that should be undertaken during pregnancy. When measures are taken to control blood sugar level during pregnancy, it increases chances of a successful pregnancy. The average fasting glucose for pregnant women without any diabetes condition range from 69 to 75 and from 105 to 108 immediately one hour after consuming food. If you have preexisting diabetes or you have developedgestational diabetes, the best way to handle the blood sugar level is to ensure that it remains in between the normal range, not going too low or high. According to the recommendations of the 2007, Fifth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes, which established blood glucose goals especially for diabetic women, during the period of pregnancy, the fasting blood sugar should not exceed 96. Blood sugar should remain below 140 just one hour after eating and below 120 two hours later. Why Is It Important to Keep Normal Blood Sugar Level During Pregnancy? The most effective way to prevent complications related to diabetes is to control the amount or the level of blood sugar. This blood sugar control is very significant during pregnancy as it can: Minimize the risk of stillbirth as well as m Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms;[2] however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section.[2] Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too large, having low blood sugar after birth, and jaundice.[2] If untreated, it can also result in a stillbirth.[2] Long term, children are at higher risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.[2] Gestational diabetes is caused by not enough insulin in the setting of insulin resistance.[2] Risk factors include being overweight, previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes, and having polycystic ovarian syndrome.[2] Diagnosis is by blood tests.[2] For those at normal risk screening is recommended between 24 and 28 weeks gestation.[2][3] For those at high risk testing may occur at the first prenatal visit.[2] Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising before pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes is a treated with a diabetic diet, exercise, and possibly insulin injections.[2] Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with a diet and exercise.[3] Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is often recommended four times a day.[3] Breastfeeding is recommended as soon as possible after birth.[2] Gestational diabetes affects 3–9% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.[3] It is especially common during the last three months of pregnancy.[2] It affects 1% of those under the age of 20 and 13% of those over the age of 44.[3] A number of ethnic groups including Asians, American Indians, Indigenous Australians, and Pacific Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Practice Essentials Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of variable degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. A study by Stuebe et al found this condition to be associated with persistent metabolic dysfunction in women at 3 years after delivery, separate from other clinical risk factors. [1] Infants of mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus experience double the risk of serious injury at birth, triple the likelihood of cesarean delivery, and quadruple the incidence of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Gestational diabetes mellitus accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, while preexisting type 2 diabetes accounts for 8% of such cases. Screening for diabetes mellitus during pregnancy Gestational diabetes The following 2-step screening system for gestational diabetes is currently recommended in the United States: Alternatively, for high-risk women or in areas in which the prevalence of insulin resistance is 5% or higher (eg, the southwestern and southeastern United States), a 1-step approach can be used by proceeding directly to the 100-g, 3-hour OGTT. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for gestational diabetes mellitus after 24 weeks of pregnancy. The recommendation applies to asymptomatic women with no previous diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. [2, 3] The recommendation does not specify whether the 1-step or 2-step screening approach would be preferable. Type 1 diabetes The disease is typically diagnosed during an episode of hyperglycemia, ketosis, and dehydration It is most commonly diagnosed in childhood or adolescence; the disease is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy Patients diagnosed during pregnancy most often present with unexpected Continue reading >>

More in diabetes