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How Many Stages Of Diabetes Are There

Diabetes And Kidney Disease (stages 1-4)

Diabetes And Kidney Disease (stages 1-4)

What is diabetes? Diabetes happens when your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone. It controls how much sugar is in your blood. A high level of sugar in your blood can cause problems in many parts of your body, including your heart, kidneys, eyes, and brain. Over time, this can lead to kidney disease and kidney failure. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes generally begins when people are young. In this case, the body does not make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is usually found in adults over 40, but is becoming more common in younger people. It is usually associated with being overweight and tends to run in families. In type 2 diabetes, the body makes insulin, but cannot use it well. What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Your kidneys are important because they keep the rest of your body in balance. They: Remove waste products from the body Balance the body’s fluids Help keep blood pressure under control Keep bones healthy Help make red blood cells. When you have kidney disease, it means that the kidneys have been damaged. Kidneys can get damaged from a disease like diabetes. Once your kidneys are damaged, they cannot filter your blood nor do other jobs as well as they should. When diabetes is not well controlled, the sugar level in your blood goes up. This is called hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) can cause damage to many parts of your body, especially the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, eyes, feet, nerves. Diabetes can harm the kidneys by causing damage to: Blood vessels inside your kidneys. The filtering units of the kidney are filled with tiny blood vessels. Over time, high sugar levels in the blood can cause these vessels to become narrow and clogged. Without enough blood, the kid Continue reading >>

Five Stages Of Evolving Beta-cell Dysfunction During Progression To Diabetes

Five Stages Of Evolving Beta-cell Dysfunction During Progression To Diabetes

This article proposes five stages in the progression of diabetes, each of which is characterized by different changes in β-cell mass, phenotype, and function. Stage 1 is compensation: insulin secretion increases to maintain normoglycemia in the face of insulin resistance and/or decreasing β-cell mass. This stage is characterized by maintenance of differentiated function with intact acute glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Stage 2 occurs when glucose levels start to rise, reaching ∼5.0–6.5 mmol/l; this is a stable state of β-cell adaptation with loss of β-cell mass and disruption of function as evidenced by diminished GSIS and β-cell dedifferentiation. Stage 3 is a transient unstable period of early decompensation in which glucose levels rise relatively rapidly to the frank diabetes of stage 4, which is characterized as stable decompensation with more severe β-cell dedifferentiation. Finally, stage 5 is characterized by severe decompensation representing a profound reduction in β-cell mass with progression to ketosis. Movement across stages 1–4 can be in either direction. For example, individuals with treated type 2 diabetes can move from stage 4 to stage 1 or stage 2. For type 1 diabetes, as remission develops, progression from stage 4 to stage 2 is typically found. Delineation of these stages provides insight into the pathophysiology of both progression and remission of diabetes. STAGE 1: COMPENSATION The most common example of compensation is found with the insulin resistance due to obesity, which is accompanied by higher overall rates of insulin secretion (2) and increased acute glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) following an intravenous glucose challenge (3). Much of the increase in insulin secretion undoubtedly results from an increa Continue reading >>

5 Stages Of Diabetes Acceptance

5 Stages Of Diabetes Acceptance

Home Health and Wellness 5 Stages of Diabetes Acceptance Posted by Naomi Ruperto On January 20, 2015 In Health and Wellness TuDiabetes blogger , Rick Phillips, has lived with type 1 diabetes for more than 40 years, and grew up with a mother and aunt with type 1 diabetes. In this time, hes come to understand that diabetes is as much an emotional journey as a physical one. The emotional journey is often a twisted road with many detours. Rick believes it is one all people with diabetes must undertake in order to maximize life with diabetes. It is generally agreed that there are five stages of grief. Readers might ask how being diagnosed with diabetes equates to grief. Grief occurs anytime we experience loss. Diabetes fits that description very well, because when diagnosed, one often feels a loss of independence or the opportunity to live life on ones own terms. I know, of course, this is not the case, but for a newly diagnosed person with diabetes, they are often overwhelmed with thoughts of all they have lost. Those feelings of loss often initiate the process of grieving, either for the person with diabetes, the family, or both. The first stage of grief that most experience is denial. One simply decides to live as if we are not a person with diabetes. We do not care what happens to us or how to move past the initial shock of the situation. In order to get past this step, one must first take responsibility for their condition. I believe it is important to encourage as much responsibility for the management of diabetes as soon as possible. Of course there are appropriate boundaries, but the sooner a person takes responsibility the better chance of not becoming stuck in this dangerous stage. One may feel their potential has been tampered with, additional restrictions have b Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 Diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 Diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes?

Question: What is the difference between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes? Answer: There are several types of diabetes; I'm going to discuss the two main types: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 formerly called juvenile onset diabetes occurs typically before the age of 20. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are usually thin, and the cause of type 1 diabetes is that the pancreas, the organ that secretes insulin, is destroyed by autoantibodies, that's why people with type 1 diabetes always need insulin, either injected or through an insulin pump. Type 1 diabetes occurs in about 10-15 percent of all the diabetics in the country. Now, the most common type of diabetes is what we call type 2, formerly called adult onset. Type 2 diabetics are usually heavy, usually diagnosed after the age of 35. Now, the cause of type 2 diabetes is quite different from type 1. The cause of type 2 diabete is primarily a complicated medical condition called 'insulin resistance.' In fact, in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, there's plenty of insulin around, it just doesn't work well. To treat type 2 diabetes, we typically use lifestyle, and that may work alone -- just diet and exercise -- then we may need oral medications, and it is not uncommon for someone with type 2 diabetes to eventually need insulin, either with or without the oral medications. Now, type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 85 to 90 percent of all the diabetics in the country. The other important thing that needs to be said is that type 2 diabetes is associated with heart disease, and that's why it's so important to not only treat the glucose levels, but also to attack blood pressure and cholesterol levels as well. We know that type 2 diabetes runs very strongly from generation to generation, and we also know that we can preve Continue reading >>

The Stages Of Type 1 Diabetes (it Starts Earlier Than We Thought)

The Stages Of Type 1 Diabetes (it Starts Earlier Than We Thought)

My daughter Bisi was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes three years ago at the age of six. The first night after she was diagnosed, once she finally fell asleep in her hospital bed, tossing and turning despite the IV in her arm, I remember standing outside in the hall with my husband and a couple of medical residents, talking with them about her diagnosis. “Could this have been coming on for a while?” we asked them. I described how for a couple of years, Bisi had been almost unbearably cranky when she was hungry—to the point where I’d asked her pediatrician more than once if something might be wrong. No, the residents told us. Type 1 diabetes comes on very suddenly, in a matter of weeks, as the body’s beta cells suddenly die out under attack from the immune system. Every doctor or nurse we spoke with during the three days in the hospital (except for one, who said that our instincts were probably right), echoed what the two residents, fresh from medical school, told us. But it turns out they were wrong. JDRF and the American Diabetes Association, supported by other organizations in the field, recently put forth a new staging system for type 1 diabetes, where full-blown disease, like what landed Bisi in the hospital, is characterized as stage 3, part of an extended auto-immune process that often starts in infancy. This fall, Dr. Richard Insel, JDRF’s Chief Scientific Officer, explained the classification system to a group of reporters, talking through the importance of early diagnosis, and the hope that diagnosing the disease at an earlier stage could lead to breakthroughs in stopping the beta-cell destruction process—essentially, stopping the disease before it starts. Insel explained that stage 1 is when people test positive for multiple pancreatic islet auto-a Continue reading >>

The 5 Stages Of Diabetes Acceptance

The 5 Stages Of Diabetes Acceptance

Judith Grout, right, and her husband, Daniel W. Grout, traveled through several stages in their diabetes journey. When my husband returned from his semiannual physical, he marched into our kitchen and slammed down papers on the countertop, proclaiming, My doctor tells me I have diabetes. He pulled out a kitchen chair, scraping the feet along my freshly polished floor, slid onto the padded seat, and propped his fist under his chin. The year was 2007. We were both in our mid-60s, enjoying the newfound freedom that came with retirement. During my career as a clinical laboratory professional, Id done it all: hematology, chemistry, and immunologyto name a few of the specialty areas that encompass laboratory analysis of human body fluids. Id just retired from managing a busy clinical laboratory in a bustling hospital environment in Sun City, Ariz. My husband of 40-plus years was winding down his computer consulting career, anxious to join me in exploring new vistas: traveling, gardening, and enduring the challenges of playing more golf. I picked up the pages of his latest blood work results scattered on the counter. Sure enough. There were his elevated fasting blood glucose and A1C test results, standing out on the page with the insulting bold print intentionally intended to draw the eye to the results and a capital H indicating the results were high. Over a hastily organized lunch, we talked about the implications of this shocking revelationhaving type 2 diabetes . What exactly had his physician told him? What was the next step? Where did this come from? I explained the intricacies of what I knew about treatment options and improvements in protocols Id witnessed over the many years of churning out laboratory test results on people with diabetes. At the end of our meal, we b Continue reading >>

Five Stages Of Diabetes: Pick Up High Insulin And Blood Sugar Levels Early

Five Stages Of Diabetes: Pick Up High Insulin And Blood Sugar Levels Early

FIVE STAGES OF DIABETES: BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS & INSULIN DYSFUNCTION Did you know there are 5 stages of blood sugar and insulin dysfunction leading to full blown diabetes, Most, walk around without knowing their blood sugar levels are high. Upon the diagnosis of diabetes there is a typical sense of shock or disbelief, yet at the same time it represents an estimated 13 year losing battle for the pancreas as food choice triggers excess insulin release and the pancreas loses function. Prevention and intervention should focus on stage 1, the earliest point of dysfunction which is insulin resistance. Unfortunately because clinicians focus on blood sugar and not insulin as a standard test, years are lost and treatment typically begins at stage 3 when high blood sugar levels are present. The Stages of Diabetes Stage 1, insulin resistance: Blood sugar levels seem normal because the pancreas balances high blood sugar by releasing higher amounts of insulin. Stage 2, blood sugar levels rise (pre-diabetes): The pancreas has difficulty keeping up with the demand of producing more insulin to maintain normal levels of blood sugar. The pancreas becomes fatigued from overworking and it puts out less insulin, blood sugar levels begin to rise. Stage 3, high blood sugar levels (diabetes): Damage to the pancreas begins, insulin output cannot cover the rise in blood sugar levels rise more quickly. Stage 4, damage to the pancreas (diabetes): An elevation in blood sugar level is the result of years of the pancreas overworking. The pancreas works excessively to lower blood sugar. Stage 5, Failed pancreas (diabetes): The pancreas produces too little insulin, or none . Need insulin injections to survive. Early DETECTION: Before Blood Sugar Levels Rise There may not be any symptoms, or symptoms may n Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

Do You Know The 5 Types Of Diabetes?

Do You Know The 5 Types Of Diabetes?

(BlackDoctor.org) — What is diabetes? Essentially, it’s a disorder where your body has problems producing or effectively using insulin, which can, in turn, cause many other mild to severe health problems. There are several different causes of insulin problems – managing your diabetes will depend on which type you have. Type 1 Diabetes: Little To No Insulin With type 1 diabetes, which used to be called juvenile diabetes, your body does not produce insulin or produces very little. Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease because it occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and young adults and accounts for 5 to 10 percent of diabetes cases in the United States. Symptoms may include thirst, frequent urination, increased hunger, unexplained weight loss, blurry vision, and fatigue. People who have type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections daily to make up for what their pancreas can’t produce. Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin Resistance Type 2 diabetes, which used to be called adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90 to 95 percent of diabetes cases. While most people who develop type 2 diabetes are older, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children is on the rise. The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is largely unknown, but the disease tends to develop in people who are obese and physically inactive. People who have a family history of diabetes or a personal history of gestational diabetes are also at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, certain groups, particularly African Americans, have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually develop gradually, and are similar to Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

How Many Types Of Diabetes Are There?

How Many Types Of Diabetes Are There?

This is a question that we get asked regularly. If we asked this question to the general population twenty years ago, a majority probably wouldn’t have any idea. But today, unfortunately, so many people have diabetes that everyone seems to at least have heard of type 1 and type 2. And—due to the rising rate of obesity in pregnant women—the public is becoming much more familiar with gestational diabetes. However, when you get to the details of this complex disease, things get less and less clear cut—not only how many types of diabetes there are, but also how they’re characterized. For example, type 1 is an autoimmune disease, and people require insulin at diagnosis. Usually the diagnosis is in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood, but not always (people can be diagnosed with type 1 at any age). Type 2 isn’t autoimmune, and it may take years before a person requires insulin, if at all—and patients are usually older and often overweight, but again this is a generality, particularly as the number of people who are obese grows and gets younger. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy, and blood glucose returns to normal after delivery, but often it doesn’t. In addition, researchers have discovered another category of diabetes called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Think of LADA as a slowly progressing version of type 1 with some of the characteristics of type 2. In fact, some people call it type 1.5. People with LADA have antibodies to the disease like those with type 1 but they don’t need insulin right away. Their blood glucose can be controlled on lifestyle or oral agents for months or sometimes years. There’s more. Type 1, 2, gestational diabetes and LADA are polygenic—this means that it takes the involvement of many genes to c Continue reading >>

Late Stage Complications Of Diabetes And Insulin Resistance

Late Stage Complications Of Diabetes And Insulin Resistance

1Department of Microbiology, Chaitanya Postgraduate College, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India 2Department of Biotechnology, Presidency College, Bangalore University, India *Corresponding Author: Department Of Microbiology, Chaitanya Postgraduate College affiliated to Kakatiya University, Warangal, India E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Soumya D, Srilatha B (2011) Late Stage Complications of Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. J Diabetes Metab 2:167. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000167 Copyright: © 2011 Soumya D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Diabetes mellitus is considered one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder or a chronic condition where the sugar levels in blood are high. Diabetes is associated with long-term complications that affect almost every part of the body and often leads to blindness, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve damage. Also it is associated with significantly accelerated rates of several debilitating microvascular complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as atherosclerosis and stroke. In the present article it has been discussed about the resistance of insulin and its consequences in diabetic patients. Insulin resistance results in various disorders. Metabolic syndrome is predicted to become a major public health problem in many developed, as well as developing countries. Keywords Diabetes; Complications Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus (DM), is a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly store and use sugar. It affects the body's ability to use glucose, a type of sugar found in the blood, as fuel. This happens because the body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells do not correctly respond to insulin to use glucose as energy. Insulin is a type of hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate how blood sugar becomes energy. An imbalance of insulin or resistance to insulin causes diabetes. Diabetes is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, vision loss, neurological conditions, and damage to blood vessels and organs. There is type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. They have different causes and risk factors, and different lines of treatment. This article will compare the similarities and differences of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. However, having gestational diabetes also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy, so patients are often screened for type 2 diabetes at a later date. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1. For every person with type 1 diabetes, 20 will have type 2. Type 2 can be hereditary, but excess weight, a lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet increase At least a third of people in the U.S. will develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Both types can lead to heart attack, stroke, nerve damage, kidney damage, and possible amputation of limbs. Causes In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. These cells are destro Continue reading >>

How Many Forms Of Diabetes Exist

How Many Forms Of Diabetes Exist

It's a pathology due to the alteration of carbohydrate metabolism. The pancreas, then, loses its ability to produce insulin, a protein hormone produced by beta cells and gradually decreases the amount until they completely stop to do it. Cells absorb sugar by this hormone and without it, the sugar isnt absorbed and they remain in the blood causing a rise in blood glucose. There are too many types of diabetes that, even if it comes in a different way, the result is always the loss of the ability to produce insulin. The two principal types of diabetes are "diabetes of first type or youthful and diabetes of second type or adult. Other forms of diabetes are gestational diabetes that can occur temporarily in pregnant woman, diabetes MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young) and diabetes LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults) Diabetes type 1 or insulin dependent diabetes may develop due to disease of the pancreas, infectious or traumatic events like car accidents or surgery, but more often it becomes the first type of diabetes without being affected by such events. The disease usually affects children in childhood or adolescence, but there are cases of adults who develop this form after thirty years. The causes that trigger diabetes type 1 and the process of self-destruction of the insulin-producing Beta cells are still unknown. The disease begins when the already 80 / 90% of the cells were destroyed without showing symptoms earlier. The classical symptoms are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger), and weight loss. When his debut, juvenile diabetes must be treated quickly, otherwise it can have serious consequences for the patient. The adult diabetes can develop in individuals who are overweight or obese. This form Continue reading >>

Defining Three

Defining Three "early Stages" Of Diabetes

"What stage of diabetes do you have?" That question could become a common one soon, if some leading diabetes experts succeed in establishing an official three-tiered delineation of the early stages of D in order to pursue research and treatments in preventing the autoimmune condition. In other words, the kind of multi-stage disease model that exists for a handful of other conditions like Alzeimer's, cancer, kidney disease and beyond could soon be coming to the type 1 diabetes world. A precise set of definitions is being proposed for three early stages of T1D, aimed at putting specific labels to those who don't yet have type 1 but could be predisposed and at higher risk for eventually developing the autoimmune condition. And no, we're not just talking "pre-diabetes" here. This goes way beyond that, into an actual scientific definition and screening process rather than the vague abyss drawing in millions of souls who may someday develop type 2 diabetes. Yesterday, we published an interview with a diabetes endo-researcher who's pursuing insulin independence for those of us already living with type 1. Today, we're looking at another side of that research coin. "Currently, you either have T1D or don't, but that does not fully capture the complexity of T1D for all people," said JDRF's Chief Scientific Officer Dick Insel at an October workshop in Bethesda, MD, that brought a handful of researchers and industry experts together to discuss this issue. This push for a new three-stage scheme of early type 1 diabetes comes on the heels of two decades of screening and research by entities like TrialNet, which have helped get a better look at the early onset of type 1 -- even if we don't have a full grasp at this point on what causes the body to attack the immune system and kill off Continue reading >>

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