Type 2 Diabetes Faqs
Common questions about type 2 diabetes: How do you treat type 2 diabetes? When you have type 2 diabetes, you first need to eat a healthy diet, stay physically active and lose any extra weight. If these lifestyle changes cannot control your blood sugar, you also may need to take pills and other injected medication, including insulin. Eating a healthy diet, being physically active, and losing any extra weight is the first line of therapy. “Diet and exercise“ is the foundation of all diabetes management because it makes your body’s cells respond better to insulin (in other words, it decreases insulin resistance) and lowers blood sugar levels. If you cannot normalize or control the blood sugars with diet, weight loss and exercise, the next treatment phase is taking medicine either orally or by injection. Diabetes pills work in different ways – some lower insulin resistance, others slow the digestion of food or increase insulin levels in the blood stream. The non-insulin injected medications for type 2 diabetes have a complicated action but basically lower blood glucose after eating. Insulin therapy simply increases insulin in the circulation. Don’t be surprised if you have to use multiple medications to control the blood sugar. Multiple medications, also known as combination therapy is common in the treatment of diabetes! If one medication is not enough, you medical provider may give you two or three or more different types of pills. Insulin or other injected medications also may be prescribed. Or, depending on your medical condition, you may be treated only with insulin or injected medication therapy. Many people with type 2 diabetes have elevated blood fats (high triglycerides and cholesterol) and blood pressure, so you may be given medications for these problem Continue reading >>
The Rise Of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes In The 20th Century
The incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes increased worldwide in the closing decades of the 20th century, but the origins of this increase are poorly documented. A search through the early literature revealed a number of useful but neglected sources, particularly in Scandinavia. While these do not meet the exacting standards of more recent surveys, tentative conclusions can be drawn concerning long-term changes in the demography of the disease. Childhood type 1 diabetes was rare but well recognized before the introduction of insulin. Low incidence and prevalence rates were recorded in several countries over the period 1920–1950, and one carefully performed study showed no change in childhood incidence over the period 1925–1955. An almost simultaneous upturn was documented in several countries around the mid-century. The overall pattern since then is one of linear increase, with evidence of a plateau in some high-incidence populations and of a catch-up phenomenon in some low-incidence areas. Steep rises in the age-group under 5 years have been recorded recently. The disease process underlying type 1 diabetes has changed over time and continues to evolve. Understanding why and how this produced the pandemic of childhood diabetes would be an important step toward reversing it. At the start of the 20th century, childhood diabetes was rare and rapidly fatal. By its end, some 3–4 children per 1,000 in Western countries would require insulin treatment by the age of 20 years, and a steady rise in incidence had been reported from many other parts of the world. This increase has been extensively documented over the past two decades, over which time standard means of data collection have been agreed, central registries have been established, and numerous epidemiological stu Continue reading >>
Everything You Need To Know About Insulin Pumps
Everyone needs insulin to live. Insulin is a hormone that helps our bodies use and store the food we eat. People with Type 1 Diabetes no longer make insulin and have to give insulin in order to sustain life. People with Type 2 Diabetes don’t use their own insulin well, and over time can have trouble making enough. So, all people with Type 1 diabetes and some people with Type 2 diabetes need insulin. When people give insulin injections, they may take 1-2 injections of a long acting insulin every day and 3+ injections of rapid acting insulin for meals and snacks. The typical person with Type 1 Diabetes could take anywhere from 4-7+ injections a day. Many people currently give insulin through an insulin pen or a syringe. But, there is another option, an insulin pump. An insulin pump delivers rapid acting insulin in two ways. First, the pump is programmed to give you insulin every hour throughout the hour referred to basal insulin. Basal, think “base,” is the insulin your body needs even in the absence of food, it is also referred to as background insulin. This basal rate replaces the long acting injection that you take. Second, is bolus, this is the insulin you take for food or to correct a high blood sugar. If you get basal and bolus confused, think “bowl”, as in you eat out of a bowl, to help you remember bolus is for food. Once you are on a pump, all insulin is delivered through the pump and shots are no longer necessary. Components There are a few things necessary to make a pump work. When a pump is shipped to someone: they will also need to send infusion sets, reservoirs, and possibly batteries, depending on your pump. Let’s talk about each component. Infusion Sets An infusion set is the part that is actually inserted into the body and has tubing that conn Continue reading >>
Discussion: Blood Sugar Levels And Type 2 Diabetes
When it comes to blood sugar levels, the numbers always seem to confuse people. So we're here today to cover a whole range of reader questions that have come in. If you have questions of your own, join the discussion – please feel free to leave your comments at the bottom. Healthy blood sugar goal ranges Healthy blood sugar control values will depend on several factors, the most important being when you check it. Blood glucose levels will rise after eating meals regardless of whether a person has diabetes–however, someone with good control will be able to bring it down to a stable level after 2 hours. The diagnostic values below are for non pregnant adults with type 2 diabetes. Ranges are different for children, those with type I diabetes and pregnant women. FASTING AFTER MEALS 2 HOURS HbA1c Normal 70-99 mg/dL (4-6 mmol/L)* <140 mg/dL (<7.8 mmol/L)** <5.7% Pre-Diabetes 100-125 mg/dL (6.1-6.9 mmol/L) 140-179 mg/dL 5.7-6.4% Diabetes >126 mg/dL (>7 mmol/L) >180 mg/dL 6.5% and higher *Note that different agencies establish different standards. Some range 70-100 mg/dL, some 70-110 mg/dL, some 70-130 mg/dL **Some agencies recommend <180 mg/dL post-meal especially in the elderly and those who have had diabetes for a very long time What should your goals be? That is between you and your healthcare team because it does depend on various factors. But overall your goal is to gain good control of your diabetes, which means maintaining normal levels or getting as close to normal levels as possible (refer to the normal numbers above). We’ve answered some specific questions regarding blood sugar over here, so be sure to check those out as well. Some specific comments and questions we’ve received regarding blood sugar levels include: 1. My post meal is hovering around 140-160, Continue reading >>
We Finally Have An “artificial Pancreas” For Diabetes. But It's A Letdown.
Melinda Wedding The first thing Melinda Wedding thinks about when she wakes at 6:15 am is checking her daughter Carson’s blood sugar to see if she needs another dose of insulin. "Type 1 diabetes is constant," Wedding told me. "There’s no downtime." Throughout the day she might look at her watch, which gives her a reading of her daughter’s blood sugar, up to 100 times. With that data comes hundreds of decisions about when Carson should eat and how to use her insulin pump. Every night, Wedding wakes up two or three times to check on her daughter’s blood levels again. If Carson misses a dose of insulin — and she sometimes does as she learns to manage her condition — her blood sugar will rise. Over time, that could lead to all sorts of adverse effects, from brain fogs and stomachaches to a coma or kidney failure. You'd think that a new device called the "artificial pancreas" would be a godsend for someone like her. Designed to make insulin delivery less of a hassle by automating it, the MiniMed 670G by Medtronic was called "revolutionary" and a game changer after the Food and Drug Administration approved it in September. But families like the Weddings say the device, slated to hit the market in spring 2017, has been incredibly overhyped. For starters, it isn’t a true artificial pancreas — it only automates the delivery of one type of insulin — and patients who use it still have to do a lot to manage their condition. "I hate [the name]," Wedding summed up. "It gives the connotation that the problem is solved, when it’s far from solved." The device also does nothing to fix one of the most pressing problems facing the 1 million people with Type 1 diabetes in America: The cost of insulin is skyrocketing so much that some patients are being forced to cut back Continue reading >>
How Long Has Diabetes Mellitus Been Around???
Diabetes Mellitus is a disease spread all over the world in the present day world. Diabetes first was diagnosed only in the late 15th century B.C in Egypt. Many of us may get astounded hearing this fact, but it is true. It is recoded that, the first mention of diabetic symptoms are mentioned in the year 1552 B.C in Egypt. The prescription was meant for a problem, which seemed to be excessive urination. This symptom is very closely related to diabetes Mellitus for the present times. So considering this prescriptions we can assume that it first came to rise in this era. Later in 100 B.C., a Greek physician named Aretaeus, first time used the term Diabetes. He stated that diabetes is a disease which melts down the flesh and limbs to urine. He gave the side effects of diabetic patient. A few years after that, another Greek physician Galen of Pergamum, has mistakenly diagnosed diabetes as a kidney disorder. He suggested that Diabetes is a ailment of kidney. Present Day Diabetes- Till the 11th century A.D., patients suffering from constant urination were asked to give a sample of there urination. And these sample of urine was tasted by water tasters. This is because the urine of a diabetic patient is supposed to be sweet. And therefore these patients were diagnosed in such a way. The Latin word of Honey is Mellitus, is hence added to Diabetes as a result.That is how the name ‘Diabetes Mellitus’ has been derived. Since then many physicians from across Europe and Asia have researched on diabetic symptoms. In 1870 a French physician has developed a link between the digestive system and diabetes Mellitus. In the late 19th century, an Italian diabetes specialists Catoni, isolated his patient under lock and key, so that they follow his diet and respond him for his diet treatmen Continue reading >>
Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?
Diabetes is an ancient disease, but the first effective drug therapy was not available until 1922, when insulin revolutionized the management of the disorder. Insulin is administered by injection, but treatment took another great leap forward in 1956, when the first oral diabetic drug was introduced. Since then, dozens of new medications have been developed, but scientists are still learning how best to use them. And new studies are prompting doctors to re-examine a fundamental therapeutic question: what level of blood sugar is best? Normal metabolism To understand diabetes, you should first understand how your body handles glucose, the sugar that fuels your metabolism. After you eat, your digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars that are small enough to be absorbed into your bloodstream. Glucose is far and away the most important of these sugars, and it's an indispensable source of energy for your body's cells. But to provide that energy, it must travel from your blood into your cells. Insulin is the hormone that unlocks the door to your cells. When your blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the beta cells of your pancreas spring into action, pouring insulin into your blood. If you produce enough insulin and your cells respond normally, your blood sugar level drops as glucose enters the cells, where it is burned for energy or stored for future use in your liver as glycogen. Insulin also helps your body turn amino acids into proteins and fatty acids into body fat. The net effect is to allow your body to turn food into energy and to store excess energy to keep your engine running if fuel becomes scarce in the future. A diabetes primer Diabetes is a single name for a group of disorders. All forms of the disease develop when the pancreas is unable to Continue reading >>
Take Care Of Yourself When Sick Or Under Stress
When we're stressed, our bodies need extra energy to help us cope and recover. This is true whether bodies are under stress from illness or injury or are dealing with the effects of emotional stress, both good and bad. To meet the demand for more energy, the body responds by releasing into the bloodstream sugar that's been stored in the liver, causing blood sugar levels to rise. In someone without diabetes, the pancreas responds to the rise in blood sugar by releasing enough insulin into the bloodstream to help convert the sugar into energy. This brings blood sugar levels back down to normal. In someone with diabetes, the extra demand usually means needing to take more diabetes medicine (insulin or pills.) To make sure your body is getting enough medicine to help keep your blood sugar levels close to normal, you'll need to test more often when you are: Sick Recovering from surgery Fighting an infection Feeling upset Under more stress than usual Traveling Type 1 Diabetes In people with type 1 diabetes, blood sugar levels rise in response to stress, but the body doesn't have enough insulin to turn the sugar into energy. Instead, the body burns stored fat to meet energy needs. When fat is burned for energy, it creates waste products called ketones. As fat is broken down, ketones start to build up in the bloodstream. High levels of ketones in the blood can lead to a serious condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which can cause a person to lose consciousness and go into a diabetic coma. Type 2 Diabetes In people with type 2 diabetes, the body usually has enough insulin available to turn sugar into energy, so it doesn't need to burn fat. However, stress hormones can cause blood sugar levels to rise to very high and even dangerous levels. People with type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>
Diabetes - Type 1
Description An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes. Alternative Names Type 1 diabetes; Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile diabetes Highlights Type 1 Diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is involved in regulating how the body converts sugar (glucose) into energy. People with type 1 diabetes need to take daily insulin shots and carefully monitor their blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes. It accounts for 5 - 10% of all diabetes cases. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it usually first develops in childhood or adolescence. Symptoms of Diabetes Symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include: Frequent urination Excessive thirst Extreme hunger Sudden weight loss Extreme fatigue Irritability Blurred vision In general, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes come on more abruptly and are more severe than those of type 2 diabetes. Warning Signs of Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) occurs when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall below normal. All patients with diabetes should be aware of these symptoms of hypoglycemia: Sweating Trembling Hunger Rapid heartbeat Confusion It is important to quickly treat hypoglycemia and raise blood sugar levels by eating sugar, sucking on hard candy, or drinking fruit juice. Patients who are at risk for hypoglycemia should carry some sugar product, or an emergency glucagon injection kit, in case an attack occurs. In rare and worst cases, hypoglycemia can lead to coma and death. Regular blood sugar monitoring throughout the day can help you avoid hypoglycemia. Patients are also encouraged to wear a medical alert ID bracelet or necklace that states they have diabetes and that they take insulin. Pati Continue reading >>
My Life With Diabetes: 69 Years And Counting
I do not know of many diabetics who developed the illness around the time I did, in 1946, who are still alive. I know of none who do not suffer from active complications. The reality is, had I not taken charge of my diabetes, it’s very unlikely that I’d be alive and active today. Many myths surround diet and diabetes, and much of what is still considered by the average physician to be sensible nutritional advice for diabetics can, over the long run, be fatal. I know, because conventional “wisdom” about diabetes almost killed me. I developed diabetes in 1946 at the age of twelve, and for more than two decades I was an “ordinary” diabetic, dutifully following doctor’s orders and leading the most normal life I could, given the limitations of my disease. Over the years, the complications from my diabetes became worse and worse, and like many diabetics in similar circumstances, I faced a very early death. I was still alive, but the quality of my life wasn’t particularly good. I have what is known as type 1, or insulin-dependent, diabetes, which usually begins in childhood (it’s also called juvenileonset diabetes). Type 1 diabetics must take daily insulin injections just to stay alive. Back in the 1940s, which were very much still the “dark ages” of diabetes treatment, I had to sterilize my needles and glass syringes by boiling them every day, and sharpen my needles with an abrasive stone. I used a test tube and an alcohol lamp (flame) to test my urine for sugar. Many of the tools the diabetic can take for granted today were scarcely dreamed of back then — there was no such thing as a rapid, finger-stick blood sugar–measuring device, nor disposable insulin syringes. Still, even today, parents of type 1 diabetics have to live with the same fear my par Continue reading >>
Milestones In The History Of Diabetes Mellitus: The Main Contributors
Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases involving carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. It is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, as a result of defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or a combination of both, defective secretion and incorrect action. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 (insulin-dependent), and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent). Type 1 diabetes results by the autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreatic islets and type 2 diabetes is caused from impaired insulin secretion and resistance to the action of insulin.Current epidemiological data reveal that 9% of adults, 18 years of age and older, has diabetes mellitus while it was estimated that in 2012, 1.5 million people died due to the disease. According to the World Health Organization, diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030[2-4]. The disease has a long history reaching back into antiquity. However, during that period, due to a poor knowledge of anatomy, pathophysiology and lack of diagnostic tools, the disease remained extremely perplexing to physicians. Nevertheless, physicians in antiquity observed the distinctive features of diabetes and proposed several therapeutic approaches. In Ebers papyrus, dated back to 1500 BC, we may find passages describing patients who suffer from excessive thirst, copious urination and they are treated by plants’ extracts. However, according to the Egyptian endocrinologist, historian of medicine and translator of the Ebers papyrus Paul Ghalioungui (1908-1987), the description of a probable diabetes, in Ebers, is regarded as unsatisfactory and probably wrong. In Kahun papyrus (c. 2000 BC) there is just the title of a recipe for the “Treatment of a thirsty woman”, but the t Continue reading >>
After Diabetes Diagnosis
Diabetes is a disease where blood sugar levels are too high because the body can no longer make or use insulin properly. The condition could lead to serious complications and even death. An estimated 29.1 million Americans have diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes in the U.S. There are several types of diabetes, including Type 1, Type 2 and gestational — a type that occurs in pregnant women. Type 2 is the most common, and about 95 percent of all people with diabetes in the U.S. have this type. An additional 86 million adults in the United States have prediabetes, a condition where your blood sugar is high but not elevated enough for a diabetes diagnosis. Cases of diabetes increase each year, and every 19 seconds doctors diagnose someone in the U.S. with the disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 1 in 3 adults may be diagnosed with diabetes by 2050. It’s important to keep blood sugar levels controlled because it can cause serious health problems — including kidney disease, heart problems, skin problems and limb amputations. Even if Type 2 diabetes has no cure, it can be prevented and managed. People with the disease can control blood sugar with lifestyle changes and medication. What is Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which your body loses its ability to produce and use insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas that the body uses to convert glucose into energy. Without the right amount of insulin, excess sugar builds up in the body and causes a number of health problems. Where Type 1 typically occurs in younger people and is an immune disorder, Type 2 most often occurs later in life. In fact, the medical community used to call Type 2 diabetes “adult-onset” diabetes. M Continue reading >>
History Of Diabetes
By now, you probably know a lot about diabetes. You know you have to take shots, test your blood, and watch what you eat. But did you ever wonder what causes diabetes? Or how long it has been around? The foods we eat are broken down, absorbed into the bloodstream, and then used by the body for energy. Insulin is the chemical the body makes to help convert sugar in the blood into energy. Insulin is made in the pancreas, a long, skinny gland that sits behind your stomach. You probably have a type of diabetes called Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes, which usually develops in childhood. In people with this type of diabetes, the body no longer makes enough insulin to do a good job of breaking down sugar in the blood. That's why all people with Type 1 diabetes have to take at least one shot of insulin every day just to stay alive. Scientists aren't sure exactly why Type 1 diabetes happens, but they know it has something to do with the immune system, the mechanism in the body that fights off colds and infections. For some reason, in certain people, the immune system screws up and begins attacking and destroying the body's own cells: those of the pancreas that make insulin. When enough of these cells are destroyed, and the pancreas can no longer make enough insulin to break down the sugar in the blood, the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear. See if you remember having any of them: Frequent urination, because the body is trying to get rid of excess sugar. Strong thirst, because the body wants to replace all the fluid lost through the urine. Strong hunger and weight loss, since without insulin to help use the food you eat, the body begins to starve. Diabetes has been around a very long time. There was a prescription for frequent urination, its most common symptom, on an Eg Continue reading >>
History Of Diabetes
The beginnings Diabetes has been affecting lives for thousands of years. An ailment suspected to be diabetes was recognized by the Egyptians in manuscripts dating to approximately 1550 B.C. According to one study, ancient Indians (circa 400–500 A.D.) were well aware of the condition, and had even identified two types of the condition. They tested for diabetes — which they called “honey urine” — by determining if ants were attracted to a person’s urine. The term “diabetes” In Greek, “diabetes” means “to go through.” Greek physician Apollonius of Memphis is credited with naming the disorder for its top symptom: the excessive passing of urine through the body’s system. Historical documents show that Greek, Indian, Arab, Egyptian, and Chinese doctors were aware of the condition, but none could determine its cause. In earlier times, a diagnosis of diabetes was likely a death sentence. Insulin deficiency In the early years of the 20th century, medical professionals took the first steps toward discovering a cause and treatment mode for diabetes. In 1926, Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer announced that the pancreas of a patient with diabetes was unable to produce what he termed “insulin,” a chemical the body uses to break down sugar. Thus, excess sugar ended up in the urine. Physicians promoted a fasting diet combined with regular exercise to combat the disorder. Diabetes in dogs Despite attempts to manage the disorder through diet and exercise, people with diabetes inevitably died prematurely. In 1921, scientists experimenting with dogs had a breakthrough in reversing the effects of diabetes. Two Canadian researchers, Frederick Grant Banting and Charles Herbert Best, successfully extracted insulin from healthy dogs. They then injected it into dogs th Continue reading >>
Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes – where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin type 2 diabetes – where the body doesn't produce enough insulin, or the body's cells don't react to insulin Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2. During pregnancy, some women have such high levels of blood glucose that their body is unable to produce enough insulin to absorb it all. This is known as gestational diabetes. Pre-diabetes Many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes. This is sometimes known as pre-diabetes. If your blood sugar level is above the normal range, your risk of developing full-blown diabetes is increased. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as early as possible because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. When to see a doctor Visit your GP as soon as possible if you experience the main symptoms of diabetes, which include: urinating more frequently than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk cuts or wounds that heal slowly blurred vision Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly over weeks or even days. Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because the early symptoms tend to be general. Causes of diabetes The amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it's broken down to produce ene Continue reading >>
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