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How Is Diabetes Type 2 Diagnosed

What Is The Best Way To Distinguish Type 1 And 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Best Way To Distinguish Type 1 And 2 Diabetes?

Onset of diabetes in childhood with ketoacidosis and insulin dependency has traditionally been sufficient to diagnose type 1 diabetes, while onset in older, obese patients with primary insulin resistance suggested type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes may be present in the same patient, making differentiation difficult. No diagnostic studies in the literature were identified that definitively demonstrate how to separate type 1 from type 2 diabetes. A patient’s age may suggest, but does not reliably distinguish, diabetes types. A study of 569 new-onset type 1 and type 2 diabetic children and adolescents showed that older age was only weakly associated with type 2 diagnosis (odds ratio [OR]= 1.4 for each 1-year increment in age; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–1.6).2 In fact, newly diagnosed 12-year-old children have an equal incidence of type 1 as type 2 diabetes. Likewise, adults with type 2 phenotype (no initial insulin requirement) can present with positive autoantibodies typically found in younger type 1 patients. Older patients who fit this profile have been classified as type 1.5 diabetes or latent autoimmune disease in adults (LADA).3 A history of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) also does not reliably distinguish between types 1 and 2. A retrospective chart review gathered data on adults over 18 years of age who were admitted for DKA in a urban US hospital. Many patients with DKA were subsequently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Rates of type 2 diabetes in patients with DKA varied by race: 47% of Hispanics, 44% of African Americans, and 17% of Caucasians had type 2 diabetes.4 The overlapping presence of autoantibodies in both types of diabetes limits their use (TABLE). Autoantibodies do predict an earlier need for insulin. One pr Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Signs Of Type 2 Diabetes

Signs Of Type 2 Diabetes

What Is Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 diabetes can affect all people, regardless of age. Early symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be missed, so those affected may not even know they have the condition. An estimated one out of every three people within the early stages of type 2 diabetes are not aware they have it. Diabetes interferes with the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates for energy, leading to high levels of blood sugar. These chronically high blood sugar levels increase a person's risk of developing serious health problems. Potential Consequences of High Blood Sugar Nerve problems Vision loss Joint deformities Diabetic coma (life-threatening) Other diabetes complications from high blood pressure are listed further along in this slideshow Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Thirst Although people with type 2 diabetes may not have specific symptoms, an increase in thirst is one symptom that is characteristic of the condition. The increased thirst can accompany other symptoms like frequent urination, feelings of unusual hunger, dry mouth, and weight gain or loss. Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Headaches Other symptoms that can occur if high blood sugar levels persist are fatigue, blurred vision, and headaches. Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Infections Often, type 2 diabetes is only identified after its negative health consequences are apparent. Certain infections and sores that take a long time to heal are a warning sign. Other possible signs include frequent yeast infections or urinary tract infections and itchy skin. Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: Sexual Dysfunction Sexual problems can occur as a result of type 2 diabetes. Since diabetes can damage the blood vessels and nerves in the sex organs, decreased sensation can develop, potentially leading to difficulties with orgasm. Vaginal dryne Continue reading >>

I Have Been Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes. How Can I Get Rid Of It Fast? Is It Medicine?

I Have Been Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes. How Can I Get Rid Of It Fast? Is It Medicine?

I can tell you how NOT to get rid of it fast: Try to figure out ways to make it go away without doing the hard part of learning what not to eat and doing regular exercise. How successful you’ll be depends largely on how bad it is when diagnosed, some people don’t get the diagnosis until they are going to lose a limb, others like myself get lots of warning and ignore it until their condition meets the criteria for the disease. My biggest mistake has been continually trying to find a way to go back to my old way of life and start eating like I used to or even to simply grab a bite of a brownie or a slice of sourdough bread. Invariably it fails and I end up with high blood sugar again. Fortunately I test every day now and it keeps me more aware of my current condition. Trying to avoid those bites of the forbidden fruit is a constant temptation though. Exercise is basically a matter of forming habits. Get involved with a group for the reinforcement of both camaraderie and the sense of obligation to the others in the group to show up. You need at least 3x30min of vigorous aerobic exercise/week. More is better. Sadly it is a progressive disease for most and irregardless of how well you eat and how much exercise you get it will continue to get worse but the better you treat it the slower it will progress. Look up the Newcastle diet and have a look at the work of Valter Longo as well. Some people have reversed their diabetes or at least the impact of their diabetes considerably by radical weight loss. Newcastle is oriented toward diabetes while Longo is oriented toward a reset of your biological systems, These kinds of dietary restrictions will probably be your fastest way to alleviate the impact of the disease. Join one of the online forums dealing with the disease like di Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Diabetes

Diagnosing Diabetes

In diagnosing diabetes, physicians primarily depend upon the results of specific glucose tests. However, test results are just part of the information that goes into the diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Doctors also take into account your physical exam, presence or absence of symptoms, and medical history. Some people who are significantly ill will have transient problems with elevated blood sugars, which will then return to normal after the illness has resolved. Also, some medications may alter your blood glucose levels (most commonly steroids and certain diuretics, such as water pills). The 2 main tests used to measure the presence of blood sugar problems are the direct measurement of glucose levels in the blood during an overnight fast and measurement of the body's ability to appropriately handle the excess sugar presented after drinking a high glucose drink. Fasting Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar) Level A value above 126 mg/dL on at least 2 occasions typically means a person has diabetes. The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test An oral glucose tolerance test is one that can be performed in a doctor's office or a lab. The person being tested starts the test in a fasting state (having no food or drink except water for at least 10 hours but not greater than 16 hours). An initial blood sugar is drawn and then the person is given a "glucola" bottle with a high amount of sugar in it (75 grams of glucose or 100 grams for pregnant women). The person then has their blood tested again 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours after drinking the high glucose drink. For the test to give reliable results, you must be in good health (not have any other illnesses, not even a cold). Also, you should be normally active (for example, not lying down or confined to a bed like a patient in a Continue reading >>

How Difficult Is It For Someone Diagnosed With Diabetes (type 1 Or 2) To Get In Shape, Gain Weight/muscle Mass, And Grow?

How Difficult Is It For Someone Diagnosed With Diabetes (type 1 Or 2) To Get In Shape, Gain Weight/muscle Mass, And Grow?

First of all, understand the diabetes is a daily game. You need to focus more on your health from now on, be careful of what you eat , more importantly how much you eat. Being in shape by being diabetic is not very difficult, provided you are taking care of your food and workout on a daily basis. It would just be as simple as to any other person who is perfectly healthy. To gain muscle, you may have to put in more effort and check how much of protein you can have based on the medication you take. Since type 1 are insulin dependent, you need to make sure that your glucose levels are a bit on the upper side( 175-200) when you hit the gym, make sure to carry a healthy snack/biscuits so that emergency situations can be taken care of. Keep your gym instructor informed that you are diabetic. Keep a track of things like what you eat, and how much of insulin you take, depending on that what are your blood sugar levels, before food after food, all this need to be tracked. With a little extra care and focus, you will be able to have a good physique and build mass as well. You can follow this guy on Youtube. Jason Poston He is diabetic and a professional body builder. A true inspiration. Anything is possible, if you believe and work towards it. You can PM me if you need to know more. Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Adults

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes In Adults

NYU Langone doctors are experts at identifying people with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which a person has chronically high levels of blood sugar. It occurs when the body lacks or is resistant to insulin, a hormone that helps the body use glucose, or sugar. As a result, the body is unable to convert glucose into energy. In prediabetes, a person has higher-than-normal levels of blood sugar, which increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. To help the body use some of the excess blood sugar levels, the pancreas produces more insulin. Over time, prediabetes may progress into type 2 diabetes. In most people, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes develop gradually. If you have prediabetes and take steps to prevent type 2 diabetes, you may be able to avoid it altogether. Risk Factors Being overweight, especially if you are age 45 or older, is the biggest risk factor for type 2 diabetes. In particular, people who are “apple-shaped”—meaning they carry more fat around the abdomen—have a higher risk. Experts believe excess belly fat produces hormones that increase inflammation, which can lead to insulin resistance. Being sedentary also raises the risk of type 2 diabetes. It can lead to weight gain and lower muscle mass, which is required to help use glucose efficiently. People with a family history of type 2 diabetes have a greater chance of developing the condition than those who don’t. The condition can also occur in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, a hormone disorder associated with weight gain and insulin resistance. Conditions that harm insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, such as pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis, also increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that puts Continue reading >>

What Is Prediabetes? Stage Before Type 2 Diagnosis Is Warning Sign To Change Lifestyle

What Is Prediabetes? Stage Before Type 2 Diagnosis Is Warning Sign To Change Lifestyle

Pre diabetes - or borderline diabetes - is the stage before a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. If undiagnosed or left untreated, prediabetes can develop into type 2, according to Diabetes.co.uk. The condition is where blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be categorised as diabetes. It is estimated that around seven million - or one in three - people in the UK have prediabetes. Art the moment five to ten per cent of people with prediabetes go on to develop type 2 diabetes each year. According to Diabetes.co.uk it is thought that prediabetes is on the rise. Currently each year five to ten per cent of people with the condition go on to develop type 2. It is believed sufferers are at a critical stage since at this point they could potentially make lifestyle changes that could prevent or slow down the onset of type 2 diabetes. While treatable, type 2 diabetes is currently not fully reversible. Fri, August 19, 2016 Diabetes is a common life-long health condition. There are 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and an estimated 500,000 who are living undiagnosed with the condition. The condition can lead to complications such as increased risk of heart disease, kidney problems and even amputation. Prediabetes can often develop without any symptoms, making it easy to miss. Risk factors for the condition include being overweight or obese, having a high blood pressure and being over the age of 40 years. Additionally, if you have a family history or are of Afro-Caribbean, South Asian or Native American ancestry you may be more prone. In the same way as diabetes, prediabetes can be diagnosed with a fasting plasma glucose test or an HbA1c test. It is possible to avoid a type 2 diabetes diagnosis if you have prediabetes. Changing your diet Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes. It used to be called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent, and you may still hear it called that—but type 2 diabetes is more correct and current. The main issue in type 2 diabetes is that your body can't use insulin effectively. Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas that's necessary for processing glucose, which our bodies use for energy. Insulin allows the glucose to travel from the blood into the cells that need that it. If your body can't use insulin well, then it'll be more difficult for glucose to pass into the cells. Not being able to use insulin well is called insulin resistance. Some people with type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant; other people with type 2 diabetes don't produce enough insulin to handle the glucose in their blood, so they also have insulin deficiency. Regardless of whether you're insulin resistant or simply don't have insulin, the end result is the same in type 2 diabetes: glucose builds up in the blood, leading to hyperglycemia and possible long-term damage from hyperglycemia and poor blood glucose control. Type 2 Diabetes Causes Type 2 diabetes generally develops gradually. Over time, your body becomes less capable of using insulin, or it starts producing less insulin. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of factors, including genetics and lifestyle choices. Genetics: There is a genetic component to type 2 diabetes, but that doesn't mean that just because your mother or grandfather has type 2 diabetes, you will develop it. It's better to think of it this way: if type 2 diabetes runs in your family, you're at a greater risk of developing it. Lifestyle: Lifestyle choices play a sizable role in the development of type 2 diabetes. If type 2 diabetes runs in your family, y Continue reading >>

Diabetes Diagnosis

Diabetes Diagnosis

Tweet Diagnosis for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can occur in a number of different ways. Usually type 2 is diagnosed by diabetes symptoms, such as polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst). Otherwise, diabetes is picked up through screening, hyperglycaemia when doctor investigates a complication, or signs and symptoms prompted by diabetes. What is a diabetes screening test? A screening test determines whether a person has diabetes, and how serious it is. Depending on where you are and what your circumstances are, the screening test will vary. Tests include: Random blood glucose tests - commonly used to test for type 1 diabetes Urine glucose test Fasting plasma glucose tests (FPG tests) Oral glucose tolerance tests Additional diagnostic tests, such as urine ketone tests, GAD autoantibodies tests or C-peptide tests may also be used, as part of the diagnosis, to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. For adults aged between 40 and 50, screening should be considered. For people who have higher risk factors (ethnicity, family history, obesity) screening should be conducted beforehand. More on tests for diabetes If you have recently been diagnosed with diabetes by your healthcare team, please see our guide for newly diagnosed. Measuring hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) can help diagnose cases of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. According to diagnostic guidelines set out by the World Health Organisation (WHO), a HbA1c value of: 6% (below 42 mmol/mol) is considered non-diabetic 6-6.4% (42 to 47 mmol/mol) indicates impaired fasting glucose regulation and is considered prediabetes 6.5% or more (48 mmol/mol and above) indicates the presence of type 2 diabetes Diabetes screening is strongly recommended for adults aged between 40 and 50 years, or earlier fo Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate the amount of glucose in the blood. It develops when the body doesn't respond to the natural hormone insulin. It often occurs as a result of being overweight but there can also be other factors, including genetics. However, lifestyle changes and medicines can help you manage type 2 diabetes. Quick links Type 2 diabetes is also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Glucose and insulin Glucose is a simple form of sugar found in foods and sugary drinks - it's absorbed as a natural part of digestion. One function of your blood is to carry glucose around your body. When glucose reaches body tissues, such as muscle cells, it's absorbed and converted into energy. Insulin helps with the absorption process so it's critical for regulating the glucose concentration. If you have a shortage of insulin, glucose can build up in your blood. Insulin is secreted into the blood by your pancreas - a gland that also produces digestive juices and is found behind your stomach. If your cells don't respond properly to insulin, this can cause glucose to build up in your blood. This is called insulin resistance. You can develop this if you're overweight or type 2 diabetes runs in your family. Having insulin resistance means your pancreas needs to produce more and more insulin to control blood glucose levels. Eventually your body can't produce enough insulin so your levels rise and diabetes develops. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Almost 900,000 Australians have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is more common, affecting about 90 percent of Australians with diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms, and it's often discovered accidentally after routine medical che Continue reading >>

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

For diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years. However, an increasing number of younger people, even children, are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The first-line treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite these measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high, lowering high cholesterol levels and also using other measures to reduce the risk of complications. Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your Continue reading >>

5 Tips: Newly Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes

5 Tips: Newly Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes

You’ve worked hard for your life. Children have left home. Now it’s your time. Time to be footloose and fancy free. You’ve gained a bit of weight over the years. Things ache more than they used to. Energy, what’s that? Whenever you go to the doctor you’re given warnings about what could go wrong, but you’ve got time, it isn’t urgent. Or, is it? Finally the shoe drops. You visit the doctor and it’s no longer a warning–you are actually sick. You are sent off with a diet sheet and a prescription. Shell-shocked would be the best way to describe how you are feeling at the moment. This wasn’t how it was supposed to be. You knew you were getting older but you still thought you were invincible. This kind of thing happens to other people not to you. You don’t even want to talk to your friends about it. They might think you brought it on yourself. This isn’t what you had planned for your future. This is something that 100,000’s of people around the world experience everyday. This disease claims a life every 7 seconds. It doesn’t have to be this way. Have you just been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes? Here are 5 things to do right now: 1. Don’t be Fooled As shocking as it is to be told you’re diabetic–it can often feel like nothing has changed. Most people still feel well and have no outward signs that they are diabetic. The fact that Type 2 diabetes is common can also mean it’s not taken as seriously as it should be. The doctors and nurses can sometimes be blasé about the diagnosis. They give out a prescription and a diet sheet and tell people to come back in 12 months. All of this can mean it’s seen as a mild condition and that the medication means people can carry on as normal. Don’t be fooled. Diabetes is a serious disease and means that Continue reading >>

5 Important Tests For Type 2 Diabetes

5 Important Tests For Type 2 Diabetes

It takes more than just one abnormal blood test to diagnose diabetes.Istockphoto For centuries, diabetes testing mostly consisted of a physician dipping his pinkie into a urine sample and tasting it to pick up on abnormally high sugar. Thankfully, testing for type 2 diabetes is lot easier now—at least for doctors. Urine tests can still pick up diabetes. However, sugar levels need to be quite high (and diabetes more advanced) to be detected on a urine test, so this is not the test of choice for type 2 diabetes. Blood tests Almost all diabetes tests are now conducted on blood samples, which are collected in a visit to your physician or obstetrician (if you're pregnant). More about type 2 diabetes If you have an abnormal resultmeaning blood sugar is too high—on any of these tests, you'll need to have more testing. Many things can affect blood sugar (such as certain medications, illness, or stress). A diabetes diagnosis requires more than just one abnormal blood sugar result. The main types of diabetes blood tests include: Oral glucose-tolerance test. This test is most commonly performed during pregnancy. You typically have your blood drawn once, then drink a syrupy glucose solution and have your blood drawn at 30 to 60 minute intervals for up to three hours to see how your body is handling the glut of sugar. Normal result: Depends on how many grams of glucose are in the solution, which can vary. Fasting blood sugar. This is a common test because it's easy to perform. After fasting overnight, you have your blood drawn at an early morning doctor's visit and tested to see if your blood sugar is in the normal range. Normal result: 70-99 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or less than 5.5 mmol/L Two-hour postprandial test. This blood test is done two hours after you have eate Continue reading >>

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