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How Is Diabetes Transmitted

Is Diabetes Genetically Transmitted Or Through Eating Unhealthy?

Is Diabetes Genetically Transmitted Or Through Eating Unhealthy?

You have to be specific: How type 1 diabetes develops: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means it results from the immune system mistakenly attacking parts of the body. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system incorrectly targets insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Nobody knows why this occurs, or how to stop it. The immune systems of people with type 1 diabetes continue to attack beta cells until the pancreas is incapable of producing insulin. People with type 1 diabetes need to inject themselves with insulin to compensate for the death of their beta cells. Everyone with type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent. How type 2 diabetes develops: Type 2 diabetes is different. The autoimmune systems of people with type 2 diabetes don't attack beta cells. Instead, type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body losing its ability to respond to insulin. This is known as insulin resistance. The body compensates for the ineffectiveness of its insulin by producing more, but it can't always produce enough. Over time, the strain placed on the beta cells by this level of insulin production can destroy them, diminishing insulin production. Type 2 diabetes is linked to obesity; sugars, and particularly the problem of added sugars, have been linked with increased risks of the following health problems: Weight gain and obesity Type 2 diabetes Tooth decay Heart disease Having said that, the genetic risk is as follows. Type 1 diabetes and genetics - average risks: Mother with diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 2% Father with diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 8% Both parents with diabetes increases risk by 30% Brother or sister with diabetes increases risk by 10% Non-identical twin with diabetes increases risk by 15% Identical twin with diabetes increases Continue reading >>

Sex And Diabetes

Sex And Diabetes

Diabetes has a bit of bad reputation for affecting people's sex lives. But if you are diabetic, there's no need to be alarmed. The probability is that you'll be able to continue a happy and healthy sexual life far into old age. It's been known for a century that diabetes can sometimes interfere with a person's enjoyment of sex. However, little research has been done into sexual problems in diabetics – and particularly in women with diabetes. Don't be alarmed by any sweeping statements you may read about the incidence of sex difficulties among diabetics. The fact is that no reliable large-scale study of sexual problems among the diabetic population has yet been carried out. What we can say with absolute certainty is that sex difficulties are rather more common in diabetic people than they are in the rest of the population. Nevertheless, where these problems do occur, there's a high chance that they can be treated. What problems does diabetes cause? Problems in men There are several sex-related difficulties that may occur in diabetic males. Erectile dysfunction (ED), which was formerly known as 'impotence', is certainly commoner in diabetic men than it is in the rest of the population. This is probably because deterioration of the vessels (ie tubes) that supply blood to the penis, occurs more rapidly than normal in men who have diabetes. Also, some experts believe that the deterioration in nerve supply to the genitals (neuropathy) in diabetics may adversely affect erectile function. Retrograde ejaculation. In addition, some US doctors claim that diabetic men are more liable than men without diabetes to develop retrograde ejaculation – a phenomenon in which the seminal fluid tends to shoot backwards into the bladder at the moment of climax. It is subsequently passed ou Continue reading >>

How Is Diabetes Spread Among Humans?

How Is Diabetes Spread Among Humans?

Question Originally asked by Community Member victoria black How Is Diabetes Spread Among Humans? Answer There are two types of diabetes; the most common type - Type II is a metabolic disorder believed mostly to be due to a persons genes, obesity, poor diet, smoking and low exercise. People who are not overweight, and who exercise, do not smoke and drink moderately have about an 80% lower chance of getting Type II Diabetes. Check out Health Central’s Diabetes section for more. You should know Answers to your question are meant to provide general health information but should not replace medical advice you receive from a doctor. No answers should be viewed as a diagnosis or recommended treatment for a condition. Answered By: Cort Continue reading >>

Preferential Transmission Of Type 1 Diabetes From Parents To Offspring: Fact Or Artifact?

Preferential Transmission Of Type 1 Diabetes From Parents To Offspring: Fact Or Artifact?

Abstract It has been widely reported that men with type 1 diabetes (T1D) tend to be more likely to transmit the disease to their offspring than their female counterparts in Caucasoid populations. Several theories to explain this preferential transmission have been proposed, but so far none of them has been unequivocally proven. Whatever the mechanism, confirmation or refutation of this observation is nonetheless important and practical to the design of future genetic studies of T1D. We carried out some statistical modeling of the preferential transmission. The well-established fact that males have higher a prevalence of T1D than females, an apparent sex difference in fecundity, and a possible misclassification of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as T1D in women have been considered. We demonstrated, first, that the ascertainment of study families through the affected offspring with T1D would generate a higher proportion of fathers than mothers having T1D, even though there was no preferential transmission at all. This can be explained by the male preponderance in T1D prevalence as compared with females, coupled with a greater likelihood of being selected and/or recruited for study in families with T1D fathers due to the fecundity difference. Second, when the study population is ascertained through affected parents, misclassification of mothers with GDM as T1D, and the existence of male/female difference in fecundity in conjunction with a birth order effect, can contribute to the observed preferential transmission, even though there was none. In light of the plausibility of assumptions employed in the analysis and, in particular, an apparent failure to critically examine the effects of these causes of bias in earlier studies, it is perhaps prudent to say that the jury Continue reading >>

About Type 2 Diabetes

About Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Most of the people with diabetes in the United States have type 2 diabetes, and it is on the rise, especially in younger people. More preteens, teens, and young adults are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes than ever before. Causes Like type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is inherited. This means a group of genes that can lead to type 2 is passed down from mothers and fathers to their children. Not everyone who inherits the genes will develop it, but if you have the genes for type 2 diabetes, you've got a greater chance of developing it. Your chances are even higher if you're also overweight and don't get much exercise. Having a sweet tooth won't cause type 2 diabetes, but a diet high in simple sugars and other unhealthy foods can cause you to gain weight. Most people who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are overweight. In addition to being overweight, there are some other factors that put a person at a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes, including: Having a family history of diabetes. Being older than 40. Having gestational diabetes during a pregnancy. Giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds. Being African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, or Native American. Insulin Resistance and Impaired Fasting Glucose Insulin resistance is when cells have trouble using insulin. The cells resist insulin's message to open up, and don't work as fast to let the sugar in. When this happens, the pancreas works harder to make more insulin, which it releases into the blood to keep blood sugar levels normal. Insulin resistance can lead to a condition called impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. This happens when the pancreas can't make enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels in a normal Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Sex

Diabetes And Sex

Tweet Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to complications. In some cases, sexual performance can be affected by diabetes. Up to 50% of men and 25% of women may experience some kind of sexual problems or a loss of sexual desire as a result of diabetes. I am a diabetic man, what kind of problems could diabetes cause to my sex life? For men, diabetes can cause damage to the nervous system over a sustained period of time, also known as diabetic neuropathy. One aspect of this is the potential for diabetes to damage the erectile tissue leaving it impossible for a man to achieve or maintain an erection. Almost 1 in 3 men with diabetes suffer from erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can be the way in which men discover that they have diabetes. However, through strict management if the disease through diet, exercise, pills and insulin injections, minor sexual problems usually recede and it is possible for the man to achieve and erection. I am a diabetic woman, what kind of problems could diabetes cause to my sex life? For some women with diabetes, vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) can be recurrent. Vaginitis can be brought on by a number of different ways including bacterial inbalance of the vagina (bacterial vaginitis) yeast infections (thrush) or from chemical irritation, such as from soaps or fabric conditioners. This can make sex painful, and is heralded by itching or burning sensations. Cystitis can also be a recurrent problem for women with diabetes. Furthermore, some evidence indicates that, in a similar way to men being unable to maintain an erection, the woman’s clitoris may fail to respond to stimulation. Hypoglycemia and sex Hypoglycemia can occur during sex. You may also suffer from a night time hypo as the physical exertions of sex mean that in s Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes in dogs is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. After a dog eats, his digestive system breaks food into various components, including glucose-which is carried into his cells by insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas. When a dog does not produce insulin or cannot utilize it normally, his blood sugar levels elevate. The result is hyperglycemia, which, if left untreated, can cause many complicated health problems for a dog. It is important to understand, however, that diabetes is considered a manageable disorder-and many diabetic dogs can lead happy, healthy lives. Diabetes can be classified as either Type 1 (lack of insulin production) or Type II (impaired insulin production along with an inadequate response to the hormone.) The most common form of the disease in dogs is Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas is incapable of producing or secreting adequate levels of insulin. Dogs who have Type I require insulin therapy to survive. Type II diabetes is found in cats and is a lack of normal response to insulin. The following symptoms should be investigated as they could be indicators that your dog has diabetes: Change in appetite Excessive thirst/increase in water consumption Weight loss Increased urination Unusually sweet-smelling or fruity breath Lethargy Dehydration Urinary tract infections Vomiting Cataract formation, blindness The exact cause of diabetes is unknown. However, autoimmune disease, genetics, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, certain medications and abnormal protein deposits in the pancreas can play a major role in the development of the disease. It is thought that obese dogs and female dogs may run a greater risk of developing diabetes later in life (6-9 Continue reading >>

How Is Diabetes Transmitted?

How Is Diabetes Transmitted?

Diabetes mellitus is a condition of the endocrine system that limits the body's ability to manage the level of glucose in the blood. Diabetics may suffer from an excess of (hyperglycemia) or too little (hypoglycemia) blood sugar. The imbalances caused by the condition can lead to heart, vision and kidney, neurological or circulatory problems. Two forms of diabetes appear at different times in life. Type 1, or juvenile diabetes, appears in very early childhood and is a chronic condition requiring drug therapy. It results from a failure of the autoimmune system that limits the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin. It cannot be "caught" like a virus or bacteria. However, recent studies have confirmed that certain DNA triggers tend to be present in persons with diabetes. When mothers with diabetes have obese children, the children often appear to inherit the same DNA characteristic and develop diabetes. Children who have two parents with diabetes also appear to inherit the characteristic. This tendency to inherit has only been established with Type 1 diabetes. Since a Type 1 diabetic's pancreas will never produce insulin properly, it is important to diagnose and begin a treatment plan as early in life as possible. Type 2 diabetes develops after age 40 in persons who have certain risk factors, including obesity, a carbohydrate-rich diet and sedentary lifestyle. Adult-onset diabetes limits the ability of insulin to control blood glucose levels, rather than attacking the pancreas directly. No genetic triggers have been identified. Gestational diabetes, a temporary condition that resembles---and may develop into---Type 2 diabetes, primarily affects pregnant women who are obese or who may gain a great deal of weight with pregnancy. Both conditions can usually be managed us Continue reading >>

Does Diabetes Affect Sex?

Does Diabetes Affect Sex?

Dear Alice, I have been diabetic for 19 years now (I'm 20 years old) and I was wondering: does having this disease for so long have long-term effects on my sexual health? I am a man and so far I have no issues. Dear Reader, It's great that diabetes is not affecting your sexual health, and it's also great that you are preemptively asking about potential complications. Research indicates that about 75 percent of men and 35 percent of women with diabetes do experience some sexual issues, mostly as a result of diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage) to the nerves that stimulate normal sexual response. The good news: research has found that individuals who take care of their condition by controlling blood glucose levels, lowering blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, can lower their risk of developing diabetes-related sexual problems. In addition to neuropathy, men with diabetes can be challenged by erectile dysfunction (ED), low testosterone, and low libido. ED, defined as the inability to achieve or maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse, can develop because of a testosterone deficiency. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) (link is external), over 13 million men suffer from low testosterone and 90 percent of those go untreated. Men with type 2 diabetes are two times more likely to suffer from low testosterone than men without diabetes. A simple blood test can detect this deficiency and it can be treated quite easily with gels, patches, or injections to increase the amount of testosterone in the body. Men can also experience a drop in libido because of diabetes-related weight gain, depression, stress, and/or high blood pressure. In order to keep your sexual health in good standing, it might be a good idea to pay special attentio Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic (long-lasting) disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. Most of the food you eat is broken down into sugar (also called glucose) and released into your bloodstream. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin, which acts like a key to let the blood sugar into your body’s cells for use as energy. If you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use the insulin it makes as well as it should. When there isn’t enough insulin or cells stop responding to insulin, too much blood sugar stays in your bloodstream, which over time can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease. There isn’t a cure yet for diabetes, but healthy lifestyle habits, taking medicine as needed, getting diabetes self-management education, and keeping appointments with your health care team can greatly reduce its impact on your life. 30.3 million US adults have diabetes, and 1 in 4 of them don’t know they have it. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US. Diabetes is the No. 1 cause of kidney failure, lower-limb amputations, and adult-onset blindness. In the last 20 years, the number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than tripled as the American population has aged and become more overweight or obese. Types of Diabetes There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (diabetes while pregnant). Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake) that stops your body from making insulin. About 5% of the people who have diabetes have type 1. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often develop quickly. It’s usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need t Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in people aged over 40 years. However, an increasing number of younger people, even children, are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The first-line treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite these measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high, lowering high cholesterol levels and also using other measures to reduce the risk of complications. Although diabetes cannot be cured, it can be treated successfully. If a high blood sugar level is brought down to a normal level, your symptoms will ease. You still have some risk of complications in the long term if your blood glucose level remains even mildly high - even if you have no symptoms in the short term. However, studies have shown that people who have better glucose control have fewer complications (such as heart disease or eye problems) compared with those people who have poorer control of their glucose level. Therefore, the main aims of treatment are: To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible. To reduce any other risk factors that may increase your risk of developing complications. In particular, to lower your blood pressure if it is high and to keep your blood lipids (cholesterol) low. To detect any complications as early as possible. Treatment can prevent or delay some complications from becoming worse. Type 2 diabetes is usually initially treated by following a healthy diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and having regular physical activity. If lifestyle advice does not control your blood sugar (glucose) levels then medicines are used to help lower your Continue reading >>

How Do You Treat Diabetic Neuropathy?

How Do You Treat Diabetic Neuropathy?

Medications are used to control the pain associated with peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Unfortunately, at this time, there aren’t any medications to treat and prevent diabetic nerve pain (another name for diabetic neuropathy); the only way to do that is through careful control of blood glucose levels. There are many medication options to relieve pain associated with peripheral nerve damage. You should work carefully with your doctor to figure out what medications are best for you. For diabetic neuropathy, you may want to try: Acetaminophen: This is a painkiller, also known as an analgesic. Tylenol is an example of acetaminophen, and it works by blocking pain messages to the brain. In essence, acetaminophen makes it harder for the “pain” signal to travel through the nerves and to the brain, and therefore, the brain doesn’t know that it should be feeling pain. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs have a two-fold effect—they work as painkillers and they fight inflammation. They work by blocking the body from creating prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation and pain. By taking an NSAID, you prevent your body from making as many prostaglandins, thereby decreasing inflammation and pain. Topical Medication: There are several medications available that you apply directly to your skin; these are called topical medications. One option is capsaicin cream. Capsaicin is what makes chili peppers hot, and it can also relieve your pain. It just temporarily reduces your pain, though, so you'll need to keep re-applying. Typically, these topical medications are used by people who have foot pain (common in diabetic peripheral neuropathy). Continue reading >>

Sex And Type 1 Diabetes

Sex And Type 1 Diabetes

When a person is diagnosed with diabetes, their doctor will typically walk them through the steps of how to deal with this medical issue in the following years; however, sex is rarely addressed, often leaving the patient feeling left in the dark. The journal Diabetes Care found that only half of all men and 19 percent of women with diabetes had broached the topic of sex with their doctors.1 It is crucial that individuals with Type I Diabetes become aware of the sexual problems associated with this health condition because certain symptoms can be assumed an effect of Type 1 diabetes, but be caused from an unrelated medical condition. For people that already have diabetes, sexual problems can indicate nerve damage, blocked arteries, and irregular hormone patterns.2 People who keep their diabetes under control can lower their risk of developing these sexual and urologic problems in the future. Talk to Your Partner Establishing a strong system of communication with your partner is a crucial component of every relationship. Along with discussing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and contraception usage, Type 1 diabetics should express how diabetes affects their sex life. Many Type 1 diabetics may feel self conscious about their condition and try to hide it from their partners. If you do this, however, you may not feel comfortable asking your partner for a break from sex in the case of a low blood sugar and put yourself in a dangerous situation. Sex is an intense physical activity and as any Type 1 diabetic knows, this can cause a fast drop in blood glucose level. Make sure your partner knows how to care for you in case you experience a severe low blood sugar level and are unable to care for yourself. It is your responsibility as a diabetic to protect yourself and give t Continue reading >>

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Is Diabetes Genetic? Facts About Hereditary Risk

Diabetes is a complex set of diseases with no single cause. Genetic factors make some people more vulnerable to diabetes, particularly with the right environment. In addition, certain lifestyle factors can cause type 2 diabetes in individuals with no known family history. This complex interaction between genes, lifestyle, and environment points to the importance of taking steps to minimize individual diabetes risk. Is type 1 diabetes hereditary? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means that it causes the body's immune system to attack healthy cells. It is often called juvenile diabetes because most people are diagnosed in childhood, and the condition then lasts their lifetime. Doctors used to think type 1 diabetes was wholly genetic. Newer studies have shown, however, that children develop type 1 diabetes 3 percent of the time if their mother has the condition, 5 percent of the time if their father has it, or 8 percent if a sibling has type 1 diabetes. Consequently, researchers now believe that something in the environment has to trigger type 1 diabetes. Some risk factors include: Cold weather. People develop type 1 diabetes in winter more frequently than summer. It is also more common in places with cool climates. Viruses. Researchers think some viruses might activate type 1 diabetes in people who are otherwise vulnerable. Measles, mumps, coxsackie B virus, and rotavirus have been linked to type 1 diabetes. Research suggests that people who develop type 1 diabetes may have autoimmune antibodies in their blood for many years before showing symptoms. As a result, the disease may develop over time, or something may have to activate the autoimmune antibodies for symptoms to appear. Is type 2 diabetes hereditary? Type 2 diabetes is the more common form of the d Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Genetics?

Is Type 2 Diabetes Caused By Genetics?

Diabetes is a complex condition. Several factors must come together for you to develop type 2 diabetes. For example, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle play a role. Genetics can also influence whether you’ll get this disease. If you’ve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, there’s a good chance that you’re not the first person with diabetes in your family. According to the American Diabetes Association, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is: 1 in 7 if one of your parents was diagnosed before the age of 50 1 in 13 if one of your parents was diagnosed after the age of 50 1 in 2, or 50 percent, if both your parents have diabetes Several gene mutations have been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. These gene mutations can interact with the environment and each other to further increase your risk. Type 2 diabetes is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Scientists have linked several gene mutations to a higher diabetes risk. Not everyone who carries a mutation will get diabetes. But many people with diabetes do have one or more of these mutations. It can be difficult to separate genetic risk from environmental risk. The latter is often influenced by your family members. For example, parents with healthy eating habits are likely to pass them on to the next generation. On the other hand, genetics plays a big part in determining weight. Sometimes behaviors can’t take all the blame. Studies of twins suggest that type 2 diabetes might be linked to genetics. These studies were complicated by the environmental influences that also affect type 2 diabetes risk. To date, numerous mutations have been shown to affect type 2 diabetes risk. The contribution of each gene is generally small. However, each additional mutation you have seems to increase your Continue reading >>

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