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How Is Diabetes Diagnosed In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs - Testing And Monitoring

Diabetes In Dogs - Testing And Monitoring

By Kristiina Ruotsalo, DVM, DVSc, Dip ACVP, Margo S. Tant BSc, DVM, DVSc, &Robin Downing, DVM, DAAPM, DACVSMR, CVPP Diagnosis What tests are suggested for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in dogs? Generally, the following screening tests are performed when diabetes mellitus is suspected: a complete blood count (CBC), a serum biochemistry profile, and a urinalysis. Why so many tests? Can't diabetes be diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar value alone? Elevated fasting blood and urine glucose (sugar) values are absolutely essential for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, but other screening tests provide additional information regarding the severity of the diabetes, any conditions that may be contributing to the diabetes, and any complications related to the diabetic state. Because diabetes mellitus is usually diagnosed in middle-aged to older dogs, your dog may have other unrelated conditions that need to be managed along with diabetes. The screening tests will usually alert us to any such conditions. What might a CBC reveal if my dog has diabetes mellitus? The complete blood count (CBC) evaluates the red blood cells, the white blood cells, and the platelet components of a blood sample. With uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, these components are often within the normal range. However, changes may occasionally be seen in the red or white cell values. Despite drinking large quantities of water, diabetic dogs lose body water because they produce such dilute urine. Therefore, your dog may actually be dehydrated. Dehydration can be indicated on the CBC by increases in the packed cell volume (PCV - the proportion of the blood volume that is actually occupied by red blood cells) as well as increases in the total red blood cell count. In some severe diabetic states, lysis (ruptu Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Diagnosis And Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Diagnosis And Treatment

How do we keep this site running? This post may contain affiliate links — the cost is the same to you, but we get a referral fee. Compensation does not affect rankings. Thanks! Much like humans, diabetes in dogs is on the rise. The University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine recently reported a 32% increase in canine cases from 2007 to 2012. While the warning signs may be present in a dog, they often go undetected for a year or more. This story can hopefully provide some insights into how to detect diabetes in dogs and how to treat it, if these alarming statistics befall your pet. Hyperglycemia vs Hypoglycemia Gunner, a Gordon Setter in his eleventh year (the black dog pictured below on the left), lies quietly under a chair in the examining room at the Florida Veterinary League in Vero Beach. Dr. Francisco Torrado explains to Gunner’s owner how to test Gunner’s blood glucose so an appropriate dose of twice-daily insulin can be prescribed. “When we hear the dog is drinking more water, has increased hunger but still seems to be losing weight, we want to check for diabetes with a blood and urine sample”, Dr. Torrado explains. “Glucose is one of the essential nutrients needed by the body but sometimes absorption is a problem. Cells cannot absorb the glucose being produced, so it gets dumped into the urine and the blood all at once. When we see high levels in the blood, we suspect diabetes as the number 1 culprit.” He advises getting a urine test strip to check for ketones in the dog’s urine. Very high sugar levels is called Hyperglycemia. In contrast, Hypoglycemia occurs when the glucose, or blood sugar, is too low. Signs include sluggishness, lack of coordination, lethargy and confusion. These indicate the need to step in immediately with a spoonf Continue reading >>

Diagnosing And Treating Diabetes In Pets

Diagnosing And Treating Diabetes In Pets

Courage, a 10-year-old Dachshund with a graying muzzle, is usually fast on her feet—active and frisky despite her age. But soon after Thanksgiving, her family—siblings Michael and Donna and their parents—noticed Courage, or “Curry” for short, was drinking more water than usual, urinating more often and moping around the house. Two days later, at the ASPCA Animal Hospital (AAH), Curry was diagnosed as diabetic. Curry’s symptoms are common among pets with diabetes, a disease that occurs when a body does not make enough or respond normally to insulin, a hormone manufactured by the pancreas that controls blood sugar levels. The precise frequency of diabetes in dogs and cats is not known and can vary depending on the breed, but it is seen in both species. In dogs, diabetes is more common in females; in cats, it’s slightly more common in males. “Most diabetic dogs are similar to humans with Type 1 diabetes; their pancreas is unable to make enough insulin,” explains Dr. Louise Murray, vice president of AAH. “In dogs, the most common causes are a dysfunctional immune system that damages the pancreas, or pancreatic injury that occurs due to an inflammatory condition called pancreatitis.” Dr. Murray says canine diabetes can also occur as a side effect of medication, particularly steroids. It can also result from certain diseases like Cushing’s or an excess of certain hormones, which sometimes happens when a dog is not spayed. Diabetes in felines, on the other hand, is more similar to Type 2 diabetes in humans. Its most common causes in cats: obesity and an excess of carbohydrates in the diet, which exhaust the pancreas. It can also occur in cats with pancreatitis or who are given steroids. Feline diabetes can be reversible with insulin administration, a hi Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms And Treatment

Diabetes in dogs is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. After a dog eats, his digestive system breaks food into various components, including glucose-which is carried into his cells by insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas. When a dog does not produce insulin or cannot utilize it normally, his blood sugar levels elevate. The result is hyperglycemia, which, if left untreated, can cause many complicated health problems for a dog. It is important to understand, however, that diabetes is considered a manageable disorder-and many diabetic dogs can lead happy, healthy lives. Diabetes can be classified as either Type 1 (lack of insulin production) or Type II (impaired insulin production along with an inadequate response to the hormone.) The most common form of the disease in dogs is Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas is incapable of producing or secreting adequate levels of insulin. Dogs who have Type I require insulin therapy to survive. Type II diabetes is found in cats and is a lack of normal response to insulin. The following symptoms should be investigated as they could be indicators that your dog has diabetes: Change in appetite Excessive thirst/increase in water consumption Weight loss Increased urination Unusually sweet-smelling or fruity breath Lethargy Dehydration Urinary tract infections Vomiting Cataract formation, blindness The exact cause of diabetes is unknown. However, autoimmune disease, genetics, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, certain medications and abnormal protein deposits in the pancreas can play a major role in the development of the disease. It is thought that obese dogs and female dogs may run a greater risk of developing diabetes later in life (6-9 Continue reading >>

How Is Diabetes Diagnosed?

How Is Diabetes Diagnosed?

This goes for type 1 diabetes. Note that I am not a doctor, so take my answer with a healthy dose of scepticism. Usually the symptoms that lead a doctor to test for Type1 Diabetes is: A high rate of urinating, along with a high level of liquid intake (the kidneys trying to flush out the excess sugar from the blood) Rapid weight loss (due to a lack of insulin, the cells of the body arent getting any carbo-hydrates, leading the body to burn fat instead) Breath smelling like acetone (due to the fat burning mentioned above, a side product, is ketone-acids, which is bad for your body, and will make you breath smell like acetone) These symptoms will lead to first a measurement of the blood glucose levels, and sometimes a test for insulin in the blood. If the blood glucose levels are high, its a sure indication, if there is no insulin, or close to none, it is a sure sign of diabetes. Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs And Cats: Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes In Dogs And Cats: Everything You Need To Know

Certain triggers cause us vet types to start thinking in overdrive during our examinations of pets. A seemingly innocent question, like “How’s his appetite? Has he been drinking more or less than usual?” can actually represent a significant clue in our hunt for answers. A dog or cat, for example, who suddenly starts drinking and urinating a ton more than usual is giving us a big hint that something is wrong with its body—and of the several possible causes, diabetes is one that owners seem to dread hearing the most. As one of the most common health conditions in middle-aged cats and dogs, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is frightening for owners. And it’s true, diabetes is usually a lifelong condition that requires vigilance on the part of owners in order to control. But that also leads to the good news: in many cases it can be managed, and often pets with diabetes continue on to lead long and happy lives. What is Diabetes in Dogs and Cats? Diabetes can refer to two unrelated conditions in veterinary medicine: diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), and less common diabetes insipidus (water diabetes). As diabetes insipidus is a much rarer condition with a completely different cause and treatment, this article focuses on the prevalent type of diabetes: diabetes mellitus. The pancreas is an essential organ; it is here that the beta cells that produce insulin reside. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream to enter the body’s cells to be used as an energy source. Diabetes is a condition caused by a loss or dysfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas. In some cases, the pancreas completely loses the ability to manufacture insulin—insulin deficient diabetes, also described as Type 1 diabetes—and the pet is dependent on external ad Continue reading >>

Testing For Canine Diabetes

Testing For Canine Diabetes

Introduction Canine diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of the endocrine system that occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce an adequate supply of insulin, or alternatively when a dog’s cells are unable to take up the insulin that is produced. If your dog is showing clinical signs that are suggestive of diabetes mellitus, your veterinarian will run a series of tests to confirm the diagnosis. Several other diseases can cause the same or similar symptoms as canine diabetes mellitus, so several tests are usually necessary to rule out other conditions and to confirm a definitive diagnosis of diabetes. Testing for Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs Your veterinarian will conduct a thorough physical examination to assess your dog’s general health. She probably will ask you about any changes in your dog’s behavior and body, such as increased or decreased urination, thirst or appetite, weight loss or lethargy, among other possible signs. Some tests are fairly standard in the assessment of diabetes. A urine sample will be collected and tested for the presence of glucose or bacteria in the urine. A bladder or urinary tract infection can mimic the clinical signs of diabetes, but also commonly accompanies the disease. Blood samples will be analyzed for a number of things, especially for the levels of blood glucose, cholesterol and liver enzymes. Your dog likely will need to fast for 12-24 hours before this particular blood test, to ensure accurate results. A single blood test may not be sufficient for a definitive diagnosis, so additional tests may be necessary. Some other things your veterinarian may recommend include abdominal ultrasound and assessment of serum thyroid hormone concentration, serum pancreatic enzyme levels, blood progersterone concentration in intact female Continue reading >>

Canine Diabetes Mellitus

Canine Diabetes Mellitus

Definition Canine diabetes mellitus (DM), classified as either type I or type II, is a generally treatable condition caused by insulin deficiency. At diagnosis, most diabetic dogs are suspected of having type I. Type I patients, characterized by permanent inability to produce insulin, often require exogenous insulin administration. DM has a potential immune-mediated cause (though this is not firmly established). Diabetogenic drugs, pregnancy, and chronic pancreatitis are also possible causes of canine DM. Systems As an immunosuppressive disorder, DM can affect many systems; urinary tract and kidney infections, and other bacterial infections may result. Because of chronic hyperglycemia, uncontrolled DM can result in cataracts. Genetic Implications Although the exact mechanism of pancreatic β-cell loss in canine diabetes has not been determined, certain breed associations suggest a genetic component.1,2 Incidence/Prevalence Since 1970, 0.13%–0.64% of dogs are affected with increasing incidence.1,3 Population characteristics (eg, genetic and demographic associations) may influence incidence. Some breeds are at higher risk for diabetes, (eg, Australian terriers, Samoyeds, Keeshonds) while others appear resistant to its development (see Canine DM Breed Prevalence, below).1,3 Canine DM Breed Prevalence Increased Risk for DM1,9 Low Risk for DM1,9 Australian terrier Boxer Samoyed Golden retriever Miniature schnauzer German shepherd Standard schnauzer American pit bull terrier Miniature poodle Pug Toy poodle Fox terrier Keeshond Bichon frise Finnish Spitz Lhasa apso Cairn terrier Age & Range Most dogs are diagnosed >8 years of age. The large age range may reflect different genetic susceptibilities to DM, drug exposures, or presence of disease resulting in insulin antagonism.3 Continue reading >>

How To Detect Diabetes In Dogs

How To Detect Diabetes In Dogs

Expert Reviewed Two Methods:Knowing if Your Dog is More Susceptible to DiabetesDetecting Diabetes in DogsCommunity Q&A Diabetic animals are unable to produce enough insulin to properly regulate their blood sugar. Insulin is responsible for transmitting sugars to cells for energy. With an excess of sugar in their system and without enough energy at the cellular level, diabetic dogs lose weight, get cataracts, and suffer from bladder infections and kidney disease. There is no cure for diabetes, but the earlier you detect canine diabetes, the more effective the treatment will be. Some dogs are more susceptible to diabetes and you should know if your dog is one of them. If your dog is, you need to pay closer attention to the warning signs. 1 Recognize that overweight dogs are more likely to become diabetic. Canine diabetes can start when a dog is heavier than average. The best way to see if this could be an issue for your dog is by checking your dog's rib cage. Run your hand along your dog's rib cage. You should be able to feel the ribs easily. If not, your dog may be overweight. Some dogs have incredibly long and thick coats which may make it more difficult to feel their ribs. Another good test is to feel for their back hip bones. If you can feel them by pressing down lightly, then your dog is probably not overweight. If your pet is overweight, talk to your veterinarian about safely decreasing calories and increasing exercise. There are special diets that may be appropriate or you may achieve success with your dog by cutting down on treats and snacks and adding in a few more walks per week. 2 Take note if your dog is older than seven. Diabetes usually develops in dogs between the ages of seven and nine. As your dog gets older, decreased exercise can lead to weight gain. Th Continue reading >>

Diagnosing Diabetes In Dogs

Diagnosing Diabetes In Dogs

How Diabetes is Diagnosed The primary symptoms of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in dogs are increased thirst and water consumption, increased urination, increased appetite, increased food intake and weight loss. While the presence of these symptoms can lead to a tentative diagnosis of diabetes, in order to confirm the diagnosis the veterinarian must perform a number of tests to rule out other possible causes of the dog’s symptoms and to determine an appropriate course of treatment. Fortunately, diabetes mellitus is not particularly difficult to diagnose, and it is one of the more manageable metabolic diseases of companion dogs. Dogs with diabetes mellitus cannot properly metabolize or use dietary sugars either due to insulin insufficiency or insulin resistance. Unprocessed sugars will build up in circulating blood, which is called “hyperglycemia.” Eventually, glucose will start to be excreted in the urine (this is called “glycosuria”). Hyperglycemia and glycosuria can easily be detected through simple blood and urine tests that can easily be conducted at almost any veterinary clinic. One of those tests involves fasting the dog for a period of time and then assessing a blood sample for its glucose levels. Dogs with fasting hyperglycemia probably have diabetes. Routine blood work (a complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) can also help identify kidney or liver disease. Any detectable amount of glucose in a dog’s urine is abnormal and highly suggestive of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes also causes the dog’s body to enter starvation mode. Because the dog is unable to process and use glucose normally, over time its body begins to break down and use stored proteins and fats for energy, so that essential bodily functions can continue. The breakdow Continue reading >>

What Causes Diabetes In Dogs? The Signs, Symptoms And What To Do About It

What Causes Diabetes In Dogs? The Signs, Symptoms And What To Do About It

Did you know one out of every 300 dogs is diagnosed with diabetes? Especially in senior and middle aged dogs, diabetes is becoming frighteningly common in dogs today. Once your dog gets diabetes, he will most likely need insulin for the rest of his life. So it’s really important to do everything you can to prevent your dog from becoming diabetic. There are many things that can contribute to the risk of your dog getting diabetes … but the good news is, there are also lots of things you can do to help prevent it and minimize the risk. So we called on an expert to tell us how to do that. At Raw Roundup 2017, Dr Jean Hofve gave a talk on canine diabetes and its connection to diet and environmental factors and the best ways to prevent it. But first, what is diabetes and what’s the difference between the two types of the disease? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is all about glucose and how the body handles it. All cells use glucose as their primary source of energy. The pancreas produces the hormones that control glucose … primarily insulin and glucagon. The pancreas is mostly made up of tissue that secretes digestive enzymes … but about 5% of the pancreas is made up of beta cells that produce insulin.The body’s cells need glucose for energy – it’s their primary fuel. But glucose can’t get into those cells without the help of insulin. Dr Hofve explains insulin as the key to a lock … the cells need the “key” (insulin) to let the glucose in. When glucose can’t get into the cells without insulin, it builds up in the blood. This causes hyperglycemia, meaning too much sugar in the blood (hyper = too much, glyc = sugar and emia = in the blood) This is why the pancreas and its creation of insulin is so important. And when it’s not working right, your dog can b Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Management Of The Cushingoid Diabetic Dog (proceedings)

Diagnosis And Management Of The Cushingoid Diabetic Dog (proceedings)

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) are common endocrinopathies in dogs that often occur simultaneously in the same patient. Diagnosis and management of concurrent disease may be a challenge to the practitioner since many clinical signs of DM and HAC are similar. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) are common endocrinopathies in dogs that often occur simultaneously in the same patient. Diagnosis and management of concurrent disease may be a challenge to the practitioner since many clinical signs of DM and HAC are similar. In animals with concurrent disease, the practitioner should first get some control of the DM and diagnose the HAC later. Although the clinician may want to treat the HAC first in order to facilitate better control of the DM, diagnostic tests available for HAC are less reliable in poorly regulated diabetic patients. Treatment of diabetes mellitus The initial treatment of DM in the dog includes a long-acting insulin (NPH, Vetsulin (if available), PZI (ProZincTM), Glargine) at an initial dose of 0.5 U/kg given subcutaneously twice per day after feeding. The dog is re-examined 10-14 days later with a potential glucose curve to determine if changes in the dose and type of insulin need to be made. The owners are asked to monitor appetite, water consumption, body weight, and attitude at home. They are also given urine dipsticks to record glucosuria and ketonuria. Alternatively, the owners may measure blood glucose via a portable glucometer, although ketosis will not be assessed. The owners should be instructed not to change the dose of insulin based upon urine/blood glucose measurements without the input of the veterinarian, and the insulin dose should remain constant for the initial 10-14 days of treatment so that the dog Continue reading >>

Common Symptoms Of Dogs And Cats With Diabetes

Common Symptoms Of Dogs And Cats With Diabetes

Pets with diabetes look unkempt and act lethargic. Because they lose sugar in the urine, and sugar pulls water molecules out with it, they urinate excessively. This causes them to drink excessively. These activities, excessive urination (polyuria) and excessive drinking (polydipsia), are termed PUPD. Pets with diabetes lose weight and lose muscle mass. They may have a lower body temperature than normal pets. Additional symptoms of diabetes in dogs and cats may include: Excessive drinking & urination (PUPD) Loss of appetite Vomiting Dehydration Depression & lethargy Unkempt haircoat & dandruff Loss of muscles & weakness Weight loss Cataracts Weakness of the back legs Diabetes is diagnosed with blood and urine tests. The normal blood sugar (blood glucose) for dogs is 60-125 mg/dl; for cats, 70-150 mg/dl. Diabetes is diagnosed when blood sugars are consistently elevated a significant amount. For example, 220 mg/dl in a dog or 400mg/dl in a cat. If your pet is anxious when it visits the veterinarian, his or her blood sugar will naturally rise, and the elevation may be as high as the sugar levels in a diabetic pet. To prevent this stress-related elevation of blood sugar, find a veterinarian and a clinic that calms your pet. Or, use a veterinarian who makes house calls. Remember that one or two blood tests showing elevated blood sugar doesn't prove that your pet has diabetes. Blood sugar levels must be consistently elevated, or your pet must have urine tests showing ketones to prove they have diabetes. There are two ways urine tests indicate diabetes: sugar in the urine or ketones in the urine. Sugar gets into the urine if your pet's blood carries so much sugar that it exceeds the kidneys' ability to hold onto sugar. This is called exceeding the renal glucose threshold. A uri Continue reading >>

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

How Is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

For diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs

Insulin Diabetic dogs receiving insulin are at risk of developing hypoglycaemia, hypotension, and cerebral damage during anaesthesia. An accepted management for the diabetic dog that must be anaesthetized is given in Table 15.4. The blood glucose level should be maintained between 5.5 and 11.0 mmol/dL (100–200 mg/dL) through frequent measurement of blood glucose concentrations and appropriate IV administration of 5% dextrose in water (D5W) during anaesthesia. Even when preanaesthetic blood glucose is high, blood glucose may decrease significantly during the first hour of anaesthesia. Dogs with well-controlled diabetes can experience wide swings in blood glucose for several hours after anaesthesia, and monitoring should be continued until the following day. 2.2.4.1 Endocrine diseases and endocrine drugs Diabetes in dogs occurs in connection with hypersecretion of insulin-counterregulatory hormones, especially hypersomatotropism and hypercortisolism. The exogenous administration of glucocorticoids and progestins can also lead to diabetes in dogs. Obesity in dogs has in the past not been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes in dogs but epidemiological studies of large cohorts are needed to revisit this issue in view of recent developments. 2.2.4.1.1 Hypersomatotropism Acromegaly, the clinical syndrome caused by growth hormone excess, is most often caused in dogs by endogenous or exogenous progestins and is most prevalent in areas where female dogs are not spayed at an early age. This progestin-induced growth hormone originates from the foci of hyperplastic ductular epithelium in the mammary tissue48 and is biochemically identical to the growth hormone, which is produced by the pituitary gland.49 Unlike the pituitary-derived growth hormone, however, the progestin-induc Continue reading >>

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